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Printed by Nichols, Son, and Bentlby, 
Red Lion Postage, Fleet Street, London. 



















JLiUXEMBOURG (Francis Henry de Montmorenci, 
DffKE of), a very celebrated general and mareschal of 
France* was a posthumous son of the famous Bouteville, 
who was beheaded under Louis XIII. for fighting a duel. 
He was born in 1628, and in 1643 was present at the battle 
of Rocroi, under the great Cond6, whose pupil he was, 
and whom he followed in all his fortunes. He also re- 
sembled that great man in many of hia eminent qualities, 
in acuteness of perception, thirsfyfor knowledge, prompt- 
ness in action, and ardour of gejjius. Tfhese qualities he 
displayed in the conquest of Frat^e>6oipt£ in 1668, where 
he served as lieutenant-general, ^e^eryed also in the 
Dutch campaign of 1672, took many towns, and gained 
some trophies in the field. He closed this expedition by 
a retreat more famous than bis victories, which be accom- 
plished with an army of 20,000 men, against the opposition 
of 70,000. After distinguishing himself in another expe- 
dition in Fran che- Com ti, he was advanced, in 1675, to 
the dignity of mareschal of France. He fought, during 
the remainder of that war, with various success. In the 
second war of Louis XIV r against the allied powers in 
1 690, he gained the battle of Fleurus, and it was gene** 
rally allowed that he prevailed in it chiefly by the supe- 
riority of his genius to that of his antagonist the prince of 
Waldeck* In the ensuing year, 1691, he gained the. 
battles of Leufen and Steinkirk; and, continuing to be op- 
posed to king William of England, he was again success- 
ful, in the bloody battle of Nerwinde, where there fell on 
die two sides near 20,000 men. It was said in France, 
that on this occasion they should not sing Te Deum, but 
Vol. XXI. B 


l)e prqfundis, the mass for the dead. — The duke of Luxem- 
bourg is said to have had an ordinary countenance and a 
deformed figure, in consequence of which William UK 
whose constant antagonist be was, is reported to have said 
once with some impatience, " What ! shall I never beat 
this hump-backed fellow ?" This speech being repeated to 
the duke, " How should he know," said he, " the shape 
of my back ? I am sure he never saw me turn it to him." 
The last great action of the duke's life was a second famous 
retreat, in the presence of superior forces, through a con- 
siderable extent of country, to Tournay. This was in 
1694, and he died the following year, Jan. 4, at the age 
of sixty-seven. Notwithstanding the disadvantages of his 
person, Luxembourg is said to have been much involved 
in intrigues of gallantry. He had some powerful enemies, 
particularly the minister Louvois, who once had him con- 
fined very unjustly in the Bastille. Among other frivolous 
calumnies on which he was then interrogated, he wa& asked 
whether he had not made a league with the devil, to marry 
his son to the daughter of the marquis de Louvois. His 
answer was replete with the high spirit of French nobility. 
*' When Matthew of Montmorenci," said he, <c married a 
queen of France, he addressed himself, not tb the devil, 
but to the states- general ; and the declaration of the states 
was, that in order to gain the support of the house of 
Montmorenci for the young king in his minority, it would 
be right to conclude that marriage." Idle as the accusa- 
tions against him were, they cost him a confinement of 
fourteen months, and he had no subsequent redress. 1 

LYGOPHRON, a Greek poet and grammarian, was a 
native of Chalcis, in Euboea, and according to Ovid, was 
killed by a shot with an arrow. He flourished about 304 
years before Christ, and wrote a poem entitled " Alex- 
andra/ 9 or Cassandra, containing a long course of predic- 
tions, which he supposes to be made by Cassandra, daugh- 
ter of Priam, king of Troy. This poem has created a great 
deal of trouble to the learned, on account of its obscurity, 
which procured him the title of " the tenebrous poet." 
Suidas has preserved the titles of twenty tragedies of his 
composing ; and he is reckoned in the number of the poets 
who were called the Pleiades, and who flourished under 

Ptoletoy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. The best edition 

>'. ■ *.'■"• 

1 Mtoreri.— Diet. Ifot— -Perrault's Les Homines Wustres. 

LYC OP HttOK. $ 


of " Lyco^hron,'* is that at Oxford, 1 697, by' Dr. (adfe*. 
wards archbishop) Potter; re-printed there in 1701, folia. 
A few years ago, the rev. Henry Meen, B. D. published 
"Remarks" on the " Cassandra," which' are highly judi- 
cious, and his conjectures in illustration of the obscurities 
of Lycophron, plausible and happy. 1 

LYCURGUS, the celebrated lawgiver of Sparta, flou- 
rished, according to the most judicious modfcrn chrorio* 
logers, about 898 years before the Christian aera. Plutarch 
seems to. think that he was the fifth in descent from Pfocles, 
and the tenth from Hercules. When the sceptre' devolved 
to him by the death of his brother Polydectes, the widow 
of that prince was pregnant. He was no sooner assured of 
this, than he determined to hold the sovereign power irt 
trust only, in case the child should prove a son, and took 
the title of Prodicus or Protector, instead of that of kingj 
It is added, that he had the virtue to resist the offers of 
the queen, who would have married him, with the dread-* 
fill promise that no son sk&uld be born to intercept his views. 
A son at length was born, and publicly presented by Kim , 
to the people, from whose joy on the occasion he named 
the infant Charilaus, i. e. the people's joy. Lycurgus was 
at this time a young man, and the state of Sparta was too 
turbulent and licentious for him to introduce any system 
of regulation, without being armed with some more ex- 
press authority. How long he continued to administer the' 
government is uncertain ; probably till his nephew was of age 
to take it into his own hands. After resigning it, however, 
he did not long remain in Sparta, but went as a traveller to 
visit other countries and study their laws, particularly those 
of Crete, which were highly renowned for their excellence^ 
and had been instituted by Rhadamanthus and Minos, two 
illustrious legislators, who pretended to have received their 
laws from Jupiter. Lycurgus passed some years in this 
useful employment, but he had left behind him such a re- 
putation for wisdom and justice, that when the corruption 
and confusion of the state became intolerable, he was re- 
called by a public invitation 1 to assume the quality of legis- 
lator, and to new model the government. 

Lycurgus willingly returned to undertake the task thus 
devolved upon him, and, having obtained, aft£r ' various?' 
difficulties,' the co-operation of the kings, and of the 

1 Sazii Onomastieon.— Gen. Diet. — Moreri.— Month. Rev. N. S. vol. XXXV 1 1. 

B 2 

L Y C U R GU S. 

various orders of the people, he formed that extraordinary 
system of government which Las been the wonder of aU 
subsequent ages, tut which has been too much detailed by 
various authors, for us to enter into the particulars. When 
with invincible courage, unwearied perseverance, and a 
judgment and penetration still more extraordinary, he had 
formed and executed the most singular plan that ever was 
devised, he waited for a time to see his great machine in 
motion ; and finding it proceed to his wish, he had now no 
other object but to secure its duration. For this purpose 
he convened the kings, senate, and people, told them that 
be wished to* visit Delphi, to consult the oracle on the 
constitution he had formed, and engaged them alt to bind 
themselves by a most solemn oath, that nothing should be 
altered before bis return. The approbation of the oracle 
he received, but he returned no more, being determined 
to bind his countrymen indissolubly to the observance of 
bis laws, and thinking bis life, according to the enthu- 
siastic patriotism of those time*, a small sacrifice to secure 
the welfare of his country. Different accounts are given 
of the place and manner of bis death. According to some 
authors, he died by voluntary abstinence. One tradition 
says, that he lived to a good old age in Crete, and dying a 
natural death, his body was burned, according to the prac- 
tice of the age, and his relics, pursuant to his own re- 
quest, scattered in the sea; lest if his bones or ashes had 
ever been carried to Sparta, the Lacedaemonians might 
have thought themselves free from the obligation of their 
oath, to preserve his laws unaltered. He is supposed to 
have died after the year 873 B. C. His laws were abro- 
gated by Philopaemen in the year 188 B. C. but the Ro- 
mans very soon re-established them. 1 

LYCURGUS, an Athenian orator, contemporary with 
Demosthenes, was born about 403 years before the Christ 
tian sera, and died about or after 328. He was an Athe- 
nian, and the son of a person named Lycopbron. He stu- 
died philosophy under Plato, and rhetoric under Isocrates.* 
He was of the most exalted character for integrity, in, 
which he was severely scrupulous ; a strenuous defender 
of liberty, a perpetual oppose? of Philip and Alexander, 

add a firm friend of Demosthenes. As a magistrate, he 


'* Mitford's History of Greece— Mbrcti.— Gen. Diet.-— Saxir OnottuuW— - 
ffetyreh in oil life. 


proceeded with severity against criminals, but kept a regis- 
ter of all bis proceedings, which, on quitting bis office, be 
submitted to public inspection. When he was about to 
die, be publicly offered his actions to examination, and 
refuted the only accuser who appeared against him. He 
was one of the thirty orators whom the Athenians refused 
to give up to Alexander. One oration of his, against Leo- 
crates, is still extant, and has been published in the col- 
lections of Aldus, Taylor, and Reiske. His eloquence par- 
took of the manly severity and truth of bis character. 1 

LYDGATE (John), an ancient English poet, is recorded 
as one of the immediate successors of Chaucer. ' The few 
dates that have been recovered of his history are, that be 
was ordained a sub-deacon in 1389 ; a deacon in 1393, and 
a priest iiv 1397 ; from these it has been surmised that he 
was born about 1375, that is, twenty-five years before the 
death of Chaucer. There is a note of Wan ley's in the 
Harieian Catalogue (2251. 3.) which insinuates as if Lyd- 
gate did not die till 1482. This Dr. Percy thinks too long 
a date ; he was, however, living in 1446, since in his " Phi- 
lomela" he mentions the death of Henry duke of Warwick, 
who died that year. Some authorities place his deatb in 
1461, and this date Mr. Ellis' thinks is not improbable. 

He was, says Warton, who of all our modern critics hat 
considered him with most attention, a monk of the Bene- 
dictine abbey of Bury in Suffolk. After a short education 
at Oxford* be travelled into France and Italy ; and returned 
a complete master of the language and the literature of 
both countries. He chiefly studied the Italian and French 
poets, particularly Dante, Boccaccio, and Alain Chartier; 
and became so distinguished a proficient in polite learning, 
that he opened a school in his monastery, for teaching the 
sons of the nobility the arts of versification, and the ele- 
gancies of composition. Yet, although philology was his 
object, be was not unfamiliar with the fashionable philo- 
sophy : he was not only a poet and a rhetorician, but a 
geometriciau, an astronomer, a theologist, and a disputant.; 
Mr. Warton is of opinion that he made considerable addi- 
tions to those amplifications of our language, in which 
Chaucer, <Jower, and Hoccleve, led the way ; and that 
be is the first of our writers whose style is clothed with that 

\ 7at>r. BibI, Grac.— Moreri. 


perspicuity in 1 which the English phraseology appears at 
this day to an English reader. 

Lydgate's pieces are very numerous. Ritson has given 
a list of two hundred and fifty-one, some of which he ad- 
mits may not be Lydgate's, but he supposes, on the other 
hand, that he may be the author of many others that are 
anonymous. His most esteemed works are his " Story of 
Thebes," his " Fall of Princes," and bis " History, Siege, 
and Destruction of Troy." The first is printed by Spegbt 
in his edition of Chaucer ; the second, the " Fall of 
Prinzes," or " Boke of Johan Bochas," ,(first printed by 
Pinson in 1494, and several times since,) is a translation 
from Boccaccio, or rather from a French paraphrase of his 
work " De casibus Virorum et Feminarum illustrium." The 
" History, &c. of Troy" was first printed by Pinsoo in* 
1513, but more correctly by Marshe in 1555., This was 
once the most popular of his works, and the inquisitive 
reader will find much curious information in it, although 
he may not be able to discover such poetical beauties as 
can justify its original popularity. That popularity was, 
indeed, says Mr. Ellis, excessive and unbounded; and'it 
continued without much diminution during, at least, two 
Centuries. To this the praises of succeeding writers, bear 
ample testimony : but it is confirmed by a most direct and 
singular evidence. An anonymous writer has taken the 
pains to modernize the entire poem, consisting of about 
28*000 verses, to change the. ancient context, and almost 
every rhyme* and to throw the whole into six-line stanzas ; 
and after all he published it with the name of Lydgate, 
under the title of "The Life and Death of Hector," 1614, 
folio, printed by Thomas Purfoot. — Of the general merits 
of Lydgate, Wartbn hag spoken very favourably ; Percy, 
Ritson, and Pinkerton, with contempt ; and Mr. Ellis with 
the caution of a man of correct taste and judgment. 1 

LYPIAT (Thomas), an eminent English scholar, was 
born at Alkrington or Okerton, near Banbury in Oxford- 
shire, in 1572. His father, observing his natural talents, 
sent him to Winchester school, where he was admitted a 
scholar on the foundation, at thirteen ; and, being elected* 
thence to New-college in Oxford, was put under the tuition* 
of Dr. (afterwards sir) Henry Martin, who became so well 

1 Warton's History of Poetry, — Ellis's Specimens. — Ritson's B.ibliographia. 
—MS note in Percy's copy of Winstaoley. — Phillips's Theatrum/' by sir E. 
Brydgefi.— Censura Literaria, vol. VII. 

L Y D I A T. 7 

known during the rebellion. Mr. Lydiat was made proba- 
tioner fellow in 1591, and two years after, actual fellow. 
Then taking his degree in arts, he applied himself to 
astronomy, mathematics, and divinity, in the last of which 
studies he was very desirous of continuing ; but, finding a 
great defect in his memory and utterance, he chose rather 
to resign his fellowship, which he could not hold without 
entering the church, and live upon his small patrimony. 
This was in 1603 ; and he spent seven years after in finish- 
ing and printing such books as he had begun when in col- 
lege. He first appeared as an author in 1605, by pub- 
lishing his " Tractatus de variis annorum formis." Of this 
he published a defence in 1607, against the censures of 
Joseph Scaliger, whom he more directly attacked in his 
" Emendatio Temporum ab initio mundi hue usque com- 
pendio facta, contra Scaligerum et alios," 1609. This he 
dedicated to prince Henry, eldest son of James I. He 
was chronographer and cosmographer to that prince, who 
had a great respect for him, and, had he lived, would cer- 
tainly have made a provision for him. , In 1609, he became 
acquainted with Dr. Usher, afterwards archbishop of Ar<- 
magh, who took him into Ireland, and placed him in the 
college at Dublin, where he continued two years; ant) 
then purposing to return to England, the lord-deputy and 
chancellor of. Ireland n>ade him, at his request, a joint 
promise of a competent support, upon his coming back 
thither. This appears to have been the mastership of the 
school at Armagh, endowed with 50/. per annum in laud. 

When he came to England, which appears to have been 
in 1611, he is supposed to have been married, and to 
Usher's sister; but for either supposition there seems very 
little foundation. Soon after his return, however, the 
rectory of Okerton becoming void, was offered to him $ 
and though, while he was fellow of New-college, he had 
refused the offer of it by his father, who was the patron, 
yet he now accepted it, and was instituted in 1612. Here 
he seems to have lived happily for many years : but being 
imprudently security for the debts of a near relation, which 
lie was unable to pay, he was successively imprisoned at 
Oxford, the KingVbench, and elsewhere, in 1629, or 
1630, and remained a prisoner till sir William Bos well, a 
great patron of learned men, joining with Dr. Pink, war* 
den of New-college, and Dr. Usher, paid the debt, and 
released him; and archbishop Laud also, at. the request of 

S L YD U T. 

sir Henry Martin, gave his assistance on this occasion *. 
He bad no sootier got bis liberty, tban, out of aa ardent 
zeal to promote literature and the honour of bis GouiHry, 
he petitioned Charles I. for bis protection and encourage* 
j&ent to travel into Turkey, Ethiopia, and tbe Abyssiriian 
empire, in search of manuscripts relating to civil or eccle- 
siastical history, or any other branch of learning, and to 
print them in England. For the farther advancement of 
this design, be also requested the king would apply, by 
his ambassadors and ministers, to such princes as were in 
alliance with him, for a similar privilege to be granted to 
Lydiat and his assigns : this was a spirited design, but it 
was impossible for the king at that unhappy period to pay 
attention to it 

This disappointment, however, did not diminish his 
loyalty, and ou that account he was a great sufferer during 
the rebellion. He was a man of undaunted mind, ana 
talked frequently and warmly in behalf both of the king 
and the bishops, refused to comply with the demands of 
money made upon him by the parliament army, and with 
great personal courage defended his books and papers 
against their attempts to seize them, For these offences 
Jie was four times plundered by some troops of the parlia^ 
xnent, at Compton-house in Warwickshire* to the value of 
at least 70/# ; was twice carried away from his house at 
Okerton ; once to Warwick, and another time to Banbury $ 
he was treated infamously hy the soldiers, and so muctl 
debarred from decent necessaries, that he could have up 
change of linen for a considerable time, without borrowing 
from some charitable person. At length, after be had 
lived at his parsonage several year?, in indigence and ob- 
scurity, he died April 3, 1646, and was interred the next 
day in the chancel of Okerton church, which bad been 
rebuilt by him. .A stone was laid over his grave in 1669, 
by tbe society of New-college, who also erected an hono- 
rary monument, with an inscription to his memory, in the 
cloister of their college. 

In bis person he was low in stature, and of mean appear- 
ance. In tbe matter of church discipline and ceremonies 
he is said to have thought with the non- conformists, but 

* In 1633, be wrote a defence, of lease* This may be given as a proof 

Laud's setting up altars in churches, that what is afterwards reported of hfa 

and dedicated it to him, in gratitude ipn-cojifoflttftty haw Very little fouada/- 

fer bis assistance in procuring his. re- lion. 

L Y D 1 A T. 9 

not enough, it would appear, to gain their protection. 
$Je wis, however, highly esteemed by his learned coo* 
temporaries, particularly primate Usher, air Adam New- 
ton, secretary, and sir Thomas Chailon4r, chamberlain to 
prince Henry, Dr. J. Bainbridge, Mr. Henry Briggg, Dr. 
Peter Tomer, and other* : and some foreigners did not 
scruple to rank him with Mr. Joseph Mede, and even with 
lord Bacon. Yet the memory of this learned man was not 
of long duration, for when his misfortunes were alluded to 
by Dr. Johnson in his " Vanity of Human Wishes/' in 
jthese lines, . 

*r If dreams yet flatter, once again attend 9 
Hear.Lydiat's life, and Galileo's end:" 

it was a subject of inquiry, who Lydiat was ? 
' The following is, we believe, a correct list of his works, 
including those already mentioned. 1. " Tractatus de 
varii* anhorum formis," 1605, 8vo. 2. " Praelectio astro- 
ttotnica de natura cceli & cbuditionibus eleuientoru'm. 1 * 
3. v Disqnisitio physiologica de origirte fontium." These 
two ate printed with the first 4. " Defensio tractatus de 
varifs annorum formis, contra Jos. Scaligeri obtrectatio- 
nem/* 1 $07, Uvo. 5. " Examen canonum chronologic 
i&gogicorum," printed with the " Defensio." 6. " Eoien- 
datio iemporum, &c. contra Scaligerum & alios," 1609, 
Svo. 7. ** Explicatip & additamentum argumentorum in 
libello emendationis temporum compendio facta de nati~ 
ritate Christi, & ministerii in terris," 1613, 8vo. 8. " SolU 
& lunsB periodus sell annus magnus," 163d, 8vo, &c. 
9. " De anui Solaris mensura epistola astronomical &c« 
1621, 3vo. 10. " Numtfrus aureus, melioribus lapillis in- 
signitus," &c. 1621 ; a single large sheet on one side. 
11. « Canones chronologic^ &c. 1675, 8vo. 12. " Let-^ 
ters to Dr. James Usher, primate of Ireland/' printed in 
the Appendix of his life by Dr. Parr. 13. " Marmoreum 
chronicum Arundelianum, cum Annotationibus," printed 
in the " Marmora Oxoniensia," by Humphrey Prideauic 
He also left twenty-two manuscripts, two of which were 
written in Hebrew, in the hands of Dr. John Lamphire. 1 
V LYE (Edward), a learned linguist and antiquary, the 
•*nth6r of an excellent dictionary of the Saxon and Gothic 
languages, was born at Totnes in Devonshire, in 1 704. 

} Geo. Ptet*»4io0. Brit.-^th, Q<. toM I. —Fuller's Worthies.— UsW* 
Life aad Letter*. r 

10 LYE. 

He virajs educated partly at home, under his father, who 
kept a school at Totnes, partly under other preceptors, 
but chiefly (being obliged to return home from consump- 
tive complaints) by his own private care and application. 
At the age of nineteen, he was admitted at Hart hall (now 
Hertford college) in Oxford, took his bachelor's degree in 
1716, was ordained deacon in 1717, and priest in 1719, 
soon after which he was presented to the living of Hough - 
ton-parva in Northamptonshire. In this retreat he laid the 
foundation of his great proficiency in the Anglo-Saxon 
language. He became master of arts in 1722. 

Having now qualified himself completely for a work of 
that nature, he undertook the arduous task of publishing 
the " Etymologicum Anglicanum" of Francis Junius, from 
the manuscript of the author in the Bodleian Library. To 
this undertaking he was led, as he tells us in his preface, 
by the commendations which Hickes and other learned 
antiquaries had given to that unpublished work. In the 
seventh year from the commencement of his design, he 
published the work, with many additions, and particularly 
that of an Anglo-Saxon Grammar prefixed. The work 
was received with the utmost approbation of the learned. 
In 1750, Mr. Lye became a* member of the society of an-* 
tiquaries, and about the same time was presented by the 
earl of Northampton to the vicarage of Yardley Hastings, 
on which accession be resigned his former living of Hough* 
ton ; giving an illustrious example of primitive moderation, 
especially as he had hitherto supported his mother, and 
had still two sisters dependent upon him. The next pub- 
lication which he issued, was that of the Gothic Gospels, 
undertaken at the desire of Eric Benzelius, bishop of 
Upsal, who had collated and corrected them. This, which 
he had been long preparing, appeared from the Oxford 
press in the same year, with a Gothic Grammar prefixed* 
His last years were employed chiefly in finishing for the 
press his own great work, the Anglo-Saxon and Gothic 
Dictionary, which was destined to owe that to another 
editor, which he had performed for Junius. His manu? 
script was just completed, and given to the printer, when 
he died at Yardley Hastings, in 1767; and was there 
buried, with a commendatory but just and ejegarjt epitaph* 
His Dictionary was published in 1772, in two volumes folio, 
by the rev. Owen Manning, with a grammar of th6 two 
languages united, and some memoirs of the author, from 

LYE. 11 

which this account is taken. It appears by some original 
correspondence between Mr. Lye and Dr. Ducarel (for the 
perusal of which we are indebted to Mr. Nichols), that Mr.' 
Lye bad been employed on his dictionary a long tinte before 
1765, and that he had almost relinquished the design from 
a dread of the labour and expence. In the labour he had 
none to share with him, but at the time above mentioned 
archbishop Seeker offered him a subscription of 50/. to 
forward the work, and he appears to have hoped for similar 
instances of liberality. l 

LYFORD (William), a pious clergyman of the seven- 
teenth century, was born about 1598, at Peysmere, near 
Newbury in Berkshire, of which place his father was rec- 
tor. Iu 1614 he became a commoner of Magdalen hall, 
Oxford, and a demy of Magdalen college in 1617. In 
1622 he took 1 his degree of M. A. and was then chosen a 
fellow. In 1631 he was admitted to the reading of the 
sentences, and, having taken orders, was presented to 
the living of Shirburne, in Dorsetshire, by John Earl of 
Bristol. Here, says Wood, " he was very much resorted 
to for his edifying and practical way of preaching;" and 
appears indeed to have deserved the affections of his 
flock,, by the most constant diligence in discharging the 
duties of his office. He divided his day into the following 
portions : nine hours for study, three for visits and con- 
ferences with his parishioners, three for prayers and devo- 
tion, two for his affairs, and the rest for his refreshment. He 
divided likewise his estate into three parts, one for the use 
of his family, one for a reserve in case of future wants, 
and one for pious uses. His parish he divided into twenty- 
eight parts, to be visited in twenty -eight days every month, 
" leaving," says one of his biographers, " knowledge wher£ 
he found ignorance, justice where he found oppression, 
peace where he found contention, and order where . be 
found irregularity." - 

A man of this disposition was not likely to add to die 
turbulence of the times ; and although he is said to have 
inclined to the presbyterian party, and was chosen one of 
the assembly of divines, he never sat among them, but 
remained on his living, employed in preaching, catechizing, 
&c. until his death, Oct 3, 1653. Fuller and Wood unite 
in* their praises of Mr. Lyford's character, and in their 

t Meitooirt as above.— MS belters in Mr. Nichols's possession* 

12 L Y F O R D. 

opinion of bis writings, wbicb, says Wood, " savour much 
of piety, zeal, and sincerity, but shew him to have been a 
sealous Calvinist." Dr. Walker informs us that " be suf- 
fered much from the faction, both in his name and mi- 
nistry, and they wondered that so holy a man as h$ was, 
should doat so much on. kings, bishops, the common prayer, 
and ceremonies." He bequeathed the sum of 120/. to 
Magdalen college " in gratitude for the advantages which 
be bad there enjoyed, and in restitution for a sum of money, 
which, according to the corrupt custom of those times, he 
had received for the resignation of his fellowship." 

Although he took no active part in the disputed of the 
nation, he gave bis opinion on some subjects Arising out 
of tbem, respecting toleration, in a work entitled " Causes 
of conscience propounded in the time of Rebellion," 
which bisbop Rennet in bis "Chronicle?' says, is written 
with plainness, .modesty, and impartiality. His other works 
are, 1. "Principles of Faith and of a good Conscience," 
Lond. 1642 ; Oxford, 1652; 8vo. 2. " An Apology for our 
public Ministry and infant Baptism," ibid. 1652, 1653,. 
4to. 3* " The plain roan's senses exercised to discern 
both good and evil ; or a discovery of the errors, heresies, 
and blasphemies of these times, ibid. 1655, 4to, with 
sonne other pious tracts. 1 


LYNAR (Rochus . Frederic Count), a Danish states- 
man and scholar, was descended from an ancient family, a 
branch of the counts of Guerini, in the dukedom of Tus- 
cany, which had settled in Germany* He was bom in 
1708, at the castle of Lubbenau, and educated at Jena and 
Halle, at both which places he applied with the utmost 
assiduity to the Greek and Latin languages, and even to 
theology. After travelling in various parts of Europe, and 
visiting England in 1732, he obtained an appointment at 
the court of Denmark ; but, being ambitious of a more 
public station, he volunteered his services in the home and 
foreign department, and displayed so much, activity that 
he was dispatched by Christian VI. to East Friezland* to 
settle the affairs of the dowager princess, Sophia Caroline, 
sister to the queen. This mission be discharged to the 
satisfaction of hjs sovereign; and was appointed it) 1735 
ambassador extraordinary to the court of Stockholm, where; 

» Ath.Ox. vol. Ih— Fuller's Woithies.— Lloyd's Memoir*. f»l. p. 6(fl.— 
W*ikcrV Sufferings of the Clergy, 

L Y N A R. 13 

« * 

•hfc itstded until- 1740. On hi* return to Denmark the 
king conferred on him an office in Holstein, and a few 
year* after be was sent as ambassador extraordinary to Pe- 
tersburgb. On his return in 1752 he was appointed go* 
vernor of the counties of OHenburgh and Delchanhorst, to 
which he Retired with bis family, and where he spent hit 
time in the composition of literary worlcs, the first of which* 
a translation of " Seneca de Beneficils," with excellent 
notes^ was printed in 1753. Having renewed the study of 
the Greek language while at Oldenburgh, he made so much 
progress, that by comparing the best commentators he was 
enabled to write a good paraphrase on " The- Epistles of 
St. Paul, 1 ' Ice. which was afterwards published. He wrote 
also several moral essays. . * 

In 1757 be bad an opportunity again of rendering him* 
self conspicuous in a political capacity, by the part which 
be took in the famous convention of Closter- seven, en- 
tered into between the duke of Richelieu, commander of 
the French forces, and the duke of Cumberland, who waa 
then at the head of the allied army. In this, however,, ho 
met with many difficulties, as the history ofthat conventions 
shows ■;• and the king of France and his Britannic majesty 
at last refused their ratification. In March 1763 he was* 
invested with the order of the elephant by Frederic V. the 
highest honour his sovereign could bestow; but some 
complaints being made against him on account of his ad- 
ministration, which were not altogether groundless, be 
resigned in Oct 1765. The remainder of his life he passed, 
in retirement at Lubennau, where he died of a dropsy of 
the breast, Nov. 1781, in the seventy- third year of his 
age* He was a man of considerable learning, elegant ad-, 
dress, * and' various accomplishments; His works . are, 1 . 
A translation of" Seneca de Beneficiis," Hamburgh, 1753, 
8vo. 2. A translation of Seneca on "The Shortness of 
Life," 1754. 3."Der Sonderling," or "The Singular 
Mao," Hanover, 1761, 8 vo, and in French, Copenhagen, 
17=77, 8vo, a work, which, according to his biographer 
Btt8cbifrg, is well worth a perusal* 4. "Historical, Po- 
litical and Moral Miscellanies," in four parts, 1775—1777, 
8*0." 5, Paraphrases on "The Epistles,"* printed at va- 
rious times, 1754 — 1770. 6. " The real ftate of Europe 
in the year 1737," and. several other articles in Busching's 
Magazine for History and Geography. \ 

\ Atbeoaeam, vol. III. 

14 1YN0E. 

LYNDE (Sir Humphrey), a learned English gentle- 
man, was descended from a family in Dorsetshire, and born 
in 1579. Being sent to Westminster school, he was ad- 
mitted scholar upon the foundation, and thence elected 
student of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1596. Four years 
afterwards he commenced B. A. about which time he be- 
came heir to ^considerable estate, was made a justice of 
peace, and knighted by king James in 1613* He obtained 
a seat in the House of Commons in several parliaments; but 
he is entitled to a place in this work as a man of learning* 
and author of several books, which had considerable re- 
putation in their day. He died June 14, 1636,; and was 
interred in the chancel of the church at Cobbaoi in Surrey. 
Tbe night before he died, being exhorted by a friend to 
give some testimony of his constancy in the reformed re- 
ligion, because it was not unlikely that his adversaries 
might say of him, as they did of fieza, Reynolds, King 
bishop of London, and bishop Andrews, that they recanted 
the protestant religion, and were reconciled to the church 
of Rome before their death ; he professed, that if he had a 
thousand souls, he would pawn them all upon the truth of 
that religion established by law in the church of England* 
and which he had declared and maintained in his " Via 
tut£" * Accordingly, in his funeral sermon by Dr. Daniel 
Featly, he is not only styled " a general scholar, an ac- 
complished gentleman, a gracious Christian, a zealous pa- 
triot r and an able champion for truth; 9 ' but "one that 
stood always as well for the discipline, as the doctrine of 
the church of JEngland ; and whose actions, as well as writ- 
ings, were conformable both to the laws of God and canons 
and constitutions of that church." - .- 

His works are, 1. " Ancient characters of the visible 
Church, 1625." 2. "Via tuta, the safe way, &c." re- 
printed several times, and translated into Latin, Dutch* 
and French, printed at Paris, 1647, from the sixth edition 
published in 1636, !2mo, under the title of " Popery con- 
futed by Papists," &c. 3. " Via devia, the by-way," &c. 
1630 and 1632, 8vo. 4. (( A Case for the Spectacles; 
or, a Defence of the Via tuta," in answer to a book written 
by J. R. called "A pair of Spectacles," &c. with a supple- 
ment in vindication of sir Humphrey, by the publisher, 
Dr. Daniel Featly. A book entitled " A pair of Spectacles 
for sir Humphrey Lynde," was printed at Roan, 1631, in 
8vo, by Robert Jenison, or Frevili a Jesuit. 5. "An 

IYND E.. 15 

account of Bertram, with observation* concerning the cen- 
sures upon his Tract De corpore et sanguine Christi," 
prefixed to an edition of it at London, 1623, 8vo, and re- 
printed there in 1686, 8vo, by Dr. Matthew Brian. 1 

LYONET (Peter), an eminent naturalist, was born at 
Maestricht July 22, 1707. He was of a French family, 
originally of Lorraine, whence they were obliged to take 
refuge in Switzerland, on account of their religion. His 
father, Benjamin Lyonet, was a protestant minister at Heuf- 
ion. In his early years he displayed uncommon activity 
both of body and mind, with a memory so prompt, that he . 
acquired an exact knowledge of nine languages, ancient 
and modern, and in the farther pursuit of his academical 
studies at Leyden, made great progress in logic, philo- 
sophy, geometry, aud algebra. It was his father's wish that 
he should study divinity, with a view to the church, and it 
appears that he might have passed by an easy transition to 
any of the learned professions. The law, however, was hit 
ultimate destination ; and he applied himself to this with 
so much zeal, that he was promoted the first year, when 
he delivered a thesis " on the use of the torture," which 
was published, and gained him considerable reputation. 
At what time he settled at the Hague we are not told, but 
there he was. made decypherer, translator of the Latin and 
French languages, and patent-master to the States General. 
It was now that he turned his attention to natural history, 
especially entomology, and undertook an historical, descrip- 
tion of such ^insects as are found about the Hague ; and as, 
among his other accomplishments, he understood drawing, 
he enriched his work with a great number of plates, which ' 
were much admired by the connoisseurs. In 1741 a French 
translation of Lesser's " Theology of Insects" was printed 
at the Hague, which induced Mr. Lyonet to defer the 
publication of his own work, and make some observations 
on Lesser's, to which he added two beautiful plates de- 
signed by himself. His observations were thought of so 
much importance that Reaumur caused the above transla- 
tion to be reprinted at Paris, merely on account of them. 
Lyonet afterwards executed drawings of the fresh water 
polypes for Mr. Trembley's beautiful work, in 1744-. Wan- 
delaar had engraved the first five plates of this work, and 
being rather dilatory in producing the rest, Lyonet took a 

i Ath. Ox. vol. I. 

single lesson in engraving, and executed the btfaete Mm-* 
*elf in a manner which astonished not only amateurs, but 
experienced artists. In 1748 his reputation procured tan* 
the hohour of being elected a member of the royal society 
of London, as he was afterwards of other learned societies 
in Europe. In 1764 appeared his magnificent work on 
the caterpillar, " Traitg anatomique de la Chenille qui 
ronge ie bois de Saule." In order to enable such as might 
be desirous of following him in bis intricate and astonishing 
discoveries respecting the structure of this animal, he pub- 
lished, in the Transactions of the Dutch society of sciences, 
at Haerlem, a description and plate of the instrument and 
tools be had invented for the purpose of dissection, and 
likewise of the method he used to ascertain the degree of 
strength of his magnifying glasses. Mr. Lyonet died at tbe 
Hague, Jan. 10, 1789, leaving some other works on ento- 
mology unfinished, one of the most extensive collections of 
shells in Europe, and a very fine cabinet of pictures. In 
his early years, Mr. Lybnet practised sculpture and por- 
trait-painting. Of the former, bis Apollo and the Moses, 
a basso relievo cut in palm wood, is mentioned by Vaii 
Gool, in his " Review of the Dutch Painters/ 9 as a master* 
piece. To these many accomplishments Mr. Lyonet added 
a personal character which rendered him admired during 
his long life, and deeply regretted when his friends and 
his country were deprived of his services. ' 

LYONS (Israel), son of a Polish Jew, who was a silver- 
smith, and teacher of Hebrew at Cambridge, was bora 
there, in 1739. He displayed wonderful talents as a young 
man; and shewed very early a great inclination to learn* 
ing, particularly mathematics ; but though Dr. Smith, then 
master of Trinity-college, offered to put him to school at 
his own expence, he would go only for a day or two* say- 
ing, " he could learn more by himself in an hour than in 
a day with his master." He began the study of botany in 
1755, which he continued to his death ; and could remem- 
ber, not only the Linnaean names of almost all the English 
plants, but even the synonyma of the old botanists, which 
form a strange and barbarous farrago of great bulk ; autl 
bad collected large materials for a "Flora Cantabrigien- 
sis," describing fully every part of each plant from the life, 
without being obliged to consult, or being liable to be mis-* 

1 Diet. Hist.— CUmt. Mag. vol. LIX. 


LYONS. 17 

■ ■ 

led by, former authors. In 1758 he obtained much cele- 
brity by publishing a treatise " on Fluxions," dedicated 
to his patron, J)r. Smith; and in 1763 a work entitled 
" Fasciculus plantarum circi Cantabrigiam nascentium, quae 
post Raium observatse fuere," 8vo. Mr. Banks (now sir 
Joseph Banks, bart. and president of the royal society), 
whom he first instructed in this science, sent for him to 
Oxford, about 1762 or 1763, to read lectures; which he 
did with great applause, to at least sixty pupils ; but could 
not be induced to make a long absence from Cambridge. 
He had a salary of a hundred pounds per annum for cal- 
culating the " Nautical Almanack," and frequently received 
presents from the board of longitude for his inventions. 
•He cpuld read Latin and French with ease ; but wrote the 
former ill ; had studied the English history, and could quote 
whole passages from the Monkish writers verbatim. He 
was appointed by the board of longitude to go with cap- 
tain Phipps (afterwards lord Mulgrave) to the North pole 
in 1773, and made the astronomical and other mathemati- 
cal calculations, printed in the account of that voyage. 
After his return he married and settled in London, where, 
on May 1, 1775, he died of the measles. He was then 
engaged in publishing a complete edition of all the works 
of Dr. Halley. His " Calculations in Spherical Trigo- 
nometry abridged,** were printed in "Philosophical Trans- 
actions," vol. LXI. art 46. After his death his name ap- 
peared in the title-page of "A Geographical Dictionary/' of 
which the astronomical parts were said to be " taken from 
the papers of the late Mr. Israel Lyons, of Cambridge, au- 
thor of several valuable mathematical productions, and 
astronomer in lord Mulgrave*s voyage to the Northern he- 
misphere." It remains to be noticed, that a work entitled 
" The Scholar's Instructor, or Hebrew Grammar, by Israel 
Lyons, Teacher of the Hebrew Tongue in the University 
of Gambridge : the second edition, with many Additions 
and Emendations which the Author has found necessary in 
his long course of teaching Hebrew,*' Cambridge, 1757, 
8vo, was the production of his father; as was a treatise 
printed at the Cambridge press, under the title of " Obser- 
vations and Enquiries relating to various parts of Scripture 
jjistory, 1761," published by subscription at two shillings 
and six-pence. He died in August 1770, and was bu- 
ried, agreeably to his own desire, although contrary to 
the Jewish principles, in Great St. Mary's Church-yard, 
Vol. XXI. C 

18 LYONS. 

Cambridge. He was on this occasion carried through the 
church, and his daughter Judith read some form of inter* 
ment-service over his grave. He had resided near forty 
years at Cambridge. ' 

LYRA (Nicholas de), or LYRANUS, a celebrated 
Franciscan, in the 14th century, and one of the most 
learned men of his time, was born of Jewish parents at 
Lyre, a town in Normandy, in the diocese of Evreux. 
After having been instructed in rabbinical learning, he em- 
braced Christianity, entered among the Franciscans at 
Verneuil, 1291, and taught afterwards at Paris with great 
credit. He rose by his merit to the highest offices in bis 
order, and also gained the esteem of the great; queen 
Jane, countess of Burgundy, and wife of Philip the Long, 
appointed him one of her executors in 1'325. He died at 
a very advanced age, October 23, 1340, leaving some 
" Postils," or short Commentaries oh the whole Bible, 
which were formerly in considerable reputation : the most 
scarce edition of them is that of Rome, 1472, seven vols, 
folio; and the best that of Antwerp, 1634, six vols, folio. 
These commentaries are incorporated in the " Biblia Max- 
ima," Paris, 1660, nineteen vols, folio; and there is a 
French translation of them, Paris, 1511, and 1512, five 
vols, folio. He published also " A Disputation against the 
Jews," in 8vo, a treatise against a particular rabbi, who 
made use of the New Testament to combat Christianity* 
These, and his other works not printed, show the author 
to have had a much more perfect knowledge of the Holy 
Scriptures than was common at that time. 9 

LYSERUS (Polycarp), a learned Protestant theologian, 
was born at'Winendeen in the territory of Wittemberg, in 
the year 1552. He was educated at Tubingen, at the ex- 
pence of the duke of Saxony, and became a minister of 
the church of Wittemberg in 1577. He was one of th£ 
first to sign the ", Concord," and was deputed, with James 
Andreas, to procure the signature of the divines and mi- 
nisters in the electorate of Saxony. He died at Dresden,, 
where he was then minister, February 14, 1601, aged 50, 
leaving a great number of works, both in German and La* 
tin. The principal are, 1. " Explanations of Genesis/' in. 
six parts, or six volumes, 4to, each of which bears th& 
name of the patriarch whose history it explains. 2. "Com- 

i Nichols's Bowyer.— Cole's MS Athenst in Brit Mus. 
8 Moreri. — Dupin.— Diet. Hist. 

LY8ERUS. 19 

mentaries on the two first chapters of Daniel," 2 vols. 4to. 
3, u A Paraphrase on the History of the Passion," 4to, or 
12mo. 4. " Explanation of Psalm CI," 8vo. 5. " Com- 
mentaries on the Minor Prophets," 4to, published at Leip- 
sic, 1609, by Polycarp Lyserus, his great-grandson, who 
has added some remarks on Haggai, according to his an- 
cestor's method. 6. " Commentaries oil the Epistle to the 
Hebrews." 7. " Centuria qosestionufti de articulis libri 
Christians Concordiae," 4to. 8. " Christiantsmus, Papis- 
mus, Calvinismus," 8vo. 9. " tlarmonia Calviniafrorum et 
Photinianornm in Doctrkia de Sacfa Cemfa," 4to. 10. li Vin- 
diciafc Lyserianro, an sincretisrtius in rebus fidei cum Cal- 
vinianis coli prodest," 4to. 11. " Disputatioftes IX. An- 
ti Steinianscr quijbus examinacar defensio concionis. Irenica 
Paiili Steinii," 4to. 12. u Harmonia Evangelistarum con- 
tinuata ad Christianam Harmon iam et ejusdem Epitome, 
Svo\ 13. " Dispot. de Deo patre Creatore coeli et terrae, 
4to. 14. "De aeternitate Fitii Dei," 4to. 15. " De sa- 
cramentis decades date/ 9 4to. He published also the 
" History of the Jesuits/ 9 written by Elias Hasenmullor, 
who having quitted that society, and turned Lutheran, re- 
tired to Witteraberg, and died there before his work was 
printed. Father Gretser attacked this history, and Lyserus 
auswered him by " Strena ad Gretserum pro honorario 
ejus," 8vo. 1 

LYSERUS (John), another learned protestant, of the 
same family as the preceding, but of opposite character, 
may be introduced here as the precursor of the celebrated 
Martin Madan, in supporting the doctrine of polygamy. 
Lyserus is said to have been so infatuated with the am* 
bition of founding a sect of polygamists, that he sacrificed 
his life and fortune to prove that polygamy is not only 
permitted,, but even commanded in certain cases ; and tra- 
velled about Europe, endeavouring to find some countries 
that would adopt his opinion. At length, after many fruit- 
less journeys, Lyserus took the singular resolution of visit* 
ing France, with a view to repair his fortune by chess, a 
game he was perfectly master of, and accordingly settled 
at Versailles. Here, however, he likewise failed, and 
having, when sick, set out to walk from Versailles to Paris, 
be encreased his disorder so much, that he died at a bouse 
on the road, in 1634. He left numerous pieces, under 

I Melchior Adam. — Moreri.— Gen. Diet. 

C 2 

,20 LY8 E R U S. 

fictitious names, in favour of polygamy, the most consider* 
able of which is entitled " Polygamia triumpbatrix," 1682, 
4to. Brunsmanus, a minister of Copenhagen has refuted 
this in a book* entitled " Polygamia. triumphata," 1689, 
8vo; and again in another work, " Monogamia victrix," 
1639, 8vo. This poor man's attachment to a plurality of 
wives appears the more wonderful,' Bayle observes, because 
he had been much embarrassed by one. In less than a cen-v 
tury he was succeeded in his opinions by the rev. M. Madan, 
of whom hereafter. * 

LYSIAS, an .eminent Greek orator, was born at Syra- 
cuse, about the year 459 B. C. He was educated at Athens, 
and became a teacher of rhetoric, and composed orations 
for others, but does not appear to have been a pleader. Of 
his orations, which are said to have amounted to three or 
four hundred, only thirty-four remain. He died in the 
eighty-first year of his age, and in the 378th year B.C. and Quintilian give him a very high character, and 
suppose that there is nothing of their kind more perfect 
than his orations. Lysias lived at a somewhat earlier period 
than .Isocrates ; and exhibits a model of that manner which 
the ancients call the " tenuis vel subtilis." He has none 
of the pomp of Isocrates. He is every where pure and 
$ttic in the highest degree ; simple and unaffected ; but 
wants force, and is sometimes frigid in his compositions. In 
the judicious comparison which Dionysius of Halicarnas- 
sus makes of the merits of Lysias and Isocrates, he 
ascribes to Lysias, as the distinguishing character of 
his manner, a qprtain graoe or elegance arising from sim- 
plicity : " the style of Lysias has gracefulness for its na- 
ture ; that of Isocrates seems to have it. 9 ' In the art of 
narration, as distinct, probable, and persuasive, he holds 
Lysias to be superior to all orators ; at the same time be 
admits, that his composition is more adapted to private 
litigation than to great subjects. He convinces, but he 
does not elevate nor animate. The magnificence and splen- 
dour of Isocrates are more suited to great occasions. He 
is more agreeable than Lysias ; and in dignity of senti- 
ment far excels him. The first edition of Lysias is that 
by Aldus, folio, 1513, in the first part of the " Rhetorum 
Gnecorum orationes." The best modern editions are that 
of Taylor, beautifully and correctly printed by Bowyer, in 
1739, 4toj of Reiske, at Leipsic, 1772, 8vo; and of 

• * 

1 Moreri«— Geo, Diet, 


Anger it Paris, 1782. Auger also published an excellent 
French translation of Lysias in 1783. ■ 

LYSIPPUS, a celebrated statuary among the ancients, 
was a native of Sicyon, and flourished in the time of 
Alexander the Great. He was bred a locksmith, and fol- 
lowed that business for a while ; but, by the advice of Eu- 
pompus, a painter, he applied himself to painting, which, 
however, he soon quitted 'for sculpture, and being thought 
to execute his works with more ease than the ancients, 
he became more employed than any other artist. The 
statue of a man wiping and anointing himself after bathing 
was particularly excellent : Agrrppa placed it before his 
baths at Rome. Tiberius, who was charmed with it, and 
not able to resist the desire of being master of it, when he 
came to the empire, took it into his own apartment, and 
placed another very fine one in its place. But the Roman 
people demanding, in a full theatre, that he would replace 
the first statue, he found it necessary, notwithstanding his 
power, to comply witji their solicitations, in order to ap- 
pease the tumult Another of Lysippus's capital pieces 
was a statue of the sun, represented in a car drawn by four 
% horses ; this statue was worshipped at Rhodes. He 'made 
also several statues of Alexander and his favourites, which 
were brought to Rome by Metellus, after he had "reduced 
the Macedonian empire. He particularly excelled in the 
representation of the hair, which be more happily expressed 
than any of his predecessors in the art. He also made his 
figures less than the life, that they might be seen such as 
statues appear when placed, as usual, at some height; 
and when he was charged with this fault, he answered, 
" That other artists had indeed represented men such as 
nature had made them, but, for his part, he chose to re- 
present them such as they appeared to be to the eye." 
He had three sons, who were all his disciples,- and ac- 
quired great reputation in the art, 9 


LYTTELTON (George), an elegant English writer^ 
was the eldest son of sir Thomas Lyttelton, of Hagley, in 
Worcestershire, bart. and was born in 1709. He came into 
the world two months before the usual time, and was 
imagined by the nurse to be dead, but upon closer in spec* 

1 From his editors.— Saxii Onomast.— Moreri.— Diet. Hist. — Dibciin and 
Clarke.— Biair'i lecture*. * Pliim Hist. Nat. lib. III. cop. 9. 


tion was found alive, apd with sojne difficulty r e*r§d* At 
Eton school, where he was educated, be w?s so much dis- 
tinguished that his exercises were recommended as ippdels 
to his school-fellows. From Eton he wept to Christ Church, 
where he retained the same reputation of superiority, and 
displayed his abilities to the public in a poem on Blenheim* 
He was a very early writer, both in verse and prose ; bis 
" Progress of Love/' and his " Persian Letters," hav- 
ing both been written when he was very young, Aftefr 
a short residence at Oxford, he began bis travels in 
J728-, and visited France and Italy. From Rome he 
sent those elegant verses which are prefixed to the works 
of Pope, whom he consulted in 1730 respecting his four 
pastorals. Pope made some alterations in them, which 
may be seen in Bowles's late edition of that poet's wprks 
(vol. IV. p. 139). We find Pope, a few years afterwards, 
in a letter to Swift, speak thus of him : He is " one of 
those whom his own merit has forced me to contract an 
intimacy with, after I had sworn never to love st man 
more, since the sorrow it cost me to have loved so many 
now dead, banished, or unfortunate, I mean Mr. Lyttel- 
ton, one of the worthiest of the rising generation," &c. 
In another letter Mr. Lyttelton is mentioned in a manner 
with which Dr. Warton says he was displeased *. 

When he returned from his continental tour, he was 
(May 4, 1729) made page of honour to the princess royal. 
He also obtained a seat ip parliament, and soon distin- 
guished himself among the most eager opponents of sir 
Robert Walpole, though his father, who was one of the 
lords of the admiralty, always voted with the court. For 
many years the name of George Lyttelton was. seen in 
every account of every debate in the bouse of commons. 
Among the great leading questions* be qpposed the stand- 
ing army j and the excise, and supported the motion for 
petitioning the king to remove Wajpole. The prince of 
Wales having, in consequence of a quarrel with the king, 
been obliged to leave St. James's in 1737, kept a separate 
court, and opened his arms to the opponents of the mi- 
nistry. Mr. Lyttelton was made his secretary, and was 
supposed to have great influence in the direction of his 
conduct. His name consequently ocgurs, although not 
very often, in Doddington's Diary. He persuaded the 

♦ Pope's Works, vol. IX. Letter LXXXV, 



prince, whose business it was now to be popular, that ha 
would advance his character by patronage. Mallet wa* 
made undersecretary, with 200/. a year; and Thomson 
had a pension of 100/. The disposition of the two men 
must account for the difference in, the sums. Mallet could 
do more political service than the honest-hearted Thomson. 
For Thomson, however, Mr. Lyttehon always retained 
bis kindness, and was able at last to place him at ease. 
Moore courted his favour by an apologetical poem called 
" The Trial of Selim," and was paid with kind words, 
which, as is common, says Dr. Johnson, raised great hopes, 
that at last were disappointed. This matter, however, ii 
differently stated in our account of Moore. 

Mr. Lyttelton now stood in the first rank of opposition ; 
and Pope, who was incited, it is not easy to say how, to 
increase the clamour against the ministry, commended 
him among the other patriots. This drew upon him the 
reproaches of Mr. Henry Fox, who, in the House of Com- 
mons, was weak enough to impute to hitan as a crime 
his intimacy with a lampooner so unjust and licentious. 
Eyttelton supported bis friend, and replied, " that he 
thought it an honour to be received into the familiarity of 
so great a poet. 9 ' While he was thus conspicuous, he 
married (1741) Miss Lucy Fortescne, sister to Matthew lord 
Fortescue, of Devonshire, by whom he bad a sort, Thomas, 
and two daughters, and with whom he appears to have 
lived in the highest degree of cownubial felicity : but hn- 
tnan pleasures are *hort; dhe died in childbed about six 
years afterwards (1747) ; and he solaced his grief by writ- 
ing a " Monody" * to her memory, without, however, con- 

• This notice of the Monody, which 
it given in Dr. Johnson's words, has 
been thought toe scanty praise. In 
truth, it is no praise at all, but an 
assertion, and not a just one, that lord 
Lyttelton " solaced his grief" by writ- 
ing the poem. The praise or blame 
was usually reserved by Johnson • for 
the conclusion of his lives, but in this 
case the Monody is not- mentioned at 
all. We have on record, however, an 
opinion of Gray, which the admirers of 
the poem will perhaps scarcely think 
more sympathetic than Johnson's «- 
line*. In a letter to lord Orford, who 
had probably spoken "with disrespect 
of the Monody, pray says, " I am 
not totally of your mind as to Mr. 

Lyttelton's elegy, though I love kids 
and fauns as little as you do. If it 
were aH like the fourth stanza, I should 
be eacessively pleased. Nature and 
sorrow and tenderness are the true 
genius of such things ; and something 
of these I find in several parts of it 
(not in the orange tree) : poetical or- 
naments are foreign to the purpose, 
for they only show a man is not sorry 
—and, devotion worse ; for it teaches 
hjm that. he ought not to he sorry, 
which * all the pleasure of the thiiijr." 
— Orford's Works, vol. V. p. 359. Dr, 
Johnson is undoubtedly ironical in say- 
ing that the author " solaced his grief" 
by writing the Monody. The poet's 
grief must have abated, and hi^mind 

24 iYtf ELTON. 

demning himself to perpetual solitude and sorrow; for 
soon after he sought to find the same happiness again in a 
second marriage with the daughter of sir Robert Rich 
(1749) ; but the experiment was unsuccessful, and he was 
for some years before his death separated from this lady. 
" She was," says Gilbert West in a letter to Dr. Doddridge, 
" an intimate and dear friend of his former wife, which » 
some kind of proof of her merit ; I mean of the goodness 
of her heart, for that is the chief merit which Mr. Lyttel- 
ton esteems; and I hope she will not in this disappoint, 
his expectations;, in all otter points she is well suited to 
him; being extremely well accomplished in languages, 
music, painting, &c. very sensible, and well bred." This 
lady died Sept. 17, 1795. 

When, after a long struggle, Walpole gave way,, and 
honour and profit were distributed among his conquerors, 
Lyttelton was made in (1744) one of the lords of the trea- 
sury ; an^ from that time was engaged hi supporting the 
schemes of ministry. Politics did not, however, so muph 
engage him as to withhold his thoughts from things of more 
importance. He had, in the pride of juvenile confidence, 
with the help of corrupt conversation, entertained doubts 
of the truth of Christianity ; but he thought the time now 
come when it was no longer* fit to doubt or believe by 
chance, aifd applied himself seriously to the great question. 
His studies being honest, ended in conviction. He found 
that Religion was true, and what he had learned he endea- 
voured to teach, by " Observations on the Conversion and 
Apostleship of St. Paul," printed in 1747 ; a treatise to 
which infidelity has never been able to fabricate a specious 
answer. This book his father h?d the happiness of seeing, 
and expressed his pleasure in a letter which deserves to be 
inserted, and must have given to such a son a pleasure 
more easily conceived than described : " I have read your 
religious treatise with infinite pleasure and satisfaction. 
The style is fine and clear, the arguments close, cogent, 
.and irresistible. May the King of kings, whose glorious 
cause you have so well defended, reward your pious la- 
bours, and grant that I may be found worthy, through the 

recovered its tone before be could led him to do this in poetry, and he 

write at all ; and when this became no more deserves the suspicion of Ijr- 

Mr. Lyttelton% case, he felt it his duty pocrisy, than if he had, as an artist, 

to pay an affectionate tribute to the painted an apotheosis, or executed a 

memory of his lady, who certainly was monument, 
one of % best of women. His talent* 


merits of Jesus Christ, to be an eye-witness of that happi- 
ness which I don't doubt He will bountifully bestow upon 
you! In the mean time, I shall never cease glorifying 
God, for havjng endowed you with such useful talents, and 
given me so good a son. Your affectionate father, Tho- 
mas Lyttelton." — When the university of Oxford con- 
ferred the degree of LL. D. on Mr. West for his excellent 
work on the " Resurrection," the same honour is said to 
have been offered to our author for the above piece, but he 
declined it in a handsome maimer, by saying that he chose 
not to be under any particular attachments, that, if he 
should happen to write any thing of the like kind for the 
future, it might not appear to proceed from any other mo- 
tive whatsoever, but a pure desire of doing good. 

A few years afterwards, in 1751, by the death of his 
father, be inherited the title of baronet, with a large es- 
tate, which, though perhaps he did not augment, he was 
careful to adorn, by a house of great elegance and ' ex- 
pence, and by much attention to the decoration of his 
park at Hagley. As he continued his exertions in parlia- 
ment, he was gradually advancing his claim to" profit and 
preferment; and accordingly was made in 1754 cofferer 
and privy-counsellor. This place he exchanged next year 
for that of chancellor of the exchequer, an office, however, 
that required some qualifications which he soon perceived 
himself to want. It is au anecdote no less remarkable than 
true, that he never could comprehend the commonest rules 
of arithmetic. The year after, his curiosity led him into 
Wales; of which he has given an account, perhaps rather 
with too much affectation of delight, to Archibald Bower, 
a man of whom he had conceived an opinion more favour- 
able than he seems to have deserved, \md whom, having 
once espoused his interest and fame, he never was per- 
suaded to disown. It must indeed have proceeded from a 
strong conviction of Bower's innocence, however acquired, 
that such a man as Lyttelton adhered to him to the very last. 
About 1755, he prevented Garrick from bringing Bower 
on the stage in the character of a mock convert, to be 
shewn in various attitudes, in which the profligacy of his 
conduct was to be exposed : and a Very few years before 
his own death, he declared to the. celebrated Dr. Lardner 
bis opinion of Bower in these words, " I have no more 
doubt of his having continued a firm protestant to the last 
hour of his life, than I have of my not being a papist my- 



About this time he published his " Dialogues of the 
Dead," which were very eagerly read, though the produce 
tion rather, as it seems, of leisure than of study, rather 
effusions than compositions. When, in the latter part of 
the last reign, the inauspicious commencement of the war 
made the dissolution of the ministry unavoidable, sir 
George Lyttelton, losing his employment with the rest, 
was raised to the peerage, Nov. 19, 1757, by the title of 
lord Lyttelton, baron of Frankley, in the county of Wor- 
cester. His last literary production was, " The History of 
Henry the Second," 1764, elaborated by the researches 
and deliberations of twenty years, and published with the 
greatest anxiety, which Dr. Johnson, surely very impro- 
perly, ascribes to vanity. The story of the publication, 
however, we allow to be remarkable. The whole work 
was printed twice over, greatest part of it three times, and 
many sheets four or five times *. The booksellers paid 
for the first impression f ; but the charges and repeated 
alterations of the press were at the expence of the author, 
whose ambitious accuracy is known to have cost him at 
least a thousand pounds. He began to print in 1755. Three 
volumes appeared in 1764; a second edition of them in 
1767 ; a third edition in 1768 ; and the conclusion in 1771. 
Andrew Reid, a man not without considerable abilities, and 
Hot unacquainted with letters or with life, undertook to 
persuade the noble author, as he had persuaded himself, 
that he was master of the secret of punctuation ; and, as 
fear begets credulity, he was employed, we know not at 
what price, to point the pages of " Henry the Second," as 
if # said Johnson once in conversation, " another man could 
point his sense better than himself.'* The book, however, 

* The copy was all transcribed by 
hit lordship's own hand, and that net 
a vary legible one, as he acknowledges 
in a letter to bis printer. See Nichols's 

f This fact is undoubtedly true. We 
snail not scruple, however, to add to it 
a trifling circumstance, which shews 
that the excellent peer (whose finances 
tfere not in the most flourishing situa- 
tion) could bear with great fortitude 
#hat by many would hare been deem- 
ed an insnlt. The booksellers, at a 
stated period, had paid the stationer 
for at much paper as they had agreed 
to- purchase. His lordship then be- 
came the paymaster ; in which state 

the work went on for some years, till 
the stationer, having been disappointed 
of an expected sum, refused to furnish 
any more paper. With great reluct- 
ance Mr. Bowyer was prevailed on to 
carry this report to his lordship ; and 
began the tale with much hesitation.—- 
" Oh ! I understand you," says his 
lordship very calmly, " the man is 
afraid to trust me ! I acknowledge I am 
poor, and so are two thirds of the 
House of Peers ; but let me request 
you to be my security." It is need- 
less to add, that Mr. Bowyer obliged 
his lordship, and had no reason to re- 
pent of the civility. 


was at last pointed and printed, and sent into the world. 
His lordship took money for his copy, of which, when he 
had paid the pointer, he probably gave the rest away ; for 
be was very liberal to the indigent* When time brought 
the history to a third edition, Reid was either dead or dis- 
carded ; and the superintendence of typography and punc- 
tuation was committed to a man originally a eomb-jnaker, 
but then known by the style of Dr. Saunders. Something 
uncommon was probably expected, and something uncom- 
mon was at last done ; for to the edition of Dr. Saunders is 
appended, what the world had hardly seen before, a list of 
errors of nineteen pages. 

Lord Lyttelton had never the appearance of a strong or 
a healthy man ; be had a slender uncompacted frame, and 
a meagre face * : he lived, however, above sixty years, 
and then was seized with bis last illness, ' Of his death this 
very affecting and instructive account has been given by 
his physician, Dr. Johnstone of Kidderminster/ " On Sun- 
day evening the symptoms of his lordship's disorder, which 
for a week past had alarmed us, put on a fatal appearance, 
and his lordship believed himself to be a dying man. From 
this time he suffered by restlessness rather than pain ; and 
though his nerves were apparently much fluttered, bis 
mental faculties never seemed stronger, when he was tho- 
roughly awake. His lordship's bilious and hepatic com- 
plaints seemed alone not equal to the expected mournful 
event ; bis long want of sleep, whether the consequence 
of the irritation in the bowels, or, which is more probable, 
of causes of a different kind, accounts for his loss of 
strength, and for his death, very sufficiently. Though his 
lordship wished his approaching dissolution not to be lin- 
gering, he waited for it with resignation. He said, * It is 
a folly, a keeping me in misery, now to attempt to prolong 
life ;' yet he was easily persuaded, for the satisfaction of 
others, to do or take any thing thought proper for him. 
On Saturday he had been remarkably better, and we were 
apt without some hopes of bis recovery. On Sunday, about 
eleven in the forenoon, his lordship sent for me, and said 
he felt a great hurry, and wished to have a little conversa- 
tion with me in order to divert it. He then proceeded to 
open the fountain of that heart, from whence goodness had 

* la a political Caricature print, le- " But who be dat to lank, 90 lean, to 
#Ned against lir Robert Walpole, he bony ) 

i* tfcus described : O dat be great orator, Lytteltony." 



so long flowed as from a copious spring* ' Doctor,' said 
he, € you shall be my confessor : When I first set out in 
the world, I had friends, tvho endeavoured to shake my 
belief in the Christian religion. I saw difficulties which 
staggered me; but I kept. my mind open to conviction. 
The evidences and doctrines of Christianity, studied with 
attention, made me a most firm and persuaded believer of 
the Christian religion. I have made it the rule of my life, 
and it is the ground of my future hopes. I have erred 
and sinned ; but have repented, and never indulged any 
vicious habit. In politics, and public life, I have made 
the 1 public good the rule of my conduct. I never gave 
counsels which I did not at the time think the best. I 
have seen that I was sometimes in the wrong, but I did 
not err designedly. I have endeavoured, in private life, 
%o do all the good in my power, and never for a moment 
could indulge malicious or unjust designs upon any person 
whatsoever. 9 At another time he said, '. I must leave my 
soul in the same state it was in before this illness ; I find 
this a very inconvenient time for solicitude about any 
thing. 9 . On the evening when the symptoms of death 
came on him, he said, 'I shall die ; but it will not be your 
fault' When lord and lady Valentia came to see bis lord- 
ship, he gfwe them this solemn benediction, and said, ' Be 
good, be virtuous, my lord. You must come to this. 9 Thus 
he continued giving his dying benediction to all around 
him. On Monday morning a lucid interval gave some 
'small hopes, but these vanished in the evening; and he 
continued dying, but with very little uneasiness, till Tues- 
day morning, August 22, when between seven and eight 
o'clock he expired, almost without a groan." His lord- 
ship was buried at Hagley ; with an inscription cut on the 
side of his lady's monument. 

He was succeeded by his son Thomas, second lord LyU 
telton, of whom the following too just character is on 
record : " With great abilities generally very ill applied ; 
with a strong sense of religion, which he never suffered to 
influence .his conduct, his days were mostly passed in 
splendid misery ; and in the painful change of the most 
extravagant gaiety, and the deepest despair. The delight, 
when lie pleased, of the first and most select societies, he 
chose to pass his time, for the most part, #rith the most 
profligate and abandoned of both sexes. Solitude was qi 
him the most insupportable torment ; and to banish reflec- 


tion, be flew to company whom he despised and ridiculed. 
His conduct was a subject of bitter regret both to fait father 
and all his friends*." He closed this unhappy life, Nov. 27, 
1779. Two volumes of "Letters" published in 1780 and 
1782, though attributed to him, are known to have been 
the production of an ingenious writer yet living; and a 
quarto volume of "Poems," published in 1780, was, as 
well as the " Letters," publicly disowned by his executors, 
but as to the "Poems," they added, * great part whe^of 
are undoubtedly spurious." 

We have more pleasure, however, in returning to the cha* 
racter of George lord Lvttelton, which has been uniformly 
delineated by those who • knew him best, in favourable 
colours. Of the various sketches which we have seen, we 
are inclined to give a place to the following, which, 
although somewhat Ipng, is less known than those to be 
found in the accounts of his biographers, and appears to 
have been written by a near observer : " Few characters, * 
says the writer, "recorded m the annals of this country,, 
ever united so many rare, valuable, and amiable qualities, 
as that of the late lord Lyttelton. Whether we consider 
this- great man in public or private life, we are* justified in 
affirming, that he abounded in virtues not barely sufficient 
to create reverence and esteem, but to insure him the love 
and admiration of all who knew him. — Look upon him as a 
statesman, and a public man ; where shall we find another, 
who always thought right and meant well, and who So sel- 
dom acted wrong, or was misled or mistaken in his mini- 
sterial, or senatorial conduct? Look upon his lordship in 
the humbler scene of private and domestic life; and if 
thou hadst the pleasure of knowing him, gentle reader, 
point out the breast warm or cold, Khat so copiously 
abounded with every gift and acquirement which indulgent 
nature could bestow, or the tutored mind improve arid re- 
fine, to win and captivate mankind. 

" His personal accomplishments, and the sweetness and 
pliability of his temper, which accompanied and swayed 
them, always recalled to my memory, that line of his own, 
only varying the sex ', bis ' Wit was Nature by the Grace* 
drest.' — His affability and condescension to those below 
him, was not the effect of art, or constrained politeness, 
dictated by the hackneyed sterile rules of decorum 'and 

* Pennington's Memoirs of Mrs. Carter. 



good breeding : no, the benevolence of his heart pervaded 
the whole man ; it illuminated his countenance, it softened 
his accents, it mixed itself with bis demeanour, and gave 
evidence at once of the goodness of his heart, and the 
soundness of his understanding. 

" To such as were honoured with his friendship and his 
intimacy, his kindness was beyond example ; he shared at 
once bis affections and his interests among his friends, and 
. tomrds the latter part of his life, when his ability to serve 
them ceased, he felt only for those who depended on biof 
for their future advancement in life. The unbounded au- 
thority be possessed over them was established in parental 
dominion, not in the cold, haughty, supercilious supe- 
riority of a mere patron. — Among this latter description, 
the author of the present rude outline is proud of ranking 
himself, and is happy in recollecting, that he obeyed, or 
ratber anticipated, the wishes of bis noble friend, as far as 
lay in bis power, with more ehearfulness and alacrity than 
he would in executing even the confidential mandates of 
the greatest monarch or minister in Christendom. 

" His lordship's acquaintance with men and books was 
accurate and extensive. His studies in the early part of 
hisJife must have been well directed, and his taste remark- 
ably judicious, for no person ever lived who was less tinc- 
tured with the vulgar moroseness, and self- conceited air of 
a pedant, nor with the affectation and frivolity of that rank 
in life, which his birth, fortune, and situation, rendered 
customary and familiar to him. 

" He was perfectly and intimately acquainted with the 
works of the most celebrated writers of antiquity in verse 
and prose. His. memory was stocked with the most strik- 
ing passages contained in them; but he never indulged 
nor gave way to the strong impressions they had stamped 
on his mind, but to gratify his confidential friend* When* 
ever he consented to their entreaties, his allusion* were 
judiciously selected, and applied with thenvost consummate 
propriety. His language was manly, nervous, and tech* 
nicak It was suited to the personal rank, knowledge, and' 
disposition, of those be conversed with ; by which means 
be rendered himself agreeable and intelligible to every 

mtsoq, whom chance, amusement, or business, threw in 
us way. 

" His discernment of spirits, the term which the late 
lord Bolingbroke substitutes for th e familiar ' phrase of 


knowing mankind, was no less conspicuous, when he 
thought proper to exert it with steadiness and vigour ; but 
unfortunately for his own domestic peace, it was extremely 
difficult to rouse him. He trusted too much to the repre- 
sentations of others, and was always ready to leave the 
labour of discriminating characters, to those who too often 
found an interest in deceiving him. Though his steadiness 
of principle, penetration, and justness of reflection, might 
be well ranked in the first class, those talents were in a 
great measure effectually lost, because his employments 
and pursuits as a public man, his amusements as a man of 
taste and science, and, in the latter part of his life, bis 
avocations as a writer, so totally engrossed his attention, 
that he entirely neglected his private affairs, and in a va- 
riety of instances fell a prey to private rapine and literary 
imposition. This was the joint effect of native indolence, 
and a certain incurable absence of mind. To show that 
his want of discrimination was not native, but that the 
power of knowing those he communicated with* was ren- 
dered to some purpose useless, because it was not em- 
ployed, a stronger proof need not be given, than his' 
thorough knowledge of the court, as exhibited in parties, 
and the several individuals who composed them. He could 
tell the political value of almost every veteran courtier, of 
candidate for power. He could develope their latent view% 
he cotold foretell their change of conduct He foresaw the 
effect of such and such combinations, the motives which 
formed them, the principles which held them together, 
and the probable date of their dissolution. Whenever tab 
was imposed on, it was through the want of attentive, not 
of parts ; or from a kind of settled opinion, that men of 
common plain understandings, and good reputation, would 
hardly risque solid advantages in pursuit of unlawful gain, 
which last might eventually be accompanied with loss of 
character, as well as the object proposed to he attained* 
Whatever plausibility tber/s may appear in this mode of 
reasoning, experience frequently informed his lordship, 
tfrat it was not to be depended on. He was plundered by 
his servants, deceived by bis, humble companions, misled 
by his confidents, and imposed on by several of those 
whom he patronized. He felt the effects of all this, in his 
family, in his finances, ^nd even in the rank he should 
have preserved. Those who were not acquainted with the 
solidity, of his judgment, the acuteness of his wit, the 


brilliancy and justness of bis thoughts, the depth of his 
penetration, and with the amazing extent of bis genius, 
were apt to confound the consequences of his conduct, 
with the powers and resources of his mind. If his lordship 
remained out of place, on principle, the ignorant inclined 
to ascribe this seeming court proscription to simplicity or 
want of talents. If he did not support his rank with that 
ostentatious splendour now become so fashionable, the 
world was ready to impute it to a want of (economy, or a 
want of spirit ; but in all those conjectures and conclu- 
sions, the world were much mistaken and misled. He had 
frequent offers, some of them the most flattering, to take 
a part in administration ; but he uniformly rejected them. 
His manner of living at his seat at Hagley was founded on 
the truest principles of hospitality, politeness, and society ; 
and as to money, he knew no other use of it but to answer 
his own immediate calls, or to enable him to promote the 
happiness of others *." # 

Much of this character corresponds with the accounts 
which might be extracted from the correspondence of his 
friends, who were so numerous as perhaps to include all 
the eminent literary persons of his time. With such he 
delighted to associate, was often a useful patron of rising 
genius, and to the last was ambitious of a personal ac- 
quaintance with men whose works he admired. We have 
a remarkable instance of this in his visiting (in 1767) old 
Dr. Lardner, and introducing himself as one who had read 
his volumes with pleasure and profit. Lardner was at this 
time so deaf that his visitors were obliged to carry on con- 
versation with him by writing, to which tiresome condition 
lord Lyttelton gladly submitted. 

Lord Lyttelton's literary character has been so long 
established that it is unnecessary to add much on the sub- 
ject. His Miscellaneous Works have been often reprinted, 
and, although in some of them rigid criticism may find ob- 
jections, cannot be read without pleasure and advantage. 
His " History of Henry II.' 9 is also now a standard work, 
valuable both for matter and style. , His " Persian Let- 
ters, 11 written when a very young man, are included among 
his miscellaneous works, but Dr. Warton informs us that 
he had intended to discard them, as there were principles 
and remarks in them that he wished to retract and alter. 

* St. James's Chronicle, Sept. 1776. 

LYTTELT O'tf. 33 

The reader finds them, however, as originally published, 
and they contain many shrewd remarks and just ridicule on 
the manners of the times. His juvenile pieces were not 
always his worst. Dr. Warton remarks that his Observa- 
tions on the life of Cicero contain perhaps a more dispas- 
sionate and impartial character of that great orator than is 
exhibited in the panegyrical volumes of Middleton, It 
may here be noticed that some of his letters to Warton 
occur in WoolPs Life, by which we learn that lord Lyttel- 
ton made him his chaplain in 1756. As a poet, we do not 
find among critics any wide departure from Dr. Johnson's 
opinion. Lord Lyttelton's poems are to be praised chiefly 
for correctness and elegance of versification and style. 
His " Advice to Belinda/' though for the most part writ- 
ten when he was very young, contains, Dr. Johnson says, 
" much truth and much prudence, very elegantly and vi- 
gorously expressed, and shows a mind attentive to life, and 
a power of poetry which cultivation might have raised to 
excellence." As far, however, as this implies that lord 
Lyttelton did not cultivate his powers, we are inclined to 
think our great critic in error. Lord Lyttelton was very 
early a poet, and appears to have not only valued his talent, 
bat acquired his first reputation from the exercise of it. 
He was very early a critic too, as appears by his account 
of Glover's " Leonidas," printed in 1737, and few men * 
were oftener consulted by young poets in the subsequent 
part of his life. Mickle may be instanced as one whose 
first pieces were carefully perused and corrected by him, 
and although Mickle was disappointed in the hopes he en- 
tertained from him as a patron, he often owned his obligations 
to him as a critic; Lord Lyttelton's was the patronage of 
kindness rather than of bounty. He courted the acquaint- 
ance and loved the company of men of genius and learning, 
with whom his correspondence also was extensive, but he 
had little of his own to give away, and was so long of the 
party in opposition to ministers, as to have very little state 

His collected works, first printed in 4to, in 1774, and 
since in 8vo, consist of, 1. "Observations on the Life of 
Cicero." 2. " Observations on the Roman History." 3. 
" Observations on the present state of our affairs at home, 
and abroad," &c. 4. " Letters from a Persian in England 
to his friend at Ispahan." 5. " Observations on the con- 
version and apostleship of St. Paul." 6. " Dialogues of 

Vol. XXI. D 

S* t. Y T. T E. U T O Nl 

the XHNkL" 7. " Four Speeches in parliament." fr. 

V Poems." 9, " Letters to Sir Thomas Lyttelton." lO. 

V Account of * Journey into Wales." Some other lesser 
pieces, which appeared in the periodical journals, have been 
attributed to him, and some anonymous political pamphlets* 
Lord Qrford mentions him as a writer in the. paper called 
" Copimon Sense," hut has riot discovered his share. In 
th*t, however, he certainly wrote the criticism on " Leo* 
oidas," which occurs in p. 72, of the first volume. In 
yol, II. p. 31, is a paper from the pen of lord Chesterfield, 
dated March 4, 173 8, in defence of lord (then Mr.) Lyt- 
telton against the attacks of the writers in the Daily Ga- 
zetteer. From bis connection with the party in opposition 
to sir Robert Waipole, it seems not unreasonable to con* 
jecture that he wrote in the ".Craftsman ;" but for this we 
have no positive authority. 1 

LYTTELTON (Charles), third son of sir Thomas, and 
brother to George lord Lyttelton, was born at Hagley, in 
1714. He was educated at Eton-school, and went thence 
first to University-college, Oxford, and then to the Inner- 
Temple* where he became a barrister at law ; but entering 
into orders, was collated by bishop Hough to the rectory 
of Alvechuroh, in Worcestershire, Aug. IS, 1742. He 
took the degree of LL. B. March 28, 1745 ; LL. D. June 
18 the same year ; was appointed king's chaplain in Dee. 
1747, dean of Exeter in May 1748, and was consecrated 
bishop of Carlisle, March 21, 1762. In 1754 he caused 
the cieling and cornices of the chancel of Hagley church 
to be ornamented with shields of arms in their proper co- 
lours, representing the paternal coats of his ancient and 
fespectable family. In 1765, on the death of Hugh lord 
Willoughby of Parham, he was unanimously elected pre- 
sident of the society of antiquaries ; a station in which hia 
distinguished abilities were eminently displayed. He died 
unmarried, Dec*. 22, 1768. His merits and good qualities 
are universally acknowledged ; and those parts of his cha- 
racter which more particularly endeared him to the learned 

1 Life by Johnson.—- Lord Orford's Works, vol. T. p. 539, and vol. V. p. 38S. 
— Nichols's Bowyer. — Swift's Works. — BosweiPs Life of Johnson — Doddridge's 
Letters* p. 1 19f 344, 443, 470,— .Gent. Mag. vol. XLV. p. 371, and LX. p. 594. 
—Forbes^ Life of Beattie.-*-Wooll's Life of Warton, p. 242. 321.— Da vies* s 
Xifeof Garrick, vol. I. p. 272.— Bowles's edition of Pope's Works.— Leland's 
tteistieal Writers, and an interesting chapter in Graves's " Recollection- of 
some particulars in the Life of Sbeasfone,?' 1788, 8vo. — Sir E. Brydges's edit* 
*t Coliins'a Peerage. 

L Y TT E L T O M. 35 

Society over which he so wbrtfcily presided, shall be 
pointed out in the words of his learned successor dean 
Miiles : " The study of antiquity, especially that part of 
it which relates to the history and constitution of these 
kingdoms, was one of his earliest and most favourable pur- 
suits ; and he acquired great knowledge in it by constant 
study and application, to which he was led, not only by his 
natural disposition, but also by his state and situation in 
life. He took frequent opportunities of improving and en- 
riching this knowledge by judicious observations iu the 
course of several journies which he made through every 
country of England, and through many parts of Scotland 
and Wales. The society has reaped the fruits of these 
observations in the most valuable papers, which* his lord- 
ship from' time to time has communicated to us ; which 
are more in number, and not inferior either in merit or im- 
portance, to those conveyed to us by other hands. Blest 
with a retentive memory, and happy both in the disposi- 
tion and facility of communicating his knowledge, he was 
enabled also to act the part of a judicious commentator 
and candid critic, explaining, illustrating, and correcting 
from his own observations many of the papers which have 
been ^read at this society. His station and connection* in 
the world, which necessarily engaged a very considerable 
part of his time, did not lessen his attention to the business 
and interests of the society. His doors were always open 
to his friends, amongst whom none were more welcome 
tohiin than the friends of literature, which he endeavoured 
to promote in all its various branches, especially in those 
which are the more immediate objects of our attention. 
Even this circumstance proved beneficial to' the society, 
for, if I may be allowed the expression, lie was the centre 
in which the various informations on points of antiquity 
from the different parts of the kingdom united, and the 
medium through which they were conveyed to us. His 
literary merit with the society received an additional lustre 
from the affability of his temper, the gentleness of his 
manners, and the benevolence of his heart, which united 
every member of the society in esteem $o their head, and 
in harmony and friendship with each other. A principle - 
so essentially necessary to the prosperity and even to the 
existence of all communities, especially those which have 
arts and literature for their object, that its beneficial ef- 
fects are visibly to be discerned in the present flourishing 

D 2 

36 L Y T T E L T O N, 

state of our society, which I flatter myself will be long 
continued under the influence of the same agreeable prin- 
ciples. I shall conclude this imperfect sketch of a most 
worthy character, by observing that the warmth of his af- 
fection to the society continued to his latest breath; and 
he has given a signal proof of it in the last great act which 
a wise man does with respect to his worldly affairs ; for, 
amongst the many charitable and generous donations con- 
tained in his will, he has made a very useful and valuable 
bequest of manuscripts and printed books to the society, 
as a token of his affection for them, and of his earnest de-? 
sire to promote those laudable purposes for which they were 
instituted." The society expressed their gratitude apd re-r 
spect to his memory by a portrait of him engraved at their 
expence in 1770. 

Besides his contributions to th* papers of the society of 
antiquaries, published in the " Archseologia," there is in 
Gutch's " Collectanea Curiosa," vol. II. p. 354, " Dean 
Lyttelton's Memoir concerning the authenticity of his copy 
of Magna Charta," from the minutes of the antiquarian 
society, and an answer by judge Blackstone. 1 

I Nichols's Bowyer. 


JtVlABILLON (John), a very learned French writer, 
was born Nov. 23, 1632, at Pierre-mont, on the frontiers 
of Champagne. He was educated in the university of 
Rheims, and afterwards entered into the abbey of the 
Benedictines of St. Remy ; where he took the habit ir\ 
1653, and made Che profession the year following. He 
was looked upon at first as a person that would do. honour 
to his order ; but a perpetual head-ach, with which he was 
afflicted, almost destroyed all the expectations which were 
conceived of him. He was ordained priest at Amiens in 

M A B I L L O N. it 

1660; and afterwards, lest too much solitude should 
injure his health, which was not yet re-established, was 
sent by his superiors to St. Denis, where he was appointed, 
during the whole year 1663, to shew the treasure arid 'mo- 
numents of , the kings of France. But having there un- 
fortunately broken a looking-glass, which was pretended 
to have belonged to Virgil, he obtained leave to quit an 
employment, which, as he said, frequently obliged him to 
relate things he did not believe. As the indisposition of 
his head gradually abated, he began to shew himself more 
and* more to the world. Father d'Acheri, who was then 
compiling his " Spicilegium," desiring to have some young 
monk, who could assist him in that work, Mabillon was 
chosen for the purpose, and accordingly went to Paris in 
1664, where he was very serviceable to d'Acheri. This 
began to place his talents in a conspicuous light, and to 
shew what might be expected from him. A fresh occasion 
soon offered itself to him. The congregation of St. Maur had* 
formed a design of publishing new editions of the fathers, 
revised from the manuscripts, with which the libraries of 
the order of the Benedictines, as one of the most ancient, 
are furnished. Mabillon was ordered to undertake the 
edition of St. Bernard, which he had prepared with great 
judgment and learning, and published at Paris, in 1667, 
in two volumes folio, and nine octavo. In 1690 he pub- 
lished a second edition, augmented with almost fifty letters, 
new preliminary dissertations-, and new notes; and just 
before his death was preparing to publish a third. He 
had no sooner published the first edition of St. Bernard, 
than the congregation appointed him to undertake an 
edition of the " Acts of the Saints of the order of Benedic- 
tines;" the first volume of which he published in 1668, 
and continued it to nine volumes in folio, the last of which ; 
was published in 1701. The writers of the "Journal de 
Trevoux" speak not improperly of this work when they 
say that " it ought to be considered, not as a simple col- 
lection of memoirs relating to monastic history, but as a 
valuable compilation of ancient monuments ; which, being 
illustrated by learned notes, give a great light to "the most 
obscure part 6f ecclesiastical history. " The prefaces alone,'* 
say they, " would secure to the author an immortal reputa- 
tion. The manners and usages of those dark ages are 
examined with great care; and an* hundred important 
questions are ably discussed." Le Clerc, in the placfe 

. / 


referred to above, from which we have chiefly drawn out 
account of Mabillon, has given us one example of a que** 
tion occasionally discussed by him in the course of hi* 
work, concerning the use of unleavened bread, in the ce* 
lebration of the sacrament. Mabillon shews, in the pre- 
face to the third age of his " Acta Sanctorum," that the 
use of it is more ancient than is generally believed ; and* 
in 1674, maintained it in a particular dissertation, ad* 
dressed to cardinal Bona, who was before of a contrary 
opinion. But the work which is supposed to have done 
him the most honour i» his " De re diplomatic* libri sex, 
in quibus quicquid ad veterum instrumentorum antiquita- 
tern, materiam, scripturam et stilum ; quicquid ad sigilla* 
monogrammata, subscriptiones, ac notas cnronologicas ; 
quicquid inde ad antiquariam, historicam, forensemque 
disciplinam pertinet, expljcatur, et illustratur. Accedunt 
commentarius de antiquis regum Francorum palatiis, ve«* 
terum scripturarum varia specimina tabulis LX. compre*> 
hensa, nova ducentorum et amplius monumentorum coi lec- 
tio," Paris, 1681, folio. The examination of almost an 
infinite number of charters and ancient titles, which had 
passed through his hands, led him to form the design of 
reducing to certain rules and principles an art, of which, 
before there had been only very confused ideas. It was a, 
bold attempt; but he executed it with such success, that 
he was thought to have carried it at once to perfection. 

In 1682 he took a journey into Burgundy, in which M. 
Colbert employed him to examine some ancient titles re- 
lating to the, royal family. That minister received all the 
satisfaction he could desire ; and, being fully convinced 
of Mabillon's experience and abilities in these points, sent 
him the year following into Germany, in order to search 
there, among the archives and libraries of the ancient 
abbeys for materials to illustrate the history of the church 
in general, and that of France in particular. He spent five 
months in this journey, and published an account of it. 
He took another journey into Italy in 1685, by order of 
the king of France ; and returned the yesrr following with 
a very noble collection of above three thousand volumes of 
rare books, both printed and manuscript, which he added 
to the king's library ; and, in 1687, composed two volumes, 
of the pieces he had discovered in that country, under the 
title of "Museum Italicum." After this he employed 
himself in publishing other works, which are strong evi~ 

fif ▲ B I L L & 3* 

dence* of his vast abilities and application* In 16»S be< 
published a Latin letter concerning the worship of theim* 
knQwn<$aints, which be called " Eusebii Theo-. 
philum, Galium epistola." The history of Ibis piece does 
credit to his love of truth, and freedoofc from traditional 
prejudices. While at Rome be had endeavoured to iO" 
form himself particularly of those rules and precautions, 
which were*>necessary to be observed witb regard to the 
bodies of saints taken out of the catacombs, in order . to be 
exposed to the veneration of the public. He had himself 
visited those plaies, and consulted all persons who could 
give him light upon the subject; but five or six years 
elapsed after bis return to France, without his* having ever 
thought of making use of these observation*. . In 1692, 
however, be drew up the treatise above-mentioned J in 
which be gave it as bis opinion, that the bodies found ii* 
the catacombs were Aoo hastily, and without sufficient 
foundation, concluded to be the bodies of martyrs. Still,; 
aware this was a subject pf a very delicate nature, and that 
such an opinion might possibly give offence, be kept it by 
bim five years, without communicating it to above one 
person ; and tb$n sent it, under the seaL of secresy, to 
rardinal Collorrde at Rome, whose opinion was, that it 
should not be published in the form it was then in. JNever* 
theiess, in 1698 it waa published ; aad, as might easily be 
foreseen, very ill received at Rome ; and after many com* 
plaints, murmurs, and criticisms, it was to 1701 brought 
before (be Congregation of the Index, and MabiUon fo iud 
it necessary to employ all his interest to prevent the ( cen- 
sure of that body. Nor, perhaps, could he have averted 
this misfortune if be bad not agreed to publish a new 
edition of it ; in which, by softening seine passages, and 
throwing upon inferior officers whatever abuses might be 
committed with regard to the bodies taken out of the ca^ 
tacombs, be easily satisfied his judges; who, to do them 
justice, bad a great esteepa for his learning and virtues, 
and were not very desirous of condemning bim. 

• This eminent man died of a suppression of urine, at the 
abbey of St. Germain- des^Pres* in Dec. 1707. His great 
merit bad procured bim, in 1701, the plaae of honorary 
member of the academy of inscriptions. : Du Pin tells us. 
thac " it would be difficult to give Mabillpn the praises he 
deserves : the voice of the ptiMic, and the general esteem 
of all the learned, are a much better commendation of him 


r _ 


than any thing we* can say. His profound learning ap- 
pears from his works : his modesty, humility, meekness, 
and piety, are no less known to those who have had the 
least conversation with him. His style is masculine, pure, 
clear, and methodical, without affectation or superfluous 
ornaments, and suitable to the subjects of which he has 
treated*" Few men were more honoured by the notice of 
the great than Mabillon, aad to this he was entitled both 
by his virtues and his extensive learning. Pope Cle-, 
. merit XI. paid him the compliment to write to father 
Ruinart, expressing his hopes that the remains of such a 
man had been interred with the honours due to him. 
^ Every man of learning who goes to Paris," said cardinal 
Colloredo, *' will ask where»you have placed him V % l 

MABLY (Gabriel Bonnot, Abbe' de), a celebrated 
French. political and miscellaneous writer, and brother to 
the abbe Condillac, was born at Grenoble in March 1709, 
and was educated in the Jesuits' college at Lyons. In his 
youth he attached himself to his relation the cardinal de 
Tencin, but never took any higher order in the church 
than that of sub-deacon. On his coming into life, as it is 
called, he had the -honour to be admitted, both as a rela- 
tion and a man of letters, into the parties of madame d% 
Tencin, so well "known for her intrigues and her sprightly 
talents, who at that time gave dinners not only to wits, but 
to politicians. Here madame de Tencin was so much 
pleased with the figure Mably made in conversation with 
Montesquieu and other philosophical politicians at her 
table, that she thought he might prove useful to her bro- 
ther, then entering on his • ministerial career. The first 
service he rendered to the cardinal was- to draw out an 
abridgment of all the treaties from the peace of West- 
phalia to that time (about 1740) : the second service he ren- 
dered his patron, was of a more singular kind. The cardi- 
nal soon becoming sensible that he had not the talent of 
conveying his ideas in council, Mably suggested to him. 
the lucky expedient of an application to the king, that he 
might be permitted to express his thoughts in writing, and 
there can be little doubt that in this also he profited by the 
assistance of his relative, who soon began himself to med- 
dle in matters of state. In 1743 he was entrusted to nego- 

* Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vol. VII. and X.— Life by Ruinart, 1708.— Le Cl*rt> 
Bibl. Choisie. — Saxii Onomast. 

M A B L Y. 4t 

ciate privately at Paris with the Prussian ambassador, and 
drew up a treaty, which Voltaire was appointed to carry to 
Berlin. Frederick, to whom this was no secret, conceived 
from this time a very high opinion of the abb6, and, as 
Mably's biographer remarks, it was somewhat singular that 
two men of letters, who had no political character, should 
be employed on a negociation which made such an impor- 
tant change in the state of affairs in Europe. The abb£ 
also drew up the papers which were to serve as the basis of 
the negociation carried on in tbe congress at Breda in the 
month of April 1746. 

His success in these affairs bad nearly fisted him in poli- 
tical life, when a dispute with the cardinal changed his 
destination, and tbe circumstance does credit to his libe- 
rality. The cardinal was not only minister of state, but 
archbishop of Lyons, when the question was agitated re- 
specting the marriages of protestants. The abb6 wished 
him to view this question with the eyes of a statesman 
only, but the cardinal would consider it only as a prince of 
the Romish church, and as he persisted in this opinion, 
the abb6 saw him no more. From this time he. gave him- 
self up to study, without making any advances to fortune, 
or to literary men. He always said he was more anxious 
to merit general esteem than to obtain it. He lived a long 
time on a small income of a thousand crowns, and an an- 
nuity ; which last, on the death of his brother, he gave up 
to" his relations. The court, however, struck with this dis- 
interested act, gave him a pension of 2800 livres, without 
tBe solicitation or knowledge of any of his friends. Mably 
not only inveighed against luxury and riches, but showed 
by his example that he was sincere ; and to these moderate 
desires, he joined an ardent love of independence, which 
he took every opportunity to evince. One day when a 
friend brought him an invitation to dine with a minister of 
state, he could not prevail on him to accept it, but at 
length the abbe said he would visit the gentleman with 
pleasure as soon as he heard that he was " out of office." 
He had an equal repugnance to become a member of any 
of the learned societies. The marshal Richelieu pressed 
him much to become a candidate for the academy, and 
with such arguments that he could not refuse to accept the 
offer; but he had no sooner quitted the marshal than he 
rah to his brother the abbe* Condillac, arfd begged he would 
get himreleased, cost what it w^uld. " Why all this ob- 

43 MABL Y- 

stinacy ? ,f said bia brother.-—" Wby !" rejoined the afeW, 
Mabiy, " because, if I accept it 1 shall be obliged t? praise 
the cardinal de Richelieu, which is contrary to nay princi- 
ples, or, if I do not praise him, as I owe every thing to, 
bis nephew, I shall be accused of ingratitude." la the 
qame spirit, he acquired a bluntoess. of manner that was not 
very agreeable in the higher circles, where he never failed 
to take the part of men of genius who were poor, against 
the ins pita of the rich and proud. His works, by which 
the booksellers acquired large sum? of money, contributed 
very little to his own finances, for he demanded no return, 
but a few copies to give ag presents to bis, friends. He ap- 
peared always dissatisfied with the state- of public affairs*- 
aud had the credit of predicting the French revolution.. 
Political sagacity, indeed, was that on which be chiefly 
rested his fame, and having formed his theory from certain 
systems which be thought might be traced to the Greek* 
and Romans, and even the ancient Gauls, he went as far 
as most of his contemporaries in undervaluing the preroga- 
tives of the crowi), and introducing a representative go- 
vernment. In his latter works bis own mind appears to* 
have undergone a revolution, and be proved that if he wa» 
before sincere in bis notions of freedom, he was aow< 
equally illiberal. After enjoying considerable reputation,. 
and being considered as one of the most popular French 
writers on the subjects of politics, morals, and history, he 
died at Paris, April 23, 1785. The abb6 Barruel ranks? 
him among the class of philosophers, who wished to be 
styled the Moderates, but whom Rousseau calls the Iruon- 
sistents. He adds, that " without being impious like a 
Voltaire or a Condorcet, even though averse to their im- 
piety, his own tenets were extremely equivocal. At times 
his morality was so very disgusting, that it was necessary, 
to suppose his language was ambiguous, and that he bad 
been misunderstood, lest one should be obliged to throw 
off all esteem for his character." Such at least was the 
defence which Barruel heard him make, to justify himself 
from the censures of the Sor bonne. 

His works are, 1. " Parallele des Romains et des Fran- 
jais," Paris, 1740, 2 vols. 12 mo. 2. " Le Droit public de 
l'Euro'pe," 1747, 3 vols. 12mo. 3. "Observations su» 
les Romains/ 9 2 vols. 12mo. 4. " Observations sur lee 
Qrecs," 1751, 12mo, reprinted in 1766, with the title of 
" Observations sur I'histoire de la Grece," £. " Des prtA- 

M A B L Y. 4* 

cipesdes negociatioos," 1757, 19mo. €. " Entretiens de 
Phocion sur le rapport da la morale avec la politique," 
Arose. (Paris), 1763, 12mo, reprinted in 1783, S vols* 12mo, 
and by Didot in 1795, 4to. Of this an English translation 
was published by Mr. Macbean in 1770. It was once a 
very popular work in America, where bis name was held 
in the highest honour 1 , until be published his work on the 
constitution of the United States after tbe peace of 1783, 
when tbe Americans hung him in effigy as an enemy to 
toleration and liberty. ' 7. " Observations sur I'bistoiie de 
France," 1765, 2 vols* 12 mo. 8. " Entretiens sur PHis* 
toire," 12 mo. This is the work by which be has been 
most known in England, but in it, as well as bis other 
works, be gives too great preference to the ancients over 
tbe moderns. 9. " De la maniere dPecrire L'bistoire," 
Kehl, 1784, 2 vols. 13mo. Tbe whole of his works were 
collected, with an eloge by the abb6 Brizard, in 15 vob. 
8vo, 1794. In tbis are many pieces not enumerated above, 
particularly his work on " Morals/ 9 and bis " Observations 
on the Government and Laws of America," which last, as 
we have noticed, destroyed his popularity in America. In 
both are symptoms of decayed intellect, and that confu- 
sion, of thought which is peculiar to men who have been 
theorizing all their lives. 1 

MABUSE, or MABEUGE (JoHK de), a Hungarian 
artist, was born at Maubeuge, a village in Hainault, in 
1499, though in the Chronological Tables his birth is sop* 
posed to have been in 1492. It is not known from whom 
he derived bis knowledge of the art of painting ; but, isj 
his youth, be was laborious in his practice, and his princi- 
pal studies were after nature, by which he acquired a great 
deal of truth in his compositions. To improve himself in 
bis profession, he travelled to Italy, and became an artist 
of great repute. He bad a good pencil, and finished his 
pictures highly, with great care ; yet, notwithstanding his 
studies in Italy, and the correctness of his design, he never 
could arrive at tbe elegance of tbe Roman school;. Hia 
manner was dry, stiff, and laboured ; but he was exceed* 
ingly industrious to give a polished smoothness to his co- 
louring. By king Henry VIII. of England he was em- 
ployed to paint the portraits of .some of his children, which 
gained him great reputation, as he finished them deli- 

* Diet. Bat.-r-BarrqtPi Mem. of Jacobinism, vpl. II. p. 93& 


cately, and gave them spirit and liveliness ; and he painted 
several others for the nohjlity who attended the court at 
London. His paintings are consequently not unfrequent 
in this country; 

Many excellent works of Mabuse are at Middleburg; 
one of the most capital is the altar-piece of the great 
church, representing the descent from the cross. That 
picture had been so highly commended, that it raised the 
curiosity of Albert Durer ; and he took a journey to Mid- 
dleburg, merely to be an eye-witness of the merit of that 
performance. He viewed it with singular attention, and 
expressed the pleasure it afforded him, by the praise he 
bestowed upon it. But the picture which is accounted to 
exrcel all his other productions, is the Virgin with the in- 
fant Jesus, which he finished while he was retained in the 
service of the marquis of Veren ; and in that subject he 
contrived to pay an extraordinary compliment to his patron, 
by making the heads of his lady and son the models for the 
heads of his figures. 

He is censured by all writers for his immoderate love of 
drinking ; and it is confidently said, that having received, 
by order of the marquis, a piece of brocade for a dress, to 
appear in before the emperor Charles V. he sold it at a 
tavern, and painted a paper suit so exceedingly like it, 
that the emperor could not be convinced of the deception 
till he felt the paper, and examined every part with bis 
own hands. He died in 1562, 1 

MACARIUS (St.), the elder, a celebrated hermit of the 
•fourth century, saJ4 to be a disciple of St. Antony, was 
born at Alexandria, in the year 301, of poor parents. Hie 
was bred a bakjsr,. which trade he pursued to the age of 
thirty ; then, being baptized, he retired and took up a so- 
litary life. He passed sixty years in a monastery in mount 
Sceta, dividing his time between prayer and manual la- 
bour. He died about the year 391. Fifty homilies in 
Greek have been attributed to him, which were printed at 
Paris in 1526, with Gregory Thaumaturgus, in* folio; and 
in 2 vols. 8vo, at Leipsic, in 1698.* 

MACARIUS (St.), the younger, another famous monk, 
a friend of the former, and a native also of Alexandria, 
had near 5000 monks under his direction. • He was per- 

1 Pilkington.—Wal pole's Anecdotes. 

3 Cave, vol. I«— Mosheiuu — Saxii Onomast. * 


*ecuted by the Arians, and banished into an island where 
there was not a single Christian, but where, he converted 
,almost all the inhabitants by his preaching, and as some 
* a y> hy his miracles. He died in the year 394 or 395. 
"-The Rules of Monks/ 9 in 30 chapters, are attributed 
to him, and a discourse by him on the " Death of the 
Just," was published by Tollius, in his " Insignia Itine- 
rarii Italici." 1 

MACAULAY (Catherine) or Graham, the name of 
her second husband, was born in 1733, at OUantigh, in 
Kent, the seat of her father, John Sawbridge, esq. She 
appears to have had none of the regular education given 
to youpg ladies of her rank, but had an early taste for pro- 
miscuous reading, which at length terminated in a fond- 
ness for history. That of the Romans is supposed to have 
inspired her with the republican notions which she pro* 
fessed throughout life, and in which she was probably en* 
couraged by her brother the late alderman Sawbridge, 
whose politics were of the same cast. In 1760 she married 
Dr. George Macaulay, a, physician of London. Soon after 
this, she commenced her career in literature, and in 1763 
published the first volume, in 4to, of her " History of 
England, from the accession of James L to that of the 
Brunswick Line." This work was completed in 8 vols, 
in 1783 ; it was read with some avidity at the period of its 
publication, as the production of a female pen, but has 
since fallen into so much disrepute,- as scarcely ever to be 
inquired after. It was written in the true spirit of ranco- 
rous republicanism, and was greatly deficient in that im- 
partiality which ought to be the characteristic of true his- 
tory. While in the height of her fame, Mrs. Macaulay 
excited the admiration of Dr. Wilson, rector of St. Ste- 
phen's, Walbrook, who in his dotage placed her statue, 
while living, in the chancel of his church. This disgrace- 
ful appendage, however, his successor thought himself 
justified in removing. Having been left a widow, Mrs. 
Macaulay in 177$ married Mr. Graham, a step which, from 
the disparity of years, exposed 'her to much ridicule. In 
the year 1785 she went to America, for the purpose of 
visiting the illustrious Washington, with whom she had be- 
fore maintained a correspondence. She died at Binfield,' 
in Berkshire, June 22, 1791. Her works, besides the his- 

* * * • * 

1 Cave, vol. L— Saxii Ooomast. 

■*« M A C A U L A Y, 

tory already referred to, which may be regarded as the 
yvincipal) are, M Remarks on Hobbes's Rudimerrt« of Go* 
*ernment and Society j" " Loose Remarks on some <>f M*. 
Hobbes'a Positions ;** the latter being an enlarged edition 
of the former : tbe object of these is to shew the supe- 
riority of a republican to a monarchical form of govern- 
jnent In 1770, Mrs. Macanlay wrote a reply to Mr. 
Burke's celebrated pamphlet entitled " Thoughts on the 
Cteses of the Present Discontents ;" and in 1775 she pub- 
lished " An Address to the People of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, on the present important Crisis of Affairs,** 
She wrote also " A Treatise on the Immutability of Moral 
Truth;'* which she afterwards re-published, with much 
other original matter, under the title of " Letters on Edu- 
cation," 1790. Her last publicatiou was " Observations 
on tbe Reflections of the Right Hon. Edmund Burke, on 
the Revolution in France, in a letter to the Right Hon. the 
Earl of Stanhope," 1790, 8vo. Many curious particular* 
of this lady may be found in our authorities. 1 

MAC BRIDE (David), a distinguished physician, was 
born at Ballymony, co. Antrim, on tbe 26th of April, 
1726. He was descended from an ancient family of his 
name in the shire of Galloway, in Scotland ; but his grand- 
father, who was bred to the church, was called to officiate 
at Belfast to a congregation of Presbyterians, and bis 
father became the minister of Ballymony, where David 
was born. Having received the first elements of his edu- 
cation at the public school of this place, and served his 
apprenticeship to* a surgeon, he went into the navy, first 
in the capacity of mate to an hospital-ship, and subse- 
quently in tbe rank of surgeon, in which station he re- 
mained for some years preceding tbe peace of Aix-la- 
Chapel le. At this period he was led from the frequent 
opportunities of witnessing tbe attacks of scurvy which a 
sea-faring life afforded him, to investigate the best method 
of cure for that disease, upon which he afterwards pub- 
lished a treatise. After the peace of Aix, Mr. Macbride 
went to Edinburgh and London, where he studied anatomy 
Under those celebrated teachers doctors Monro and Hunter, 
and midwifery under Smellie. About the end of 1749, he 

* Gort. Mag. vol. XL. p. 505 ; LXI. p. 569,^1 8. Sfe also Iad«x.~*Brft» 

Critic, vol IV.— Baldwin's Literary Journal, vol. f. p. Ill, 284, 317, 377, 
§62.— BoswelTs life of Johnson,— Wilkes's Life and Lepers, 4 volt. lSmoi 


Muted m Dublin as a surgeon and accoucheur; but his 
youth and remarkable bashf illness occasioned him to re* 
itmttvi number of years in obscurity* little employed ; al- 
though he was endeared to a smalt circle of friends by his 
great abilities, amiable dispositions, and his general know- 
ledge in all the branches of polite literature and the arts. 
In 1764, he published bis " Experimental Essays," which 
were received with great applause, and were soon trans* 
lated into different languages; and the singular merit of 
this performance induced the university of Glasgow to 
confer the degree of doctor of physic on its author. The 
improvement introduced by Dr. Macbride in the art of 
tanning, by substituting lime-water for common water in 
preparing ooze, procured him the honour of a silver medal 
from the Dublin Society, in 1768, and of a gold medal of 
considerable value from the society of arts and commerce 
in London. 

• For several years after Dr. Macbride obtained his de- 
gree, he employed part of his time in the duties of a me- 
dical teacher, and delivered at his own bouse a course of 
lectures on the theory and practice of physic. These lec- 
tures were published in 1772, in 1 vol. 4to, under the title 
of" An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Medi- 
cine," and a second edition appeared in 1777. It was' 
translated into Latin, and published at Utrecht, in 2 vols. 
$vo, in (774. This work displayed great acoteness of ob- 
servation, and very philosophical views of pathology, and 
contained a new arrangement of diseases, which was 
deemed of so much merit by Dr. Cullen, that an outline 
of it was given by that celebrated professor in his Com- 
pendium of Nosology. Of the five classes, however, into 
which Dr. Macbride distributed diseases, the genera and 
species ef the first only were detailed. 

The talents of Dr. Macbride were now universally known, 
his character was duly appreciated, and his professional 
emoluments increased, rapidly; for the public, as if to make 
amends for former neglect, threw more occupation into 
his hands than he could accomplish either with ease or 
safety. Although much harassed both in body and mind, 
so as to have suffered for some time an almost total inca- 
pacity for sleep, he continued in activity and 1 good spirits 
until the -end of December, 1778, when an accidental cold 
brought on a fever and delirium, which terminated his life 
en the 13th of that month, in the fifty-third year of his 

« M A C-C AG H W E L L* 

age ; his death was sincerely lamented by persons of al| 
ranks. 1 

MAC-CAGHWELL (Hugh), who in his Latin work* 
called himself Cavellus, was titular primate of Armagh* 
and a learned writer in defence of Duns Scotus, whose 
opinions were generally embraced by his countrymen. He 
was born in the county of Down, in Ireland, in 1571, ai|d 
became a Franciscan friar. He studied at Salamanca, in 
Spain, and afterwards for many years governed the Irish 
Franciscan college at Louvain, dedicated to St. Anthony, 
in the founding of which he had been instrumental. In 
this college he was also professor of divinity, which office 
he filled afterwards in the convent of Ara Coeli at Rome* 
was definitor-general of his order, and at length advanced 
by the pope to the see of Armagh ; but died at Rome, as 
he was preparing for his journey to Ireland, Sept. 22, 
1626, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. He was buried 
in the church of St. Isidore, under a monumental stone, 
and inscription, placed there by the earl of Tyrone. He 
was reckoned a man of great learning, and one of the best 
schoolmen of his time. His works, which consist chiefly 
of commentaries on and a defence of Scotus, were in sub-.* 
stance incorporated in Wading's edition of Scotus's works, 
printed at Lyons, 1639, in 12 vols, folio. 9 

MACDIARMID (John), an ingenious young writer, was 
the son of the rev. Mr. Macdiarmid, minister of Weem ia 
the northern part of Perthshire, and was b#rn in 17.79. 
He studied at the universities of Edinburgh and St. An- 
drews, and was for some years tutor in a . gentleman's, 
family. Such a situation is generally desired in Scotland 
with the view of provision in the church, but as this was. 
not Mr. Macdiarmid's object, he became desirous of visit- 
ing the metropolis, and trying, his fortune in the career of 
literary competition. He accordingly came to London in 
1-801, and was soon in the receipt of a. competent income, 
from periodical writing. His principal occupations of this 
kind were, as editor of the St. James's Chronicle (a paper 
in which some of the first scholars and wits of the last half 
century have employed their pens), and as a reviewer in a 
critical publication. On the commencement or rather the 
renewal of the late war in 1802-3, his attention was di- 
rected to our military establishment, and hejelinquisbed 


1 Rees'f Cyclopedia. * Ware's Ireland, by Harris. 


Ms periodica* engagements to become the author of a vtof 
elaborate work, entitled " An Inquiry into the System of 
Military Defence of Great Britain/' 1803, 2 vols. 8vo. 
This exposed the defects of the volunteer system, as welt art 
of all temporary expedients, and asserted the superiority 
of a regular army ; and had be lived, he would have doubt- 
less been highly gratified to contemplate the army forrned 
by the illustrious Wellington. His nertt Work was, an 
" Inquiry into the Nature of Civil and Military Subordina- 
lion," 1804, 8vo, perhaps .the, fullest disquisition which 
the subject has received. He now determined to suspend 
his theoretic labours, and to turn his attention to Works of 
narrative. He accordingly wrote the " Lives of British 
Statesmen/' 4 to, beginning with the life of sir Thomas 
More^ This work has strong claims on public attention. 
The style is perspicuous and unaffected ; authorities are 
quoted for every statement of consequence, and a variety 
of curious information is extracted from voluminous records* 
and brought for the first time before the public view. His 
political speculations were always temperate and libefah 
He was indeed in all respects qualified for a work of this 
description, by great powers of research and equal impart 
Jiality. But unfortunately he was destined to enjoy, for a 
short time only, the approbation with whidh bis work was 
received. His health, at all times delicate, received in 
November 1807, an irreparable blow by a paralytic stroke ; 
and in February 1808 a second attack proved fatal, April 7. 
Mr. D' Israeli has paid a just and pathetic tribute to his 
memory tind talents in the work referred to below. l 

MAC DONALD (AnUrew), another yourtg writer of 
considerable talents, was the son of George Donald, a 
gardener at Leith. The Mac he appended to ht$ name 
when he came to London. He was born in 1757 at Leith, 
where he was educated, chiefly by the assistance of bishop 
Forbes. For some time he bad the charge of a chapel at 
Glasgow, in which city he published a novel, entitled 
u The Independent." He afterwards came to London, 
and- wrote for the newspapers. His works were lively, 
satirical, and humorous, and were published under the 
signature of Matthew Bramble. He naturally possessed a 
fine genius, and had improved his understanding with 
classical and scientific knowledge ; but for want of con nee- 

1 Atheneum, vol. III. — D' Israeli'* Calatoitics of Author?. 

you xxi. e 


tions in this southern part of the united kingdom/ and s 
proper opportunity to, bring bis talents into notice, he was 
always embarrassed, and had occasionally to struggle with 
great and accumulated distress. He died in the 33d year 
of his age, at Kentish Town, in Aug. 17V0, leaving a wife 
and infant daughter in a state, of extreme indigence. A 
volume of his " Miscellaneous Works" was published in 
1791, in which were comprised, " The. fair Apostate, a 
tragedy; "Love and Loyalty," an opera; "Princess. of 
Tarejnto," a comedy ; and " Vimonda," a tragedy. l 

MACE (Francis), a learned French priest, was born at 
Paris about 1640, and pursued his divinity studies at the 
university of hiq native city, where he took his degree^. 
About this. time he ; was appointed secretary to the council 
for managing the domains and finances of the queen, con- 
sort to Lewis XIV. ; and when he took holy orders, in 1 6&5 9 
he wap immediately appointed canon and rector of the 
church of St. Opportune, at Paris. He was a very dili- 
gent student as well in profane as in sacred literature, and 
was celebrated for his* popular talents as a preacher. He 
died in 1721, leaving behind him a great number of works 
that do honour to bis memory, of which we shall men tiou 
" A chronological, historical, and moral abridgment o$ 
the Old and New Testament," in 2 vols, 4to ; t€ . Scriptural 
Knowledge, reduced into four tables ;" a French version 
of the apocryphal " Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs;'* 
of which Grosse teste, bishop of Lincoln, gave the first 
Latin translation, . Grabe the first Greek edition, . from 
MSS. in the English universities, and Whiston an English 
version ; " The History of the Fiwr Ciceros," in which he 
attempts to prove, that {be sons of Cicero were as illustri- 
ous as their father* * 

MACE .(Thomas), a practitioner on the lute, but more 
distinguished among lovers of music by a work entitled 
^.Music's Monument, or a Remembrancer of, the best 
practical Musi*?, both divine and civil,, that has ever been 
known to .have been in the world,V 1676, folio, was borrr 
in 1613, and became one of the clerks of Trinity-college, 
Cambridge. He does not appear to have held any con- 
siderable rank among musicians, nor is he celebrated 
either as a -composer or practitioner on the lute: yet his. 
* ■ * 

1 Biog. Dram.— Gent. Mag. vol. LX,— ^Israeli's Calamities. 
' 2 Moreri.— <Dict Hist.— Rees'a Cyclopaedia. 

MACE. 51 


book is a proof that he was an excellent judge of the in- 
strument ;. and contains such variety of directions for the 
ordering and management of it, and for performing on it, 
as renders it a work of great utility. It contains also many 
particulars respecting himself, many traits of an original 
and singular character; and. a vein of humour which, far 
from being disgusting, exhibits a lively portraiture of a 
good-natured gossiping old man. Dr. Burney recommends 
its perusal to all who have taste for excessive simplicity 
and quaintness, and can extract pleasure from the sincere, 
and unassembled happiness of an author, who, with ex- 
alted notions of his subject and abilities, discloses to his 
reader every inward working of self-approbation in as un- 
disguised a manner, as if he were communing with himself 
in all the plenitude of mental comfort and privacy. There 
is a print of him prefixed to his book, from an engraving 
of Faithorne, the inscription under which shews him to 
have been sixty-three in 167.6: how long be lived after- 
wards, is not known. He had a wife and children. 1 

MACEDO (Francis), a Portuguese Jesuit, and most 
indefatigable writer, born at Coimbra, in 1596, quitted 
that order after a time to take the habit of a cordelier/ 
He was strongly in the interest of the duke of Braganza 
when he seized the crown of Portugal. Being sent to 
Rome, he acquired for a time the favour of pope Alexan- 
der the Vllth, and was preferred by him to several impor- 
tant offices. The violence of his temper however soort 
embroiled him with this patron, and he went to Venice, 
where he disputed de omni scibiti; and gaining great repu- 
tation, obtained the professorship of moral philosophy at 
Padua. Afterwards, having .ventured to interfere in some 
state matter at Venice, where he had been held very high, 
he was imprisoned, and died in confinement, in 1681,. at 
the age of 85. He is said, in the " Bibliotbeque Portu- 
gaise," to have published 109 different works : and in one 
of his own books he boasts that he had pronounced 53 pub- 
lic panegyrics, 60 Latin discourses, and 32 funeral ora- 
tions; that he had written 48 epic poenjs, 123 elegies, 
^1 15 epitaphs, 212 dedications, 700 familiar letters, 26QQ 
poems in heroic verse, 3000 epigrams, 4 Latin comedies., 
and had written or pronounced 150,000 verses extempo- 

1 Hswfcias and Barney's Histories of Music, but especially the latter, m 
Reel's Cyclopaedia, 


5* M A C t 1> O. 

raneously. Yet the man who could declare all this, is 
hardly known by name in the greater part of Europe ; and 
of the enormous list of his printed works, not more than 
fiVe are thought worthy of mention by the Writers of his 
life. To write much, is far easier than to write well. The 
works specified by his biographers are, 1. " Clavis Aa- 
giistiniana liberi arbitrii, 1 ' a book written against father, 
afterwards cardinal Noris. The disputants were both 
silenced by authority; but Macedo, not to seem vanquished, 
dent his antagonist a regular challenge to a verbal cotttro*- 
versy, which by some biographers has been mistaken for a 
Challenge to fight. The challenge may be found in thm 
"Journal Etranger" for June 1757. 2. 4< Schema Sane- 
te Congregationis," 1676, 4to: a dissertation on the in- 
quisition, full of learning and absurdity. 3. " Encyclo- 
paedia in agon em 1 iterator um," 1677, folio. 4. •" Praise 
df the French," in Latin, 1641, 4to; « book on the Jan- 
senian controversy. 5. " Myrothechim Morale/ 9 4to. This 
is the book in which be gives the preceding account of 
what he had written and spoken, &c. He -possessed a 
prodigious memory, and a ready command of language; 
but his judgment and taste were by no means equal to his 
learning and fecundity. ' 

MACEDONIUS, was an ancient heretic of the church 
of Constantinople, whom the Arians made bishop of that 
see in the year 342, at the same time that the orthodox 
contended for Paul. This occasioned a contest, which rose 
at length to such a height, that arms were taken up, and 
many lives lost. The emperor Constantius, however, put 
* an end to the dispute, by banishing Paul, and ratifying the 
nomination of Macedonius; who, after much opposition, 
which ended at the death of Paul, became peaceably and 
quietly settled in his see, and might have remained so had 
.he been of a temper to be long peaceable and quiet in any 
situation : he soon fell into disgrace with Constantius, for 
acting the part of a tyrant, rather than a bishop. What 
made bitn still more disliked by the emperor; was his caus- 
ing the body of Con stan tine to be translated from the 
temple of *he Apostles to that of Acacius the martyr* This 
also raised great tumults and confusion among the peo- 
ple, some highly approving, others loudly condemning, 
the. procedure of Macedonius ; and the parties again taking 

* Gen. Diet.— Niceroo, yo1. XXXI,— -Moreri.— Antonio Bibl. Hisp. 

M A C E D O N I US. $$ 

up arms, a great number on both aide* were slain. : Mac** 
doaiuo, however, notwithstanding the emperor's displde^ 
sure, sthieb be bad incurred by his seditious «rid tUTbniefat 
practices contrived te a opport himself by bm party, which 
be bad lately increased by taking hi the tsemi -Arians \ tfll 
at length* imprudently offending two of bm bishops, they 
procured his deposition by the council of Constantinople^ 
in the year 359. He was so enraged at this, as to resotofe 
to revenge the insok by broaching a new heresy. He began 
to teach, therefore, that the Holy Spirit had no resem* 
Uance to either the Father or the son, but was only a merfe 
creature, one of God's ministers, ***d somewhat more e»- 
jsellent than the angels. ThetHsaffeeted bishops subscribed 
at once to this opinion ; and to the Arians it e4Uid not bt 
unacceptable. According to St. Jerome, even the Donatists 
of Africa joined with them : for he says, that Dftnatus of 
Carthage wrote a treatise upon the Holy Ghost, agreeable 
to the doctrine of the Arians; and the outward shew of 
piety, which the Macedonians observed, drew over to their 
party many other* One Maratorus, who had been for* 
meriy a treasurer, having amassed vast riches, forsook Ms 
secular life, devoted himself entirely to the seraoe of *tfcte 
poor and sick, became a monk; and afeiast adopted *he 
Macedonian heresy, which he disseminated veey extent 
a+veiy, > In this he succeeded in most cases by hit rictp*^ 
which, being freely and properly distributed, ware found 
of mono force in effecting conversions than- all his Argu- 
ments i mud from this,m*n, as Socrates relates, the Mac«*> 
dpnians were called Maratoriaas. They were also called 
Pnenmatomachi, 4W persons who were .enemies of the Hoty 
Ghost. The report of the Macedonian heresy being spread 
over fcgypt y Use bishop Serapsoo advertised Afchatjasiti* 
m£ ity who then was leading a maaastie life, and lay hid i* 
She desert; and this celebrated saint vras the first wb|> 
confoted iu J j 

MACER {JEmum) 9 an ancient Latin poet, was bore 
at Verooa, and flourished about the year 24 B. G. Etoifr- 
bcus relates, that be died a few year* after Virgil. • Ovid 
speaks of a poem by him, en the nature and qtiality of 
birds, serpents, and herbs; which, he says, Macer, being 
•hen. very oid t had often read to him, a ad he is said also tfr 
iWe written a supplement to Hosher; bqt the work by 

* MbffecidL— Socrat. Hist. Ecclel. lib. ii.-~ftftreri. 


H . » M A C E R. . 

which his name is chiefly known, first printed at Naples in 
1477, 4to, and often since under the tide " De virtu tibus 
Herbarum," is unquestionably, spurious, and the produc- 
tion of a much later writer. By some it is ascribed to 
Odo or Odobonus, a French physician of the ninth cen- 
tury. This barbarous poem is in Leonine verse, and va- 
rious manuscripts of it are in our public libraries of Ox? 
ford, Cambridge, the British Museum, &c. It was, ac- 
cording to Dr. Pulteney, in common use in England before * 
the sera of printing, and was translated into English by 
John Lelamar, master of Hereford-school, who lived about 
1473. Even Linacre did. not disdain to employ himself on 
this work, as in " Macer's Herbal practysed by Dr. Linacro, 
translated out of Latin into English." Lond. J 542,- 12 mo. 
This jejune performance, adds Dr. Pulteney, which is writ- 
ten wholly on Galenical principles, treats on the virtues of 
not more than eighty- eight simples. 1 
. . MACFAKLANE (Robert), a political and miscella- 
neous writer, was born in Scotland in 1734, and educated 
in the university of Edinburgh. He came to London at 
an early period of life, and for many years kept an aca- 
demy of considerable reputation at Walthamstow. , He was 
also. much engaged in the political disputes at the begin* 
<ning of the reign of his present majesty, and concentrated 
bi$* sentiments on them, in a " History of the Reign of 
fJeorge III." an octavo volume, which was published in 
1770. A dispute occurring between him and his book- 
seller, the late. Mr. Thomas Evans of Paternoster- row, 
the latter employed another person to continue the history, 
of which vol. II appeared in 1782, and vol. III. about 
•J 794. Mr. Macfarlane being then reconciled to his em- 
ployer, published a fourth volume. The whole is com- 
piled from the journals of the day, and cannot, either in 
<ppiht of style or matter, entitle Mr. Mactarlane, or the 
other writers, to the character of historians. In early life, 
also, he was editor of the Morning Chroniclq and London 
Packet, in which he gave the debates with great accuracy 
and at. considerable length, and wrote many, letters and 
papers under fictitious names, in favour.of the politics of 
the opposition Being an enthusiastic admirer of Ossian, 
and an assistant, as has been said, to Mr. Macpherson in the 
arranging and publishing of these poems, he>conceived the 

1 Vossius Hist. Lat. — Fabric, Bib]. Lat.— Haller Bibl. Bot. — Pulteney'i 

M A C F A R L A N E. 55 

very preposterous design of translating tberh into Latin 
verse. Accordingly, in 1769, he published " Temdra," as 
a specimen, and issued, at the same time; proposals -for 
publishing, the whole by subscription, in one vol u toe, 4to1 
but few subscribers appearing, he desisted: from -hts plarf, 
During the latter years of his life, he resumed it, and 
was employed in it at the time of his death: Curiosity ted 
him one evening to witness the triumphs of an election* 
mob coming from Brentford, when he fell under a carriage* 
and was so much hurt as to survive only half an hour. 
This happened on Augusts, 1304. He had at this time 
in' the press, an " Essay on the authenticity ofOssian anp 
his Poems. 

In 1797, Mr. Macfaflane published "Ah Address to the 
people of the British Empire, on the present posture and 
future prospect of public affaire," by which it appears thai 
he bad got rid of most of his former politicalpr^judiees. 
He likewise formally disclaim the second and third vo- 
lumes of the " History of George III." 'and says, that eteft 
tbe first h£s been so disfigured ill a third edition, that' fife 
Will no longer claim it as his own. In ISOl, he published 
" George Buchanan's Dialogue, concerning the rights of 
tbe crown of Scotland. Translated iftto 'English : with two 
dissertations prefixed: one archaeological, inquiring into 
the pretended identity of the Getes and Scythians, of thi 
Getes and Goths, and of the. Goths and Scots : arid the 
other historical, vindicating tbe character of Buchanan 
as a historian : and containing some specimens of his poetry 
in English verse,'* 8vo. In this work there is much curious 
discussion. ' 

MACHAULT (John de), a Jesuit, was born at Paristiti 
J 65!, and was professor of rhetoric in his society, doctor 
of divinity, and rector of the Jesuits college at Rouen," 
then of the college de Clermont at Paris. He died March 
15, 1619, aged 58. He published under the* name of 
Gall us, or Le Cocq, which was bis mother's name, "Jo. 
Galli jurisconsulti uotationes in Historian) Thuani," In- 
goldstadt, 1614, 4to, a scarce volume, because suppressed 
in that year, as pernicious, seditious, and full, of falsehoods 
and calumnies against the magistrates and officers of the 
king. Machault also translated from the Italian, a*" His- 
tory of transactions in China and Japan, taken from letters 

* Gent Ma* vol. 1XX1V. he. 


piittpn J $24 and 1622," Paris, 1627, ftvo.— Job* Baf* 
TIST D£ MACHAfrvr, another Parisian Jesuit, who died May 
$$, 1640, aged 29, after having been rector of the colleges 
at Nevers aod Rouen, left " Gesta i.Soe. Jes. in Regno 
Sinen^i, jEthiopico, et Tibetano;" *nd some other works of 
the historical kind, but of little reputation.-^-JAME8 B* 
jMUcwwvr, a Jesuit also, born 1600, at Paris, taught ethics 
apd philosophy, and was afterwards rector at Alencon, Or* 
Jean?, and Caen. He died 1690, at Paris. His works are, 

# J)e Missionibus Paraguariae et aliis in America meridio* 

Kli ;" « Pe rebus Japonicis ;" " De Provinciis Goana, 
al^btrica, et aliis ;" " De Regno Cochineinensi ;" " De 
Missione Religiosorum Societatis J. in Perside ;" ** De 
Ifogno Madurensi, Tangoreosi," &c* 

MACHIAVEL (Nicholas), a celebrated political writer 
?nd historian, was born of a good family, at Florence, in 
1469. He first distinguished himself as a dramatic writer, 
bpt bis comedies are not formed on the purest moralr, nor 
lire the verses by which he gained some reputation about 
the samp time, entitled to much praise, Sodn after he 
Jjad entered public life, either from the love of liberty, or 

* spirit of faction, he displayed a restless and turbulent 
disposition, which not only diminished the respect due to 
tys abilities, but frequently endangered his personal safety. 
De iovplved himself in the conspiracy of Capponi and Bos- 
coli, in consequence of which he was put to the torture, 
fcufepdured it without uttering any confession, and was 
set qt liberty by Leo X. against whose house that conspi- 
racy had been formed. Immediately after the death of 
Leo, be entered into another plot to expel the 'cardinal de 
J^edici from Florence- Afterwards, however, he was raised, 
to high honours in the state, and became secretary to the 
republic of Florence, the duties of which office be per* 
formed with great fidelity. He was likewise employed in 
embassies to king Lewis XII. of France ; to the emperor 
Afa*imilian ; to the college of cardinals; to the pope, 
Julius IL, and to other Italian princes. Notwithstanding 
the revenues which mint have accrued to him in these im-t 
portant situations, it would appear that the love of money 
fcad no influence. on his mind, as he died in extreme f>o» 
-**rty in June 1527. Besides his plays, his chief works 
*re, h "The Golden Ass," in imitation of Lucian an4 

1 Mpreri.— Diet. Bi&U-^Lp Lgpf BibL Hptqriqae. 


Aptdeiuj ; 2. " ^Discourses on the fcnt Decade of hmy ?*. 
3, « A History of Florence ;" 4. u The life of Castruccie , 
Gaatracani ;" *< " A Treatise on the Military Art >" *. " A 
Treatise on the Emigration of the Northern Nations ; n 
7. Another entitled » Del Principe^," die Prince. Tbia 
famous treatise, which was first published in 15 i 5, audio* 
leaded as a sequel to hi*, discourses on the, first decad* 
pf Livy, ha* created very discordant opinions between 
critics of apparently equal skill and judgment, some her* 
iag considered bkn as the friend of truth, liberty, and *ir> 
tuet »d others as the Jfedrocat* of fraud and. tyranny. 
Moat generally "the Prince'' has been viewed in the 
fetter light, ail its maxims and counsels being directed to 
the maintenance of power, however acquired, and by any 
wean*; and one .reason for. this opinion is perhaps natural 
enough, namely, its being dedicated to a nephew of pope 
Leo X, printed at Rome, re-paUisbed in, other Italian 
pities* and long read with attention, and even applause* 
without censure or reply. On the other, hand it has been 
thought impossible that Nechiavel, who was bom under a 
republic* who was employed aa one of its. sateetaries, who 
performed so many important embassies, and who in bit 
pepversatiee always dwelt en the gloinoos actions ef Sratns 
and Cassiua, should have foamed sneb a system against the 
liberty and happiness, of .mankind. Hence it has frequently 
^een urged on his behalf, that it was not .his intention ttf 
•Uggest wise and faithful counsels, ibut to represent in. the 
darkest oolouis the schemes of. a tyrant, and thereby ea~ 
oitfe odium against biro. Even lord Bacon seems .to be ef 
this opinion. The historian of ■ Leo , constdem bis conv 
duot in a different point, of view; and indeed all idea 
of his being ironical in this work k dissipated by thf 
feet, mentioned by Mr. Rpaooe, that ? many of the most 
exceptionable doctrines in M The Prince, M are also to be 
found in bis "Discourses," where it cannot ba. pretended 
that be had any- indicect pqcpeae in -view ; and in the .latter 
fett baa in .some iastannes referred fca the former for the 
fartber elucidation of bis opinions* In popular opiate* 
11 The JPrince n has. affixed ta bis naoae a lasting stigma^ 
ajtd Maohiaaeltsm haa long been a received appellation 
for perfidious and • infamous, politics. Of the biatowcai 
writings of Machiavel, the " Life of Castmccio Castracani" 
is considered as partaking too much of the character off 
romance » but his " History of Florence/' comprising the 


events of that republic, between 1205 and 1494, Which 
was written while the author sustained the office of- histo- 
riographer of the republic, although, not always accurate 
in point of fact, may upon the whole be reaa with both 
pleasure and advantage. It has been of late years disco- 
vered that the diary of the most important events in Italy 
from 1492 to 1512, published by the Giunti in 1568, 
under the name of Biagio Buonaccorsi, is in fact a part of 
the notes of Machiavel, which he had intended for a con- 
tinuation, of his history; but which, after his death, re- 
mained io the bands of his friend Buonaccorsi. > This is a 
circumstance of which we were not aware when we drew 
up the account of this author under the name EsPERiENTfe. 

In English we have a translation of the whole of Ma* 
chiavel's works by Farneworth, and editions of them are 
common in almost every language. 1 

MACKENZIE (Sir George), an ingenious and learned 
writer, and eminent lawyer of Scotland, was descended 
from an ancient and noble family, his father Simon, Mac* 
kenzie being brother to the earl of Seaforth. He was 
born at Dundee, in the county of Angus, in 1636, and 
gave early proofs of an extraordinary genius, having gone 
through the usual classic authors, at ten years of age. He 
was then sent to the universities of Aberdeen and St. An<* 
drew's, where he finished. his studies in logic and philoso- 
phy before he had attained his sixteenth year. After this, 
he turned his thoughts to the civil law, and to increase his 
knowledge of it, travelled into France, and became a close 
student in the university of Bourges, for about three years. 
On his return home, he was called to the bar, became an 
advocate in 1656, and gained the character of an eminent 
pleader in a few years. 

While he made the law his profession and chief study, 
he cultivated a taste for polite literature ; and produced 
some works which added not a little to his reputation. In 
U560, came out his "Aretino, or serious Romance," in 
which he shewed a gay and exuberant fancy. In 1663, he 
published his " Religio Stoici;" or a short discourse upon 
several divine and moral subjects, with a friendly -address 
to the fanatics of all sects and sorts. This was followed, 

in 1665, by " A Moral Essay," preferring solitude to pub^ 


i Tiraboschi.— . Moreri.— Gioguent Hist. Litt, D'lulic— Roscoe's Leo.— Suit 


tie employment, and all its advantages; such as fame, 
command, riches, pleasures, conversation, &c. This was 
answered by John Evelyn, esq. in another essay, in which 
the preference was given to public employment. Irfl667, 
he printed his w Moral gallantry ;" a discourse, in which 
he endeavours to prove, that the point of honour, setting 
afcide all other ties, obliges men to be virtuous ; and that 
there is nothing so mean and unworthy of a gentleman, as 
vice : to which is added, a consolation against calumnies, 
shewing how to bear them with chearfulness and patience. 
Afterwards be published "The moral history of frugality," 
with its opposite vices, covetousness, niggardliness, pro- 
digality, and luxury, dedicated to the university of Ox- 
ford; and M Reason," an essay, dedicated to the hon. 
Robert Boyte, .esq. All these works, except "Aretino," 
were collected and printed together at London, in 1713, 
Svo, under the title of " Essays upon several moral sub- 
jects:" 'and have been ^regarded as abounding in good 
sense and wit, although upon the whole the reasoning is 
rather superficial/ Besides these essays, which were the 
production of such hours as could be spared from his pro- 
fession, be was the author of a play and a poem. The 
poem is entitled " Caelia's country-house and closet;'* 
and in it are the following lines upon the earl of Montrose: 

€< Montrose, his country's glory, and its shame, 
Ctesar in all things equall'd, but his fame, &C." 

Which our predecessor quoted principally to shew, that 
Pope himself, infinitely superior as his talents in poetry 
were, did not disdain to imitate this author, in his " Essay 
on Criticism :" 

" At length Erasmus, that great injur'd name, 
The glory of the priesthood, and the shame, &c.' 

--• Soon after Mr. Mackenzie had been employed as coun- 
sel for the marquis of Argyle, he was promoted to the 
office of a judge in the criminal court', which he discharged 
with so much credit and reputation, that he was made 
king's advocate in 1674, and one of the lords of the privy, 
council in Scotland. He was also knighted by bis majesty. 
In these offices he met with a great deal of trouble on ac- 
count of the rebellions whichftiappened in his time ; and 
' his office of advocate requiring him to act with severity, 
he did not escape being censured for having, in the deaths 
of some particular persons who were executed, stretched 

$9 M A C K E N Z I & 


tbe tows too (p. Tbi* alludes to t^e tutted trials of B^illie 
of Jerviswoo^ that of the $arl of Argyle, and the prcffeptH 
tipns Against MitcheJ and Learmonth, events winch make 
a great figure in the history of that unhappy period ; but 
in the opinion of the late lord Woodhoaselet, " hi* own 
defence will fully justify bis conduct io the breast of every 
man whose judgment is not perverted by tbe same preju- 
dices, hostile to all good government, which led those uh 
fatuated offenders to the doom they merited/' . (See 
Mackenzie's Works, Vindication of the government of 
Charles II.) 

Opon tbe abrogation of tbe penal laws by James II. sir 
George, though he had always been remarkable for bis 
loyalty, and censured for bis zeal, thought himself obliged 
to resign bis post ; being convinced that be could -not dis- 
charge the duties of it at ttoat .crisis with a good conscience* 
Be wfis succeeded by sir John Dalrymple, who, however, 
did not long continue in it ; fqt that unfortunate prince 
being convinced of bis error, restored sir George to bis 
post, in which he continued until tbe revolution, and then 
resigned it He could no*; agree to tbe measures and terms 
pf the revolution ; be hoped that the prince of Orange 
would have returned to bis own country* when matters were 
adjusted between the king and bis subjects; but finding 
that the event proved otherwise, he cjuitted all bis em- 
ployments in Scotland, and retired to England, revolving 
to spend the remainder of bis days in the university of Ox- 
ford. He accordingly arrived there in September 1689, 
and prosecuted his studies in the Bodleian library, being 
admitted a student there by a grace passed in the congre- 
gation June 2, 1690. In tbe spring following he went to 
London, where he contracted a dtsbfder, of which be died 
May 2, lfcfrl. His bodyHvas conveyed by land to Scot- 
)and, and interred with great pomp a«d solemnity at Edin- 
burgh, his fuueraLbeing attended by aH tbe council, no* 
bility, college, of justice, eotlegeof physicians* university* 
cte*$y* g^Hry* end a jpeater concourse of people than 
e*er was w^n on any -similar o ocas ion. • 

Besides the moral piece* me*uioaed above, be wtotese* 
feral works to illustrate the laws aed customs of his eount 
try, to vindicate tbe monarchy from tbe restless centri* 
*ances and attacks of those whoas be esteemed its enemies, 
%nd to maintain tbe honour and glory of Scotteadi To tl» 
lustrate the laws and wttpma of his country, be pabsiafaed 


•V A Discourse upon the laws and customs of $c$*l*fltt iri; 
raattcm erimittaV* 1GT4, *to. •• Ide* ekquenti* fertensi* 
hodterose, una cum actione forensi e* maqtraque jari* 
parte," 1681) dvo. " Invitations of Che Itotf** of Scot* 
land," 1684, 8vo. " Observations upon the WW of par* 
liaikieiit," 1 086, folio. Besides these, several other ttigak 
use* of law are inserted in his works, printed <tt Edinburgh; 
1716, in 9 vol* folio. In Vindication <rf nrtmttrchyj hef 
wrote his " Jtis regiurto ; or the just arid solid> fouridatldrt* 
of monarchy in general, and* more* especially- of the mo- 
narohy of Scotland ; maintained agaitot Btichanan, Naph- 
tfarii, l>oieman, Milton, &c. ,v Land. 16S4; 8*o.- Thif 
book being dedicated and presented by tlieaiicfafor to the 
university of Oxford* he received a 1 letter of thanks from 
the convocation. With the same view he puMifehetf hi* 
* Discovery of the fanatic plot," printed' at Edinburgh; in 
1684, folio J and his «< Vindication of the government *f 
Scotland during the reign of Charles- II.' 9 AUothe w Me- 
thod of Proceeding against Criminals and Fariatieal Cove* 
nanters," 1694, 4to. The piece* which he pubfahed in 
honour of Ms nation, were as follow i w OttteiHtttioh* oft 
the Lawsand Customs of Nations as to Precedency, with the 
Science of heraldry, treated as a part' df the divillkw of 
nations ; wherein reason* are given for its principles, and 
etymologies for its harder terms," 1680, folio. " A De* 
fence of the Antiquity of the' Royal Line of Scotland-, with 
a trtre account when the' Scots were governed by the kings 
in the Isle of Britain," 1685, 8vo. This was Written in 
answer to " An historical Account of Churcb-Gorernment 
as it was in Great Britain and Ireland, when they Art t re- 
ceived the Christian religion, " by Lloyd, bisbdjp of : Sfc 
Asapto Str George's defence was published in Jwife 1888; 
but before it came out it was. animadverted tfpon ; by 0ft 
Stillmgfleet, who had seen it in maflqtfertyt in the* preface 
to his "'Origines Britannic*." Sir George refilled the 
year following, in a 1 piece entitled "The Anti^rtty of the 
Royal Line of Scotland farther delved And defended 
against the exceptions lately offered by Dt. StiHingfleet, 
in his Vindication of the Bishop of St. Afcafph;** and here 
the controversy appears to 'have ended. 1 Itr is rerriatkaMe; 
however, that sir George> books were translated into Latin, 
printed at Utrecht in 1689, and then presented to W\U 
liam-Henry prince of Orange, who wrote twtyir^ry polite 
letters of thanks to him for his perfortunartce. 


Among the instances of this author's zeal for his Country,* 
it is necessary to mention his founding of the lawyer's li-- 
brary at Edinburgh} an 1689. This, which is now known: 
by the name of the advocate's library, was afterwards stored- - 
with variety of manuscripts, relating particularly to the 
antiquities of Scotland, and with a fine collection of books/ 
in all sciences, classed in that excellent order, which he- 
prescribed in an. elegant Latin oration, pronounced upqn 
the opening of it, and printed apiong bis works. 
. Judging, says a late, elegant and judicious writer, from 
the writings of sir .George Mackenzie, his talents appear 
to have, been rather splendid than solid. He certainly 
possessed uncommon assiduity and activity of mind, as the 
number and variety of his compositions testify ; and per- 
haps the superficial manner in which be has treated many 
of those subjects foreign to his profession, is the less to 
^e wondered at, in a man whose thne was so occupied in 
professional duties. The obscurity and confusion that are 
discernible in some of his juridical discussibns, may- have 
arisen in a great measure from the rude, unmethodized, 
and almost chaotic state of the law of Scotland, both civil 
and criminal, in his days. On one account alone, although 
every other merit were forgotten, sir George Mackenzie 
is entitled to respect as a lawyer. Re was the first who 
exploded from the practice of the crimiual courts of Scot- 
land that most absurd and iniquitous doctrine, that no de- 
fence was to be admitted in exculpation from a criminal 
indictment which was contrary to the libel (indictment) ; as, 
if John were accused of having murdered James, by giving 
him a mortal wound with a sword, it was not allowable for* 
John to prove in his defence, that the wound was not given 
in any vital part, and that James died of a fever caught 
afterwards by contagion* 

As an. elegant scholar, lord Woodhouselee ranks sir 
George among the ornaments of his country. His Latin 
compositions are correct and ornate in no common degree. 
His style is evidently formed on the writings of Cicero, 
and the young Pliny ; and though a little tinctured with 
the more florid eloquence of Quinctilian, is entirely free 
from the false embellishments and barbarisms of the writers 
of the lower ages. His " Idea Eloquentiae forensis," is a 
masterly tractate, which enumerates and eloquently de- 
scribes all the important requisites of a pleader, and gives 
the most judicious precepts for the cultivation of the 

M A C K E N Z I E. ■„. 65 

various excellencies and the avoiding of theordtnary defects 
of forensic eloquence. His " Cbaracteres quorundam apud 
Scotos Advocatorum," evince a happy talent of painting, 
not only the groat and prominent differences of ndanaer in 
ttje pleaders of his age, but of discriminating, with sin* 
gular nicety, and in tbe most appropriate terms, the more 
minute and delicate shades of distinction, which a critical 
judgment alone could perceive, and which could be de- 
lineated only by a master's band. It is, adds lord Wood- 
houselee, < highly to the honour of this eminent man,, that 
he appears to have possessed a true sense of the dignity of 
his profession ; and that he perpetually endeavoured, as 
much by bis example as by bis precepts, to mark the con- 
trast between tbe prosecution of the law, as a liberal and 
ingenuous occupation, and its exercise (too common) as a 
mercenary trust. 1 

.MACKENZIE (George), viscount Tarbat, and first 
earl* of Cromerty, a person eminent for bis learning and 
for his abilities as a statesman, was descended from a branch 
of the family of Seaforth. He succeeded to the family 
esbpe on the death of his father sir John Mackenzie, and 
also to. his unshaken^ fealty for Charles II. during whose 
exile he had a commission to levy what forces be could 
procure, to promote the restoration. After that event, he A 
was made one of the senators of the college of justice, clerk 
register of the privy council, and justice-general, an office 
which had been hereditary in the family of Argyle, till it 
was surrendered in the preceding reign. James II. made 
him a baron and viscount, but on the abdication of that 
monarch, whom it would appear he had favoured too much, 
he lost his office of lord-register for some time* until king 
William III. was pleased to restore it in 1692, being no 
stranger to his abilities. In queen Anne's reign, 1702, he 
was constituted secretary of state, and the following year 
was advanced to the dignity of earl of Cromerty. He died 
in 1714, at the age of eighty-three, or, according to ano- 
ther account, eighty-eight. 

Douglas describes him as a man of singular endowment*} 
great learning, well versed in the laws and antiquities of 
his country, and an able statesman. Macky, or- rather 
Davis, adds, that " he had a gjteat deal of wit, and was the 

1 Life prefixed to his Works, fol.— - Lord Woodhouselee's Life of Lord Karnes. 
*— Laing^ History of ScoUaud.— -Burnet's Own Timet. —Gent. Mas* toLLXM. 
p. 519. 

44 M A C K £ tt t I t. 

pieasaiitett coiftpanion in- the work! ; had been very Hand* 
iotoe ill his perto* ; was tall and ftur complexioned ; rtmch 
esteemed fey die rOyal SOtoiety, & great rta^te* in philoso- 
phy* and weH revived as a writer try men of lettefs:'* 
Bishop Nicoldon notices a copy of the Continuation of 
Fonkm's " Seotichronicob" in the band- Writing 6f tbii 
faobleman, whom he terms "a judicious preserver of the 
antiquities of bis* Country*' He wfote, I. " A Vindica-* 
tion of Robert, the third king of Scotland, from the! impu- 
tation of bastardy, &c." Edit). 1695, 4to. 2. " Synopsis 
Apocaty ptica ; or a short and plain Explication and Appfi* 
cation of DaftiePs Prophecy, and St. John's Revelation, irt 
convent with it, and consequential to it; by 6. E. of C. 
tracing in the steps of the admirable lord Napier of Mer^ 
chttton," Edin. 1 708. 3. « An historical Account of tb* 
Conspiracies, by the earls of Gourie, and Robert Logan 
*>f Beatalrig, against king James VI. of glorious memory, 
&*." Edin. 1713, Svo. Mr.GdUgh has pointed out ttire* 
papers on natural curiosities, by . lord Cromerty, in the 
* Philosophical Transactions ;" and" A Vindication,^ bf 
him, of the reformation of the church of Scotland, #itH 
•ofitto accoont of the Records, was printed in the Scoti* 
Magazine, for A tigtitt 1802, front a MS. in the possession 
*tf Mr. Constable, bookseller, of Edinburgh. 1 
■' MACKLIN (Charles), the oldest actor, and perhaps 
the oldest man of his time, is entitled to some notice in 
this woric, although his fame seems to have been derived 
principally from his longevity. He is said to have been 
born in the county of West Meath in Ireland, May 1, 
1690. His family name was Mac-Laughlin, which, on his 
coming to London, he changed to Mackliti. He was em- 
ployed in early- life, as badgeman in Trinity college, Dub- 
lin, until his twenty-first year, when he came to England, 
wid associated With' some strolling comedians, after which 
he werit back to his situation in Trinity college. In 1716 
be again came to England, and appeared as an actor in the 
theatre, Lincoln's-inn-fields, where, in Feb. 1741, he esta- 
blished his fame by his performance of Shy lock in the 
u Merchant of Venice,'* in which he followed nature, truth, 
and propriety, with such effect, as to distance all other 
performers through the whole course of his long life. It 

1 Park's edition of lord Orford's Royal and Noble Author*. — EJougUs'i Pair* 

M A C K L 1 N. 65 

ftas* however), the only character in which be was pre-emi-* 
Dent, and jail bis subsequent* attempts in characters of im- 
portance, particularly in tragedy, were unsuccessful, or; at 
least, displayed, no exclusive merit The remainder of his 
life consists of a series of tragi-comic adventures, involving 1 
the history of the stage for a considerable period* of Which 
it would be impossible to give a satisfactory abridgment; 
We therefore refer to our authorities, where his life is de^ 
tailed- with great minuteness, and In a manner highly in- 
teresting to those, to whom the vicissitudes of the theatres/ 
and the wit of the greenroom, are matters of importance. 
He continued on the stage until 1789, when a decay of 
memory obliged him to take a last leave of it. In 1791, a 
sum of money Was collected by public subscription for thg 
purchase of an annuity, which rendered his circumstances 
easy. During the last years of his life, his understanding 
became more and more impaired, and in this state be died 
July 1 1, 1797, at the very great age of lot, if the date 
usually given of his birth be correct. As a dramatic writer* 
he appears to much advantage in his " Man of the World'* 
and " Love Alaitfode," which still retain their popularity* 
He was a man of goopV understanding, which he had im- 
proved by a course of reading, perhaps desultory, but suffi- 
cient to enable him to bear his part in conversation very satis- 
factorily. While his memory remained, his fund of anecdote 
was immense* and rendered bis company highly agreeable. 
His age* however, had in his opinion, conferred a dictatorial 
power, and it was not easy to argue with him, without ex- 
citing his irascible temper, which shewed itself in much 
coarseness of expression. He is said to have been in his 
better days, a tender husband, a good father, and a steady 
friend. . By his firmness and resolution in supporting the 
rights of his theatrical brethren, they were long relieved 
from^a species of oppression to which they bad been igno- 
miniously subjected for many years, whenever the caprice 
or malice of their enemies chose to exert itself. We al-» 
lude, says one of his biographers, "to the prosecution! 
which be commenced and carried on against a certain! set 
of insignificant beings, who, calling themselves The Towtf, 
used frequently to disturb the entertainments of the theatre, 
to the terror of the actors, as well as to the annoyance and 
disgrace of the publick." It is almost needless to add that 
this advantage has been again lost to his brethren, by the 
loieration recently granted to scenes #f brutality in the 
Vol, XXL F 

66 M A C K L I N. 

theatres both of London and Dublin, and which has placed 
them at the mercy of the lowest and most unprincipled of 
the populace. 1 

MAC KNIGHT (James), a learned Scotch clergyman, 
was born at Irvine, in Argyleshire, in 1721, educated at 
the university of Glasgow, and afterwards, as was the cus- » 
torn at that time, heard a course of lectures at Leyden. 
After his return he was admitted into the church, and in v 
May 1753, was ordained minister of Maybole, on which 
living he continued during sixteen years. Here he com- 
4 posed his two celebrated works, the " Harmony of the Gos- 
pels, 9 ' and his " New Translation of the Epistles," both 
which were very favourably received, and greatly advanced 
his reputation in the theological world. In 1763 he pub- 
lished a second edition of the " Harmony," with the addi- 
tion of six discourses on Jewish antiquities ; and a third 
appeared in 1804, in 2 vols, 8vo. In 1763 also be pub- % 
lished another work of great merit, entitled " The Truth 
of the Gospel History." On account of these publications, 
the university of Edinburgh conferred upon him the de- 
gree of D.J). In 1769 he was translated to the living of 
Jedburgh, and after three years, became one of the mi* 
nisters of Edinburgh, which situation he retained during 
the remainder of his useful life. He was particularly ac- 
tive and zealous in promoting charitable institutions, es- 
pecially the fund established by act of parliament, for a 
provision to the widows and fatherless children of ministers 
in the church of Scotland. As an author, Dr. Macknight 
occupied a considerable portion of his time in the execu- 
tion of his last and greatest work on the apostolical epistles. 
This was the result of an almost unremitting labour during 
thirty years : he is said to have studied eleven hours in 
each day, and before the work was sent to the press, the 
whole MS. had been written five times with his own hand. 
A specimen was puhlished in 1787, containing his version 
of the epistles to tbeThessalonians; and in 1795 the whole 
appeared in four vols. 4to, under the title of " A New Li- 
teral Translation from the original Greek of all the Apos- 
tolical Epistles ; with a commentary, and notes, philoso- 
phical, critical, explanatory, and practical,"- with esjsays on 
several important subjects, and a life of the apostle Paul, 
which includes a compendium of the apostolical history. 

\ Bfof«r.J)rama!ica.— Mfe, by Kirkman — and C<wk«. 



Having finished this great 1 work, he was desirous of enjoy* 
ing the remainder of his days free from laborious pursuits, 
and refused, though earnestly solicited, to undertake a 
similar work with regard to the Acts of the apostles. In a 
rery short time after, the decline of his faculties became 
manifest, and about the close of 1799 be caught a violent 
cold, the forerunner of other complaints that put an end 
to his life in January 1800. . Having early acquired a taste 
for classical literature, he studied the writers of antiquity 
with critical skill, and was well acquainted with metaphy- 
sical, moral, and mathematical science. As a preacher, 
without possessing the graces of elocution, he was much 
admired for his earnestness of manner, which rendered his 
discourses highly interesting and useful. 1 

MACLAINE (Archibald), a pious and learned clergy- 
man, and for fifty years minister of the English church at 
the Hague, was born at Monachan in Ireland, in 1722, 
and educated at Glasgow under the celebrated Mr. Hutcbe- 
son, for the presbyterian ministry. His youth was spent 
in Belfast, where he was long remembered with delight 
by a numerous circle of friends, now nearly extinct. About 
the time of the rebellion in. 1745, when in his twenty- 
second year, he was invited to Holland, and succeeded 
his venerable uncle Dr. Milling, as pastor of the English 
church at the Hague, and remained in that situation until 
the invasion of the country by the French, io 179-4, com- 
pelled him to take refuge in England. He had not been 
here long when an only sister, whom he had not seen for 
fifty years, joined him>in consequence of the rebellion in 
Ireland. During his residence at the Hague he was known 
and highly respected by all English travellers, and not 
unfrequently consulted, on account of his extensive eru- 
dition and knowledge of political history, by official men 
of the highest rank. On his arrival in England he fixed his 
residence at Bath, as affording the best opportunities of 
union with many of those numerous friends he had known 
on the continent, and here he died, Nov. 25, 1804, aged 

During this long course, Dr. Maclaine's superior endow- 
ments of mind and heart, his genius, learning, and indus- 
try, constantly directed by a love of virtue and truth, by 
piety and charity, diffused a beneficial influence over the 

1 Life by bis Son, prefixed to the " Epistles." 

F 2 


whole of his professional and domestic sphere. As a scho* 
lar, a gentleman, and a divine, uniformly displaying a 
judicious taste, an amiable deportment, and instructive 
example, be was admired and loved by all who courted 
and enjoyed his society ; especially those of whom he was 
a distinguished archetype — the man of education, the 
polished companion, the benevolent friend, and pious 

Dr. Maclaine published in 1752 a sermon on the death 
of the prince of Orange. In 1765 his masterly translation 
of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History made its first appear- 
ance, in 2 vols. 4to, dedicated to William Prince of Orange*. 
It experienced a most favourable reception, and was re- 
printed, 1758, in six vols. 8vo, in which form it has had 
several subsequent editions, particularly one published in 
1811, with valuable additions by Dr. Coote, the editor; 
and the Rev. Dr. Gleig, of Stirling. Few publications, 
on their first appearance, having been more generally read 
than Mr. Soame Jenyns's '« View of the internal Evidence 
of the Christian Religion," Dr. Maclaine addressed to that 
gentleman a series of letters, 1777, in 12 mo, written to 
serve the best purposes of Christianity, on a due conside- 
ration of the distinguished eminence of Mr. Jenyns as a 
writer, of the singular mixture of piety, wit, error, wis* 
dom, and paradox, exhibited in his publication, and of his 
defence of Christianity on principles which would lead 
men to enthusiasm or; to scepticism, according to their dif- 
ferent dispositions. His only publications since were two 
fast sermons, 1793 and 1797, anti a volume of setmons 
preached at the Hague. He was interred in the abbey 
church of Bath, where a monument has been since erected 
to his memory by his friend Henry Hope, esq. * 

MACLAURIN (Colin), an, eminent mathematician and 
philosopher, was the son of a clergyman, and born at Kil* 
modan, near Inverary, in Scotland, Feb. 1698. His fa- 
mily was originally from Tirey, one of the western islands. 
He was sent to the university of Glasgow in 1709, where 
he continued five years, and applied himself to study in t 
most intense manner, particularly to the mathematics. His 
great genius for this science discovered itself so early as at 

• For this work, by which thousands have been realized, Dr. Maclaine re- 
ceived only the small sum of 130/. 

i From materials obligingly furnished by his son, a merchant in Load**.?— 
Funeral Sermon, by Dr. Gardiner, Bath, 1805, 8vo. 


twelve years of age ; when, having accidentally met with 
a copy of Euclid* s Elements in a friend's chamber, he 
became in a few days master of the first six books without 
any assistance: and it is„certai«, that in his sixteenth year 
he had invented many of the propositions, which were 
afterwards published as part of his work entitled " Geo- 
metria Organica." In his .fifteenth year, he took the de- 
. gree of master of arts ; on which occasion be composed 
and publicly defended a thesis " On the power of gravity," 
with great applause. After this he quitted the university, 
and retired to a country-seat of bis uncle, who had the care 
of bis education, his parents, being dead some time. Here 
he spent two or three years in pursuing his favourite studies ; 
and such was his acknowledged merit, that having in 1717 
offered himself a candidate for the professorship of mathe- 
matics in the Marischal college of Aberdeen, he obtained 
it after a ten days trial against a very able competitor. In 
1719 he went to London, where be left his " Geometria 
Organica" in the press, and where he became acquainted 
with Dr.-Hoadly, bishop of Bangor, Dr. Clarke, sir Isaac 
Newton, and other eminent men. At the same time he was 
admitted a member of the royal society ; and in another 
journey in 1721, he contracted an intimacy with Martin 
Folkes, esq. the president of it, which lasted to his death. 
In 1722, lord Polwartb, plenipotentiary of the king of 
Great Britain at the congress of Cambray, engaged him to 
go as tutor and companion to bis eldest son, who was then 
to set out on bis travels. After a short stay at Paris, and 
visiting other cities in* France, they fixed in Lorrain ; where 
Madaurin wrote his treatise "On the percussion of 
Bodies," which gained the prize of the royal academy of 
sciences, for 1 724 ; but his pupil dying soon after at Mont- 
pelidr, he returned immediately to bis professorship at 
Aberdeen. He was hardly settled here when he received 
an invitation to Edinburgh ; the patrons of that university 
being desirous that he should , supply the place of Mr. 
James Gregory, whose great age and infirmities had ren- 
dered him incapable of teaching. On this occasion he had 
some difficulties to encounter, arising from competitors, 
who bad great interest with the patrons of the university, 
and also from the want of an additional fund for the new 
professor; all which, however, at length were surmounted, 
id consequence of two letters from sir Isaac Newton. In 
one, addressed, to himself, with allowance, to shew it to 


the patrons of the university, sir Isaac expresses himself 
thus: "I am very glad to hear that you: have a prospect 
of being joined to Mr. James Gregory, -in the professorship 
of the mathematics at Edinburgh, not only because you 
are my friend, but principally because of your abilities ; 
you being acquainted as well with the new improvements, 
of mathematics, as with the former state of those sciences. 
I heartily wish you good success, and shall be very glad to 
hear of your being elected." In a second letter to the lord 
provost of Edinburgh, he writes thus : " I am glad to un- 
derstand that Mr. Maclaurin is in good repute amongst you 
for his skill in mathematics, for I think he deserves it very 
well ; and to satisfy you that I do not flatter him, and also 
to encourage him to accept the place of assisting Mr. 
Gregory, in order to succeed him, I am ready, if you 
please to give me leaver to contribute 20/. per annum 
towards a provision for him, till Mr. Gregory's place be- 
comes void, if I live so long, and I will pay it to his order 
in London." 

In Nov. 1725, he was introduced into the university at 
the same time with his learned colleague and intimate 
friend, Dr. Alexander Monro, professor of anatomy. After 
this, the mathematical classes soon became very numerous, 
there being generally upwards of 100 students attending 
his lectures every year. These being of different standing 
and proficiency, he was obliged to divide them into four 
or five classes, in each of which he employed a full hour 
every day, from the first of Nov. to the first of June. In 
the first class he taught the first sixjbooks of " Euclid's 
Elements,'* plain trigonometry, practical geometry, the 
elements of fortification, and an introduction to algebra. 
The second studied algebra, the 11th and 12th books of 
Euclid, spherical trigonometry, conic sections, and the 
general principles of astronomy. The third went on in 
astronomy and perspective, read a part of sir Isaac New- 
ton's " Frincipia," and saw a course of experiments for 
illustrating: them performed : he afterwards read and de- 
monstrated the elements of fluxions. Those in tmr fourth 
class read a system of fluxions, the doctrine of chances, 
and the rest of NewXon's " Principia." Besides these la- 
bours belonging to his professorship, he had frequently 
other employments and avocations. If an uncommon ex- 
periment was said to have been made any where, the 
curious were desirous of having it repeated by him ; and if 


an eclipse or comet was to be observed, his telescopes were 
always in readiness. 

He lived a bachelor to the year 1733 ; but being formed 
for society, as well as contemplation, he then married 
Anne, the daughter of Mr. Walter Stewart, solicitor-gene- 
ral to his late majesty for Scotland. By this lady be had 
seven children, of which, two sons and three daughters, 
together with his wife, survived him. In 1734, Berkeley, 
bishop of Cloyne, published a piece called " The Ana- 
lyst ;" in which be took occasion, from some disputes that 
had arisen concerning the grounds of the fluxionary me- 
thod, to explode the method itself, and also to charge 
mathematicians in general with infidelity in religion. Mac- 
laurin thought hifmself included in this charge, and began 
an answer to Berkeley's book : but, as he proceeded, so 
many discoveries, so many new theories and problems oc- 
curred to him, that, instead of a vindicatory pamphlet, it ' 
increased to " A complete system of Fluxions, with their 
application to the most considerable problems in geome- 
try and natural philosophy. 9 ' This work, which was pub-^ 
lished at Edinburgh in 1742, 2 vols* 4to, cost him infinite 
pains, and will do him immortal honour, being indeed the 
most complete treatise on that science that has yet ap'- 
peared *. In the mean time, be was continually gratifying 
the public with 6ome performance or observation of his own, 
many of which were published in the fifth and sixth vo- 
lumes of the " Medical Essays," at Edinburgh. Some of 
them appeared likewise in " The Philosophical Transac- 
tions;" as the following: 1. "Of the construction and 
measure of Curves." 2. " A new method of describing all 
kinds of Curves." 3. " A letter to Martin Folkes, esq. on 
Equations with impossible Roots, May 1726." 4. " Con- 
tinuation of the same, March 1729." 5. " December the 
21st, 1732, On the description of Curves ; with an account 
of farther improvements, and a paper dated at Nancy, 


* Dr. Thomson, however*, remarks acknowledged by every person wbo 
that hje demonstrations are often so peruses the book, that all the ebjec- 
long and complicated, and require tions of Dr. Berkeley against the doc- 
such severe attention to follow them, trine of fluxions are completely refuted, 
that he believes they are seldom perused and whatever doubts the most captious 
by the 'mathematicians of the present metaphysicians may think proper here- 
day, who, having turned almost the after to start about the nature of infi- 
whole of their attention to the analyti- nities, the mathematician has no more 
cal method, are not so capable as their concern with them than with the famous, 
predecessors of following long synthe- sophisms about space and motion, 
tieal demonstrations. But it will be Thomson's Hist, of the Royal Society. 

« M A C L A U R I N. 

JJor. 27, 1722." 6. " An account of the treatise of Flux- 
ions, Jan 27, 1742." 7. " The same continued, March 
10, 1742 " 8. " A Rule for finding the meridional parts 
of a Spheroid with, the same exactness as of a* Sphere, Aug. 
1741." 9. " Of the Basis of the Cells wherein the Bees de- 
posit their honey, Nov. 3, 1734." 

'. In the midst of these studies he was always ready to 
promote any scheme which might contribute to the service 
of his country. When the earl of Morton set ctat, in 1739, 
for Orkney and Shetland, to visit his estates there, he de- 
sired Mr. Maclaurjn to assist him in settling the geography 
of those countries, which is very erroneous in all oar maps, 
to examine their natural history, to survey the coasts, and 
to talfe the measure of a degree of the meridian. Maclau- 
rin's family affairs, and other connections, however, not 
allowing of his absence, he drew up a memorial of what 
he thought necessary to be observed, furnished the proper 
instruments, and recommended Mr. Short, the famous op- 
tician, as a fit operator for the management of thefo; He 
had still another scheme for the improvement of geography 
and navigation, of a more extensive nature; which was, 
the opening a passage from Greenland to the South Sea 
by the North pole; That such a passage might be fouttd, 
he was so fully persuaded, that he has been heard to say, if 
his situation could admit of such adventures, he would un- 
dertake the voyage, even at his own charge. But when 
schemes for finding it were laid before the parliament in 
1744, and himself consulted by several persons of high 
rank concerning them, before he could finish the memorial? 
Jie proposed to send, the premium was limited to the 
discovery of a North- West passage : and he used to re- 
gret, that the word West was inserted, because he thought 
that passage, if at all to be found, must lie not far from 
the pole. 

In 1745, having been yery active in fortifying the city 
of Edinburgh against the rebel army, he was obliged to fly 
to the north of England ; where he was invited by Her- 
ring, then archbishop of York, to reside with him during 
his stay in this country. " Here," says he, in a letter to 
one of his friends, " I live as happy as a man can do, who 
is ignorant of the state of bis family, and who sees the ruin 
cif his country.'* We regret to add, that in this expedition 
being exposed to cold and hardships, and naturally of a 
.weak and tender constitution, be laid the foundation of a 

M A C L A U R I N. 7S 

dropsfcal disorder, which pot an end to his life Jane 14, 
1746, aged 48. There is a circumstance recorded of him 
during his last moments, which shows that he was the in- 
quiring philosopher to the last : He desired his friend Dr. 
Monro to account for a phenomenon he then observed in 
himself, viz. flashes of fire seeming to dart from his eyes, 
while in the mean time his sight was failing, so that he could 
scarcely distinguish one object from another." 

BJr. Maclaurin is said to have been a very good, as well 
as a very great man, and worthy of affection as well as ad- 
miration. His peculiar merit as a philosopher was, that all 
his studies were accommodated to general utility; and we 
find, in many places of bis works, an application even of 
the most abstruse theories, to the perfection of mechanical 
arts. He had resolved, for the same purpose, to compose 
a course of practical mathematics, .and to rescue several 
useful branches of the science from the bad treatment they 
often meet with in less skilful bands. But all this his death 
prevented ; unless, we should reckon, as a part of his in- 
tended work, the translation of Dr. David Gregory's "Prac- 
tical Geometry, 9 * which he revised, and published with 
additions, 1745. He had, however, frequent opportuni- 
ties of serving his friends and his country by his great skill. 
Whatever difficulty occurred concerning the constructing 
or perfecting of machines, the working of mines, the im- 
proving of manufactures, the conveying of water, or the 
execution of any other public work, he was at band to re- 
solve it. He was likewise employed to terminate some dis- 
putes of consequence that bad arisen at Glasgow concern- 
ing the gauging of vessels; and for that purpose presented 
to the commissioners of excise two elaborate memorials, 
with their demonstrations, containing rules by which the 
officers now act. He made also calculations relating to the 
provision, now established by law, for the children and wi- 
dows of the Scotch clergy, and of the professors in the 
universities, entitling them to certain annuities and sums, 
upon the voluntary annual payment of a certain sum by 
the incumbent. In contriving and adjusting this wise 
and useful scheme, he bestowed a great deal of labour, and 
contributed, not a little, towards bringing it to perfection. 

Among his works, we have mentioned his " Geometria 
Organica," in which he treats of the description of curve 
lines by continued motion : and that which gained the 
prize of the royal academy of sciences in 1724. In 1740, 


he likewise shared the prize of the same academy, with the 
celebrated Bernouilli and Euler, for resolving the motion 
of the tides from the theory of gravity ; a question which 
had been given out the former year, without receiving any 
solution. He had only ten days for composing this paper, 
and could not find leisure to transcribe a fair copy ; so that 
the Paris edition of it is incorrect. He afterwards revised the 
whole, and inserted it in his "Treatise of Fluxions," as he 
did also the substance of the former piece. These, with the 
" Treatise of Fhixions," and the pieces printed in the "Phi- 
losophical Transactions," of which we have given a fist, are 
all the writings which he lived to publish. Since his death, 
two volumes more have appeared ; his "Algebra," and his 
'* Account of sir Isaac Newton's Philosophical discoveries.** 
His "Algebra," though not finished by himself, is yet 
allowed to be excellent in its kind ; containing, in no large 
volume, a complete elementary treatise of that science, as 
far as it has hitherto been carried ; besides some neat analy- 
tical papers on curve lines. His " Account of sir Isaac New- 
ton's Philosophy" was occasioned by the following circum- 
stances : sir Isaac dying in the beginning of 1728, his 
nephew, Mr. Conduitt, proposed to publish an account of 
his life, and desired Mr. Maclaurin's assistance. The lat- 
ter, out of gratitude to his great benefactor, chearfully 
undertook, and soon finished, the history of the progress 
which philosophy had made before sir Isaac's time: and 
this was the first draught of the work in hand, which not 
going forward, on account of Mr. Conduitt's death, was 
returned to Mr. Maclaurin. To this he afterwards made 
great additions, and left it in the state in which it now ap- 
pears. His main design seems to have been, to ex pram 
only those parts of sir Isaac's philosophy which have been, 
and still are, controverted : and this is supposed to be the 
reason, why his grand discoveries concerning light and 
colours are but transiently and generally touched. For it is 
known, that ever since the experiments on which his doc- 
trine of light and colours is founded, have been repeated 
with due care, this doctrine had not been contested ; whereas 
his theory of celestial phenomena, founded on gravitation, 
had been misunderstood, and even ridiculed. The weak 
charge of introducing occult qualities has been frequently 
repeated ; foreign professors still amuse themselves with 
imaginary triumphs; and even the polite and ingenious 


cardinal de Polignac has been seduced to lend them the 
harmony of his numbers. 

To the last mentioned of his works is prefixed "An Ac- 
count of the Life and Writings of Mr. Maclaurin :" from 
which we have taken the substance of the present memoir. 1 
MACLAURIN (John, Lord Dreghorn), son of the 
preceding, was born at Edinburgh in December 1734, 
and educated at the grammar-school and university of 
Edinburgh. Having applied to the study of the law, he 
was admitted a member of the faculty of advocates at 
Edinburgh in 1756. In 1782, a royal society was esta- 
blished in Edinburgh, of which Mr. Maclaurin was one of 
the original constituent members, and at an early period 
of the institution he read an essay to prove that Troy was 
not taken by the Greeks. In 1787 he was raised from the 
Scottish bar, at which he had practised long and success- 
fully, to the bench, by the title of lord Dreghorn. He 
died in 1796. . As an author we have " An Essay on Literary 
Property ;" " A Collection of Criminal Cases ;" " An 
Essay on * Patronage ;" and some poetical pieces, with 
three dramas, entitled "Hampden," "The Public," and 
"The Philosopher's Opera." During the years 179&, 3, 
4, and 5, lord Dreghorn kept a journal, or diary, in which 
he recorded the various events that happened in Europe 
during those years. From this journal he made a selection 
for publication : and in 1799 a selection of his lordship's 
works was printed in tivo vols. Svo, containing most of the 
pieces mentioned above. It has, however, been generally 
thought that these added very little to his reputation, the 
character of his poetry being that of mediocrity, and his 
prose neither very lively nor profound, though he occasion- 
ally exhibits learning and acuteness, and always an ardent 
love of liberty." 1 

MACPHEKSON (James), an author whose fame rests 
chiefly on his being the editor of Ossian's poems, was de- 
scended from one of the most ancient families in the North 
of Scotland, being cousin-german to the chief of the clan 
of the Macphersons, who deduce their origin from the an- 
cient Catti of Germany. His father, however, was a farmer 
of no great affluence. He was born in the parish of King* 
cusie, Inverness-shire, in the latter end of 1738, and re* 

1 Life as above. — Ty tier's Life of Kames. — Biog. Brit. 
* Lift prefixed to bis Works. 


ceived the first rudiments of bis education at one of the 
parish schools in the district called Badenoch, from which, 
in 1752, he entered King's college, Aberdeen, where he 
displayed , more genius than learning, entertaining the 
society of which he was a member, and diverting the 
younger part of it from their studies by his humorous and 
doggrel rhimes. About two months after his .admission 
into the university, the.King's college added two months 
totbe length, of its amaual session or term, which induced 
Macpherson, with nany other young men, to remove to 
Marisobal college, where the session continued short : and 
this circumstance has led the biographer, from whom we 
borrow it, <o .suppose that his father was not opulent. 
Soon after he left college, or perhaps before, he was 
schoolmaster of Ruthven or Riven, of Badenoch, and after- 
wards is said to have delighted as little as his antagonist 
Johnson, in the recollection of that period, when he was 
compelled, by the narrowness of his fortune, to teach boys 
in an obscure school. 

It was here, however, about 1758, that he published 
the " Highlander, 9 ' an heroic poem in six cantos, 12mo. 
Of this poem, which has not fallen in our way, we have 
seen two opinions, the one, that it indicated considerable 
genius in so young an author ; the other that it is a tissue 
of fustian, and absurdity, feeble, and in some parts ridicu- 
lous, and shews little or no talent in the art. of versification. 
This last we take to be the opinion of the late Isaac Reed, 
who had a copy of the poem, which was purchased at his 
sale, by: George Chalmers, esq. Mr. Reed adds, that in a 
short time the author became sensible of its faults, and 
-endeavoured to suppress it. About the same time he 
jwrote an " Ode on the arrival of the Earl Marischal in 
Scotland," which he called an attempt in the manner of 
Pindar, how justly, the reader may determine, as it was 
published in the European Magazine for 1796. 

. It was intended that he should enter into the service of 
(the church, but whether be ever took orders is uncertain. 
Mr., Gray speaks of him as a young clergyman ; but David 
Home probably more truly describes him as " a modest 
-sensible young man, not settled in any living, but em- 
ployed as a private tutor in Mr. Graham of Balgowan's 
family, a way of life which he is not fond of:" This was 
in 1760, when he surprized the world by the publication 
of " Fragments of Ancient Poetry, collected in the High- 


lands of Scotland, and translated from the Galic or. Erse 
language," 8vo. These fragments, which were declared 
to be genuine remains of ancient Scottish* poetry, at their 
first appearance delighted every reader; and some: very 
good judges, and amongst the rest Mr. Gray, werfe ex- 
tremely warm in their praises. Macpberson had intended 
to bury them in a Scotch magazine, but- was prevented 
from so injudicious a step by the advice of his friend, Mr. 
Home, the auther of " Douglas." As other specimens 
were said to be recoverable, a subscription was set on foot 
to enable our author to quit the family he was theq in, and 
undertake a mission into the Highlands, to secure them. 
He engaged in the undertaking, and soon after produced 
the works whose authenticity has since occasioned so much 

In 1762 he published " Fingal, an aucient epic poem, 
in six books," together with several other poems, corn*- 
posed by 'Ossian, the son of Fingal, translated from the 
Galic language, 4to. The subject of this epic poem is an 
invasion of Ireland by Swaran, king of Lochlm. CuchuU 
lin, general of the Irish tribes during the minority of Cor* 
mac king of Ireland, upon intelligence of the invasion, 
assembled his forces near Tura, a castle on the coast of 
Ulster. The poem opens with the landing of Swmran; 
councils are held, battles fought, and Cuebullin is at last 
totally defeated. In the mean time Fingal, king of the 
Highlands of Scotland, whose aid had been solicited before 
the enemy landed, arrived, and expelled them from the 
country. This war, which continued but six days and as 
many nights, is, including the episodes, the story of the 
poem: the scene, the heath of Lena, near a mountain 
called Cromleach in Ulster. This poem also was received 
with equal applause as the preceding fragments. 

The next year he produced " Temora," an ancient epic 
poem, in eight books : together with several other poems 
composed by Ossian, son of Fingal, 4to, which, though 
well received, found the public somewhat less disposed to 
bestow the same measure of applause. Though these 
poems had been examined by Dr. Blair and others, and 
tbeir authenticity asserted, there were not wanting some of 
equal reputation for critical abilities, who either doubted 
or declared their disbelief of the genuineness of them. 
After their publication, by which he is said to have gained 
twelve hundred pounds, Mr. Macpberson was called to 



an employment which withdrew him for some time from 
the muses and his country. In 1764, governor Johns tpne 
was appointed chief of Pensacola, and Mr. Macpherson 
accompanied him as his secretary; but some difference 
having arisen between them, they parted before their re- 
turn to England. Having contributed his aid to the set- 
tlement of the civil government of that colony, he visited 
several of the West- India islands, and some of the pro- 
vinces of North America, and returned to England in 1766. 

He now resumed bis studies, and in 1771 produced 
" An Introduction to the History of Great Britain and Ire- 
land," 4to, a work which, be says, " without any of the 
ordinary incitements to literary labour, he was induced to 
proceed in by the sole motive of private amusement. 19 
This work is not inelegantly written, but his hypotheses on 
Celtic origin brought upon him the resentment of some 
critics, who preserved, very little decency on a subject that 
might certainly have been discussed in an amicable man- 
ner. His next performance was more justly entitled to 
contempt, as it showed him to be utterly destitute of taste, 
and consequently produced him neither reputation nor 
profit. This was " The Iliad of Homer" translated, in two 
volumes 4to, 1773, a work fraught with vanity and self- 
consequence, and which met with the most mortifying re- 
ception from the public. It was condemned by the critics, 
ridiculed by the wits, and neglected by the world. Some 
of his friends, and particularly sir John Elliott, endea- 
voured to rescue it from contempt, and force it into notice, 
but their success was not equal to their efforts. After a 
very acute, learned, and witty critique, inserted in the 
Critical Review, the new translation was confessed to 
possess no merit, and ever since has been consigned to 

About this time seems to be the period of Mr. Macpher- 
son's literary mortifications. In. 1773, Dr. Johnson and 
Mr. Boswell made the tour to the Hebrides; and in the 
course of it, the former took some pains to examine into 
the proofs of the authenticity of Ossian. The result of his 
inquiries he gave to the public in 1775, in his narrative of 
the tour, and his opinion was unfavourable. " I believe 
they (i. e. the poems, says he) never existed in any other 
form than that which we have seen. The editor or author 
never could shew the original ; nor can it be shewn by any 
other. To revenge reasonable incredulity by refusing 


evidence is a degree of insolence with which the world is 
not yet acquainted ; and stubborn audacity is the last re- 
fuge of guilt. It would be easy to shew it if he 'had it ; 
but whence could it be had ? It is too long to be remem- 
bered, and the language had formerly nothing written. He 
has doubtless inserted names that circulate in popular 
stories, and may have translated some wandering ballads, ' 
if any can be found ; and the names and some of the 
images being recollected, make an inaccurate auditor 
imagine, by the help of Caledonian bigotry, that he has 
formerly heard the whole." Again, " I have yet supposed 
no imposture but in the publisher, yet 1 am far from cer- 
tainty, that some translations have not been lately made, 
that may now be obtruded as parts of the original work. 
Credulity on one part is a strong temptation to deceit on 
the other, especially to deceit of which no personal injury 
is the consequence, and which flatters the author with his 
own ingenuity. The Scots have something to plead for 
their easy reception of an improbable fiction : they are 
seduced by their fondness for their supposed ancestors. A 
Scotchman must be a sturdy moralist who does not love 
Scotland better than truth ; he will always love it better 
than inquiry, and, if falsehood flatters his vanity, will not 
be very diligent to detect it Neither ought the English 
to be much influenced by Scotch authority ; for of the 
past and present state of the whole Erse nation, the Low* 
landers are at least as ignorant as ourselves. To be igno- 
rant is painful ; but it is dangerous to quiet our uneasiness 
by the delusive opiate of hasty persuasion." 

The opinions above declared by Dr. Johnson incensed 
our author so much, that he was prompted by his evil 
genius to send a menaeing letter to his antagonist, which 
produced the most severe, spirited, and sarcastic reply 
ever written *. 

• " Mr. James M acpherson, I re- opinion I have given my reasons to the 

ceived your foolish and impudent let- public, which I here dare you to re- 

ter. Any violenee offered to me, I fate. Your rage I defy. Your abili- 

shall do my best .to repel ; and what I ties, since your Homer, are npt so 

cannot do for myself, the law shall do formidable; and what I hear of your 

for me. I hope I shall never be de- morals, inclines me to pay regard not 

terred from detecting what 1 think a to what you shall say, but to wbat you 

cheat, by the menaces of a ruffian. shall prove. You may print this if 

" What would you have me retract ? you will. S. J." 
1 thought your book an impostor* ; I lit* we)i'* Lfe of Johnson. 

think it an imposture still. For this 

80 MACPrlERSOtt 

Whether his warmth abated, or whether he had beeft 
made sensible of his folly by the interposition of friends, 
we know not ; but certain it is, we hear no more after* 
wards of this ridiculous affair, except that our author is 
supposed to have assisted Mr. Mac Nictalki an Answer to 
Dr. Johnson's Tour, printed in 1779. Tnis supposition, 
says one of his biographers, we are inclined to consider as 
well founded, because we have been told by a gentleman of 
veracity, that Mr; Mac Nicol affirms, that the scurrility of 
bis book, which constitutes a great part, of it, was inserted* 
unknown to bi«v after the manuscript was sent for publi* 
cation to London. 

In 1775 Mr; Macpherson published "The History of 
Great Britain, from the restoration to the accession of 
the House of Hanover," in 2 vols. 4to, a work which has 
been decried with much clamour, but without much argu- 
ment or proof; The author may perhaps Jiave been in* 
fluenced by his prejudices in favour of the tory party; but 
he certainly acted with great fairness, as along with it he 
published the proofs upon which bis facts. were founded, 
in two quarto volumes, entitled " Original Papers, con* 
taining the secret History of Great Britain, from the resto- 
ration to the accession of the House of Hanover. To which 
are prefixed, extracts from the life of James II. as written 
by himself." These papers were chiefly collected by Mr. 
Carte, but are not of equal authority. They, however, 
clear up many obscurities, and set the characters of many 
persons in past times in a different light from that in which 
they have been usually viewed. 

Soon after this period, the tide of fortune flowed very 
rapidly in Mr. Macpherson V favour, and his talents and 
industry were amply sufficient to avail himself of every 
favourable circumstance which arose. The resistance of 
the Colonies called for the aid of a ready writer to com- 
bat the arguments of the Americans, and to give force t<* 
the reasons which influenced the conductof government, 
and he was selected for the purpose. Among other things 
he wrote a pamphlet, which was circulated with much 
industry, entitled " The Rights of Great Britain, asserted 
against the Claims of the Colonies; being an answer to 

' the declaration of the general congress," 1776, 8vo, arid of 
which ntany editions were published. He also was the 
author of " A short History of the Opposition during the 

last session of parliament," 1779, 8 vo, a pamphlet, which, 


on account of its merit, was by many ascribed to Mr* 


But a more lucrative employment was conferred on hhn 
about this time* He was appointed agent to the nabob of 
Arcot, and in that capacity exerted bis talents in several 
appeals to the public in behalf of his client. Among others 
he published " Letters from Mahommed Ali Chan, nabob 
frf Arcot, to the Court of Directors. To which is annexed, 
a state of facts relative to Tanjore, with an appendix of ori- 
ginal papers/' 1777, 4 to ; and he was supposed to be the 
author of " The History and Management of the East 
India Company, from its origin in 1600 to the present 
times, vol. I. containing the affairs of the Carnatic ; in 
which the rights of the nabob are explained, and the injus- 
tice ojf the company proved," 1779, 4to. 

In his capacity of agent to the nabob, it was probably 
thought requisite that he should have a seat in the British 
parliament. He was accordingly in 17 80 chosen member 
for Camelford, but we do not recollect that he ever at- 
tempted to speak in the house. He was also re-cbosen in 
1784 and 1790. He had purchased, before this last men- 
tioned year, an estate in the parish in which he was born ; 
and changing its name from Rets to Belville, built on it a 
large and elegant mansion, commanding a very romantic 
and picturesque view; and thither he retired when his 
health began to fail, in expectation of receiving benefit 
from the change of air. He continued, however, to de-» 
cline; and after lingering some time, died at bis seat at 
Belville, in Inverness, Feb. 17, 1796. 

In Mrs. Grant's " Letters from the Mountains" we have 
some affecting particulars of bis death. u Finding some, 
inward symptoms of his approaching dissolution, he sent 
for a. consultation, the result of which arrived the day after 
bis confinement Be was perfectly sensible and collected, 
yet refused to take any thing prescribed to him to the last, 
and. that on this principle, that bis4ime was come, audit 
did not aiqul He felt the approaches of death, and hoped 
no relief/ from medicine, though bis life was not such aa- s 
owe should like to look back on at that awful period. H 
Indeed, whose is ? It pleased the Almighty to render bis' 
last scene most affecting and exemplary. He died last 
Tuesday evening; and from the minute he was confined 
tilla very little before he expired, never ceased imploring 
the divine mercy in the most earnest and pathetic manner. 
Vol. XXI. G 


People about him were overawed and melted by the fervour 
and bitterness of his penitence. He frequently and 
earnestly entreated the prayers of good serious people of 
the lower class who were admitted. He was a very good- 
natured man ; and now that he had got all his schemes of 
interest and ambition fulfilled, he seemed ta reflect and 
grow domestic, and shewed of late a great inclination to 
be an indulgent landlord, and very liberal to the poor, of 
which I could relate various instances, more tender and 
interesting than flashy or ostentatious. His heart - and 
temper were originally good. His religious principles 
were, I fear, unfixed and fluctuating; but the primary 
cause that so much genius, taste, benevolence, and pros- 
perity, did not produce or diffuse more happiness, was his 
living a stranger to the comforts of domestic life, from 
which unhappy connexions excluded him, &c." 

He appears to have died in very opulent circumstances, 
and by his will, dated June 1793, gave various annuities 
and legacies to several persons to a great amount. He 
also bequeathed 1000/. to Mr. John Mackensie, of Figtree 
court, in the Temple, to defray the expence of printing 
and publishing Ossian in the original. He directed 300/. 
to be laid out iu. electing a monument to his. memory, in 
some conspicuous situation at Belville, and ordered that 
his body should be carried from Scotland, and interred in 
the Abbey-church of Westminster, the city in which he 
had passed the greatest and best part of his life. He was 
accordingly brought from the place where he died, and 
- buried in the Poets-corner of the church. 

On the subject of that dispute to which Mr. Macpherson 
gave rise, and which is not yet, and probably never will 
be, finally adjusted, it is not our purpose to enter. r the 
general opinion, however,- we may just mention, is un- 
favourable to his veracity ; but Mr. Laing's dissertation, 
which has greatly contributed to this effect, when com- 
pared with the " Report of the Highland Society," will 
afford the reader as much light as has yet been thrown 
upotf the question. l 

MACQ.UER (Philip), a French lawyer, chiefly cele- 
brated for his chronological abridgments after the manner 


} European Magazine for 1 796 — Report of the Highland Society.— -rLaingfe 
Hist6ry of Scotland, and his edition of Ossian.— Fofbes's Life of'Beattie.— 
. Warburton's Letters, p. 244, 346, 246.— Sheffield's Life pf Gibbon, vol* I. p. 
544.— Pr* Gleig?f Supplement to the Bocyci. Bntannica. , . , . 


of Henault, was born at Paris, Feb. 15, 1720, and edu- 
cated at the university of that city. Here he gave the most 
promising hopes of success in any of the learned profes- 
sions, and had in particular attached himself to the law ; 
but weak lungs preventing him from entering into the 
active occupations of a pleader,- he devoted himself to ge- 
neral literature, and produced the following works : 1. 
" Abr£gg Chronoiogique de THistoire Ecclesiastique," 
a chronological abridgment of Ecclesiastical History, in 
three volumes, octavo, written more drily and less ele- 
gantly than that of Henault, whom the author followed. 
2. " Lea Annales Romaines," 1756, one volume octavo, in 
which the author has taken advantage of the most valuable 
remarks of St. Evremond, the abbe St. R£al, Montesquieu, 
Mably, and several others, respecting the Romans; and 
the work is consequently not so dry as the former. In 
style, however, he is still inferior to his model. Of this 
we have an English translation by Nugent, 1759, 8vo. 3. 
"Abr6g6 Chronoiogique de PHistoire d'Espagne et de 
Portugal," 2 vols. 8vo, 1759—1765. This work, which 
was actually begun by Henault, is worthy of him in point 
of exactness; but neither affords such striking portraits, 
nor such profound remarks. Lacomb^^nother author 
celebrated for this kind of compilation, assisted also in this. 
Macquer bad some share in writing the " Dictionaire des 
Arts et Metiers," 2 vols. 8vo. He was industrious, gentle, 
modest, sincere, and a decided enemy to all quackery and 
ostentation. He had little imagination, but a sound judg- 
ment ; and had collected a great abundance and variety of 
useful knowledge. He died the 27th of January, 1770. ' 

MACQUER (Joseph), brother to the preceding, an 
eminent physician and chemist, was born at Paris, Oct. 9, 
17J8, and became a doctor of the faculty of medicine in 
the university of that metropolis, professor of pharmacy, 
and censor-royal. He was, likewise, a member of the 
academies of sciences of Turin, Stockholm, and Paris, and 
conducted the medical and chemical departments of the 
Journal des Sgavans. He bad the merit of pursuing che- 
mistry as a department of natural philosophy, and was 
one of the most successful cultivators of the science, uptm 
rational principles, previous to the new modelling which it 
has received within the last twenty-five years* He died 

1 Necrelogie des Homme* CelebreS) ann6e 1771.— Diet H&L 

G 2 


Feb. 15, 1784, after having suffered much by an internal 
complaint, which appeared beyond the reach of skilL On 
this aecount he desired that bis body might be opened, 
when it was discovered that hfc disorder was an ossification 
of the aorta, with strong concretions formed in the cavity 
of the heart. Mr. Macquer's private character appears to 
have been truly amiable in every relation, and few men 
were more respected by his contemporaries. He published, 

1. " Elemens de Chymie Theorique," 1749 — 1753, 12mo. 

2. " Elemens de Chymie Pratique," 2 vols. 12mo. 3. " Plan 
d'un Cours de Chymie experimentale et raisonn£e," 1757, 

- 12 mo. This was composed in conjunction with M. Baum£, 
who was associated with him in his lectures. 4. '* Die- 
tionnaire de Chymie," 1766, 2 vols. 8vo. These works 
have all been translated into English and German ; the 
Dictionary particularly, by Mr. Keir, with great additions 
and improvements. 5. " Formulae Medicamentorum Ma- 
gistral ium," 1763 ; and he had also a share in the compo- 
position of the " Pharmacopeia Parisiensis," of 1758. * 

MACRINUS (Salmoneus), was a name assumed by a 
modern poet, whose true name was John Salmon ; or, as 
some say, given to him on account of his excessive thinness, 
from the LatuygQjective macer. It became, however, the 
current appellation of him&elf and Charles, his brother, 
who was also a writer of some celebrity, preceptor to Ca- 
therine of Navarre, sister of Henry IV, and who perished 
in the massacre of St. Bartholomew. Some have called 
Macrinus the French Horace, on account of his talents for 
poetry, particularly the lyric kind. He was born at Lou- 
don, where he died in 1557, at an advanced age. He 
wrote hymns, naeniae, and other works, which appeared . 
from 1522 to 1550 : and was onejof those who principally 
contributed to restore the taste for Latin poetry. Van 1 has 
relates a story of his drowning himself in a well, in despair, ' 
on being suspected of Lutheranism. Bikt this, like ihost 
anecdotes of the same writer, is a matter of invention rather 
than fact. * 

MACROBIUS (Ambrosius AureuusTheodosiits), was 
an ancient Latin writer, who flourished towards the latter 
part of the fourth century. What countryman he was, is 
not clear : Erasmus, in his Ciceronianus, seems to think hfe 

, * Eloges des Academfciens, vol. IV. — Rees's Cyclopaedia from £ioy» 
5 Gen, Diet.— Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 


was a Greek ; and he himself tells us, in the preface to his 

'* Saturnalia," that be was not a Roman, but laboured under 

the inconveniences of writing in a language which was not 

.native to him. Of what religion he was, Christian or pa- 

?an, is also uncertain. Barthius ranks him among the 
Christians ; but Spanheim and Fabricius suppose him to 
have been a heathen. It seems, however, agreed that he 
was a man of consular dignity, and on£ of the chamber* 
lains, or masters of the wardrobe to Theodosius ; as appears 
from a rescript directed to Florentius, concerning those 
who were to obtain that office. He wrote " A Commentary 
upon Cicero's Somnium Scipionis," full of Platonic notions, 
and seven books of " Saturnalia ;" which resemble in plan 
the " Noctes Atticae" of Aulus Gellius. He termed them 
" Saturnalia," because, during the vacation observed on 
these feasts of Saturn, he collected the principal literati of 
Rome, in his house, and conversed with them on all kinds 
of subjects, and afterwards set down what appeared to him 
most interesting in their discourses. His Latinity is far 
from being pure, but as a collector of facts, opinions, and 
criticism, his works are valuable. The " Somnium Sci- 
pipnis," and "Saturnalia," have been often printed; to 
which has been added, in the later editions, a piece en- 
titled " De differentiis & societatibus Crfaeci Latinique 
verbi." The best editions are those of the Variorum ; of 
Gronovius in 1670, and Leipsic in 1777. There is a spe- 
cimen ef an English translation of the " Saturnalia" in the 
Gent. Mag. for 1760, but it does not appear to have been 
completed. 1 

MA DAN (Martin), a celebrated preacher and writer, 
was the son of Martin Madan, esq. of Hertingfordbury near 
Hertford, member of parliament for Wootton Basset, and 
groom of the bedchamber to Frederick prince of Wales. 
His mother was daughter of Spencer Cowper, esq. and 
niece of the lord chancellor Cowper, an accomplished 
lady, and author of several poems of considerable merit* 
He was born in 1726, and was bred originally to the law, 
and had been called to the bar; but being fond of die 
study of theology, well versed in Hebrew, and becoming in- 
timate with Mr, Jones and Mr. Romaine, two clergymen of 
great popularity at that time, by their advice he left th^ 
law for the pulpit, and was admitted into orders. His first 
sermon is said to have been preached in the church of All- 

* Care, vol. I.— Moreri.— Sa*ii Oaomast. — Clarke's Bibliogr. Diet. , 

66 MADAN. 

hallows, Lombard -street, and to have attracted immediate 
attention and applause. Being appointed chaplain to the 
Lock-hospital, his zeal led him to attend diligently, and 
to preach to the unfortunate patients assembled in the par- 
lour : his fame also brought many others thither, till the 
rooms and avenues were crowded. This led to a proposal 
for & chapel, which was finished in 1761, and opened with 
a sermon from the chaplain. He subjected himself to much 
obloquy, abbut the year 1767, by the advice he gave to his 
friend Mr. Havveis, to retain the rectory of Aldwincle, and 
several pamphlets were written on the subject; but lord 
Apsley (afterwards Bathurst) did not seem to consider the 
affair in an unfavourable light, as he afterwards appointed 
him his chaplain. Mr. Madan became an author in 1761, 
when he published, 1. *' A sermon on Justification by 
Works. 9 ' 2. "A small treatise on the Christian Faith/' 1761 , 
12mo. 3. " Sermon at the opening of the Lock Hospital, 
1762.'* 4. « Answer to the capital errors of W. Law," 1 7 63, 
6vo. 5. " Answer to the narrative of facts respecting the 
rectory of Aldwinckle," 1767, 8vo. 6. " A comment on the 
Thirty-nine Articles," 1772,8vo. 7."Thelyphthora," 1780» 
2 vols. £vo. In this book the aijthor justifies polygamy, 
upon the notion that the first cohabitation with a woman is 
a virtual marriage ; and supports his doctrine by many 
acute arguments. The intention of the work was to lessen, 
or remove the causes of seduction ; but it met with much 
opposition, many very severe animadversions, and cost the 
author his reputation among the religious world. He, 
however, was not discouraged; and in 1781, published a 
third volume, after which the work sunk into oblivion, a 
fate to which the masterly criticism on it in the Monthly 
Review, by the rev. Mr. Bad cock, very greatly contributed* 
It is somewhat remarkable that Mrs. Manley in the " Ata- 
lantis" speaks of lord chancellor Cowper, as maintaining 
the same tenets on polygamy. Mr. Madan next produced; 
8. " Letters to Dr. Priestley," 1787, l£mo. 9. A literal 
version of " Juvenal and Persius," with notes, 1789* 2 
vols. Svo : and some controversial tracts on the subject of 
his Theiyphthora. Mr. Madan died at Epsom in May, 
1790, at the "age of 64, after a short illness, and was 
buried at Kensington. The late Or. Spencer Madan, bi- 
shop of Peterborough, was brother to our author. 1 

1 Preceding edit, of this Diet.— Lysons's Environs, vol. HI.— Month. Rer. 


MADDEN (Samuel), D. D. (" a name," saya Dr. Jdkn~ 
son, " which Ireland ought to honour,") was born in 1687, 
and received his education, at Dublin. He appears, how- 
ever, to have been in England in 1729; and having. writ- 
ten a tragedy called " Themistocles, or the. Lover of his 
country," was, as he himself says, tempted to. let it appear, 
by the offer of a noble study of books from the profits of it. 
In 172* 1, he projected a scheme for promoting learning in 
the college of Dublin by premiums, at the quarterly ex-> 
animations, which has proved highly beneficial. . In 1732, 
he published his " Memoirs of the Twentieth Century ; 
being original Letters of State under George the Sixth, 
relating to, the most, important events in Great- Britain, 
apd Europe, as to church and state, arts- and sciences, 
trade, taxes, and treaties, peace and war, and characters 
of the greatest persons of those times, from the middle of 
the eighteenth to the end of the twentieth century, and the 
world. Received and revealed in the year 1728 ; and now 
published, for the instruction of all eminent statesmen, 
churchmen,. patriots, politicians, projectors, papists, and 
protestauts." In 6 vols. Land. 1733, 8vo. * In 1740, we 
find him in his native country, and in that year setting 
apart the annual sum of one hundred pounds, to be distri- 
buted, by way of premium, to the inhabitants of Ireland 
only; namely, 50/. to the author of the best invention for 
improving any useful art or manufacture ; 25/. to the per? 
son who should execute the best statue or piece of sculp- 
ture ; and 25/. to the person who should finish the best 
piece of painting, either- in history or landscape ; the pre- 
miums to be decided by the Dublin society, of which Dr. 
Madden was the institutor. The good effects of these well 
applied benefactions have not only been felt to advantage 
in the kingdom where they were given, but have even 

* There is something mysterious in business was transacted by Mr. Bow- 

the history of this work, of which only yer, without either of the other prin- 

oue volume na* appeared, and whether ters ever seeing the author ; a number 

any more were really intended is un- of them was delivered to the several 

certain. A thousand copies were print- booksellers mentioned in the title-page; 

ed with such Very great ditpatcb, that and in four days after, all that were 

three printers were employed on it unsold were recalled, and 890 of then) 

(Bowyer, Woodfall, and Roberts); and . were given up to Dr. Maddeu % to be 

the names of an uncommon number of destroyed. Mr. Tutet, who had a copy 

tep*jfe&>le booksellers in the title-page- of this curiosity, never beard but of one 

The current report is, that the edition other, though he frequently inquired 

was suppressed on the day of publica- after it. Mr. Bindley, however, has 

Hon ; and that it is pow exceedingly a copy, 

scaipe, itf certain. The whole of the ' 


extended their influence to it* sister country, having given 
rise to the society for tfat encouragement of arts and 
sciences in London. In 1743 or 4, he published- a long 
poem, called '< Boulter's Monument ;" which was corrected 
for the press by Dr. Johnson ; and an epistle of about 20O 
lines by him is prefixed to the second edition of Leland's 
"Life of Philip of Macedon." In an oration spoken at 
Dublin, Dec. 6, 1757, by Mr. Sheridan, that gentlemau 
took occasion to mention* Dr. Madden's bounty, and yw 
tended to have proceeded in the following manner, but 
was prevented by observing the doctor to be then present. 
Speaking of the admirable institutions of premiums, he 
went on, " Whose author, bad be never contributed any 
thing farther to the good of his country, would have de- 
serted immortal honour, and toust have been held in re- 
Terence by the latest posterity. But the unwearied and 
disinterested endeavours, during a long course of years, 
of this truly good man, in a variety of branches, to promote 
industry, and consequently the welfare of this kingdom, 
and the mighty benefits which have tbence resulted to the 
community, have made many of the good people of Ire- 
land sorry, that a long-talked of scheme has not hitherto 
been put in execution : that we might not appear inferior 
in point of gratitude to the citifceos of London, with re- 
spect to a fellow-citizen [sir John Barnard], (surely not 
with more reason,) and that like them we might be able 
to address our patriot, Praesenti tibi matures iargimur 

Dr. Madden had some gobd church preferment in Ire* 
land, particularly a deanery, we know not which, and the 
living of Drumtoully, worth about 400/. a year, tile right 
of presentation to which was divided between his own 
fgnuiy, and another. As his family had presented on the 
last vacancy, the other of course had a right to present 
now ; but the Maddens offering .to give up all right of 
presentation in future, if allowed to present on the present 
occasion, this was agreed, to, and thus the Doctor got the 
living. At what time this occurred we are not told, but 
he was then a colonel of militia, and was in Dublin dressed 
an scarlet. Besides this living, he had a very good estate; 
but as he was almost entirely devoted to books, or acts of 
charity and public good, be left the- management of his 
income, both ecclesiastical and temporal, to his wife, a 
lady of a somewhat different turn of m'rnd. They lived '*t. 


Manor- water*hoa?e, three miles from Newtown -Butler; , 
and the celebrated rev. Philip Skelton lived with them for 
tome time, as tutor to the children. Dr. Madden also 
gave him the curacy of Newtow&~Butler. 

Dt Madden died Dec. 30, 1765. There is a fine mez« 
zotinto of him, a whole length by J. Brooks, and a later, 
by Richard Purcell, from a painting by Robert Hunter. 

Mom. Grosley, a lively French traveller, speaking of a 
elty in the centre of France, " which at the beginning of 
the fifteenth century served as a theatre to the grandest 
scene that England ever acted in that kingdom," mentions 
'several English families as lately extinct, or still subsisting 
there. " This city," he adds, " in return, has given the 
British dominions an illustrious personage, to whom they 
are indebted for the first prizes which have been there 
distributed for die encouragement of agriculture and arts. 
His name was Madain : being thrown upon the coast of 
Ireland by events of which I could never hear any satis* 
factory account, be settled in Dublin by the name of 
Madden, there made a fortune, dedicated part of his estate, 
which amounted to four or five thousand pounds a year, to 
the prizes which I have spoken of, and left a rich succession t 
part of this succession went over to France to the Madain* 
his relations, who commenced a law-suit for the recovery 
of it, and caused ecclesiastical censures to be published 
against a merchant, to whom they had sent a letter of at* 
torney to act for them, and whom they accused of having 
appropriated to himself a share of their inheritance." ' 

MADOX (Isaac), a famous English prelate, born at 
London, July 27, 1 697, of obscure parents, whom he lost 
while he was young, was taken care of by an aunt, who 
placed him in * charity-school, and afterwards put jbim on 
trial to a pastry-cook ; but, before he was bound appren- 
tice, the master told her that the boy was not fit for trade; 
that he was continually reading books of learning above bis 
(the master's) comprehension, and therefore advised that 
she should take him away, and send him back to school, to 
follow the bent of his inclination. He was On this sent, by 
*n exhibition of some dissenting friends, to, one of the 
universities of Scotland, Cole says, that of Aberdeen ; but, 
not caring to take orders in that church, was afterwards, 
through the patronage of bishop Gibson, admitted to 

* Nichols's Bowyer.— BpswetV* Life of Johnf<m.-<-Burdy?s Life of Skelton, 
K>. 28, 32—39: 

90 M A D O X. 

QueenVcollege, Cambridge, and was favoured with a 
doctor's degree at Lambeth. After entering into orders,, 
he first was curate of St. Bride's, then domestic chaplain 
to Dr. Waddington, bishop of Chichester, whose niece he 
married, and was afterwards promoted to the rectory of St. 
Vedast, in Foster-lane, London. In 1729, he. was ap- 
pointed .clerk of the closet to queen Caroline. In 1733, 
he became dean of Wells, and was consecrated bishop of 
St. Asaph, in 1736. He was translated to the see of Wor- 
cester, in 1743. In 1733 he published the first part of 
the * Review of Neal's History of the Puritans," under 
the title of, " A Vindication of the Government, Doctrine, 
and Worship of the Church of England, established in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth :" of which the late bishop Hal- 
ifax said, " a better vindication of the reformed church 
of England, I never read." He was a great benefactor to 
the London hospitals, and the first promoter of the Wor- 
cester Infirmary in 1745, which has proved of singular 
benefit to the poor, and a great advantage to medical and 
surgical knowledge in that neighbourhood. He was also a 
great encourager of trade, engaging in the British fishery, 
by which he lost some money. He likewise was a strong 
advocate for the act against vending spirituous liquor* 
He piarried Elizabeth daughter of Richard Price, esq. of 
Hayes in Middlesex, in 1 73 1 ; and had two daughters and 
a son, of whom only one daughter survived him, and was 
afterwards married to the hon. James Yorke, bishop of 
Gloucester, and late bishop of Ely. He died Sept. 27, 
1739. Bishop Madox published fourteen occasional ser- 
mons preached between the years 1734 and 1752. Among 
other instances of his benevolence, we may mention his as- 
signing 2QQLperann. during his life, for the augmentation of 
the smaller benefices of his diocese. He corresponded with 
Dr. Doddridge with affectionate familiarity, and visited him 
when at Bristol, offering in the most obliging manner to coo* 
yey him to the Wells in bis chariot, at the stated times of 
drinking. He used to anticipate any hints respecting his 
origin by a joke which he was fond of repeating. When 
tarts were on his table, he pressed the company to partake, 
saying " that he believed they were very good, but that they 
were not of his own making" This he varied, when John 
Whiston dined with him, into, " some people reckon me a. 
good judge of that article !" Upon the whole he appears 
to have been an amiable and benevolent man, and to have 

M A D O X. 91, 

employed' his wealth as. wclL as his talents to the best, pur* 
poses. His widow survived him thirty years, dying Feb. 
19, 1789, 1 

MADOX (Thomas), the learned exchequer antiquary, 
and historiographer royal, of whose personal history we 
have no information, is well known among antiquaries and 
lawyers for his valuable collection of records relating to the 
ancient laws and constitution of this country ; the know- 
ledge of which tends greatly to the illustration of English 
history. In 1702, under the patronage of the learned 
lord Somers, he published the first fruits of his researches, 
under the title of " A Collection of antique Charters and 
Instruments of divers kinds taken from the originals, placed 
under several heads, and deduced (in a series according to 
the order of time) from the Norman conquest, to the end 
of the reign of king Henry VIIL" This is known by the 
name of the " Formulare Anglicanuni." To it is prefixed 
a dissertation concerning " Ancient Charters and Instru- 
ments," replete with useful learning upon that subject. 
He was prompted to this work, by considering that there 
was no methodical history or system of ancient charters 
and instruments of this nation then extant ; and that it 
would be acceptable to curious persons, and useful to the 
public, if something were done for supplying that defect 
Having entertained such a design, and being furnished 
with proper materials from the archives of the late court of 
augmentations, he was encouraged to proceed in it, espe- 
cially by lord Somers.; and prosecuted it with so much ap- 
plication, that out of an immense heap of original charters 
and writhigs, remaining in that, repository, he selected 
and digested the chief substance of this volume. In 171 J, 
he proceeded to a work of still greater importance than the 
foregoing, " The History and Antiquities of the Exche- 
quer of the Kings of England, in two periods, viz. from 
the Norman conquest, to the end of tbe reign of king 
John; and from the end of the reign of king John, to 
the end of the reign of king Edward II. Taken from, 
records. Together with a correct copy of the ancient 
dialogue concerning the Exchequer, generally ascribed 
to Gervasius Tilburiensis ; and a Dissertation concern* 
ipg the most ancient great roil of the exchequer, com- 
monly styled the roll of Quinto Regis Stephani," folio; 

} Nichols's Bowyer.— Orton's Life of Doddridge, p. 328.— Doddridge's Let- 
tors., p. 452— 454.— -MS notss by John Whiston iu his copy of the first eJitiou 
of this Dictionary. 

m u A d a x. 

reprinted in If 69, in 4ta This was dedicated to oui 
Anne ; but; there is likewise prefixed to it a long prefatory 
epistle to the lord Somers, in which he gives that illustrious 
patroq some account of this unprecedented undertaking. 
He observes, thai though some treatises bad been written 
concerning the exchequer, yet no history [of it had been 
yet attempted by any man ; that he had pursued his sub- 
ject to those ancient times, to which, he thinks, the ori- 
ginal of the exchequer in England may properly be as- 
signed ; and thence had drawn down an .orderly account of 
H through a long course of years ; and, having consulted, 
as well the books necessary to be perused upon this occa- 
sion, as a very great number of records and manuscripts, 
he had endeavoured all along to confirm what he offered 
by proper vouchers, which are subjoined column-wise in 
each page, except where their extraordinary length made 
it impracticable. The records which he here attests were, 
as he adds, taken by his own pen from the authentic 
parchments, unless where it appears by his references to 
be otherwise. He has contrived throughout the whole (as 
far as the subject-matter would permit) to make use of 
such memorials as serve either to make ,known or fo ex- 
plain the ancient laws and usages of this kingdom. For 
which reason, as he notes, this work may be deemed, not 
merely a history of the exchequer, but likewise a promp- 
tuary towards a history of the ancient law of England. . He 
afterwards acquaints his lordship in what method he began 
and proceeded in compiling thjs work. First, he made as 
full a collection from records as he could, of materials re- 
lating to the subject. Those materials being regularly 
arranged in several books of collectanea, he reviewed them, 
and, weighing what they imported, and how they might 
be applied, he drew from thence a general scheme of his 
design. When he had pitched upon the heads of his dis- 
course, he took materials for them out of the aforesaid: 
fund, and digested them into their proper rank and order. ' 
In doing this, it was his practice for the most part to write " 
down, in the draught of his book, the respective records 
or testimonies first of all ; i. e. before he wrote his own 
text or composition ; and from them formed his history or 
account of things; connecting and applying them -after- 
wards, as the case would admit. At the <end of this his- 
tory (as we have expressed it in the title) Mr. Maddox has 
published a copy of. the treatise concerning the exchequer, 

M A D O X. *3 

written in the way of dialogue, and generally ascribed to ' 
Genrasius Tilburiensis* This treatise is certainly vety 
ancient, and intrinsically valuable. Our author introduces 
it by an epistolary dissertation, in Latin, to the then lord. 
Halifax. The dialogue is followed by another epistolary 
dissertation, in the same language, addressed to She lord 
Somerc, relating to the great roll of the exchequer* com- 
monly styled the " Roll of Qttinto Regis Stephatti." No 
historical account has been given; in thib volume, of the 
records reposited in the exchequer. Mr. Madox thought 
that it might be more properly done if there was occasion 
for it, hereafter, in a continuation of this work ; tohieh he 
seems to have had some intention of performing himself 
when he published this part ; or hoped some other hand 
would supply, if he did not*. The concluding chapter 
of the history is a list of the barons of this court from the 
first year ef William the Conqueror to the 20th of Edward 
II. The last work this laborious historiographer published 
himself, was the " Ffrma Burgi, or historical essay con- 
cerning the cities* towns, And boroughs of England. Taken 
from records/* This treatise was inscribed to king George 
I. The author warns his readers against expecting to find 
any curious or refined learning in it ; in regard the matter 
of it is low. It is only one part of a subject, which, how- 
ever, is extensive and difltotilt, concerning which, he tells 
us, much has been skid by English writers to very littU 
purpose, serving rather to entangle than to clear it When 
he first entered upon the discussion of it, be found himself 
encompassed with doubts, which it hath been his endea- 
vour, as he says, to remove or lessen as he went along. 
~ He has throughout mixed history and dissertation together, 
making these two strengthen and diversify each other. 
However modestly Mr. Madox might express himself con- 
cerning the learning of this work, it is in reality both cu- 
rious and profound) and bis inquiries very useful. The 
civil antiquities of this country would, in all probability, 
have been further obliged than they are to this industrious 
pef*bn, if his life had been of a somewhat longer con- 
tinuances fof it May be presumed, from two or three . 
passages in the prefaces of th&se books he published him- 

_ m a letter from him to Dr. Char- sold, he would be but just able to pay 

leit, we find that the printing and paper the charges with a trilling overplus. 1 ' — 

of this work cost him 400/. and when Letters by eminent Persons, J813, 

the whole impression of 480 should be 3 vols. 4*>* 

84 M A D O X. 


self, that he meditated and intended some others to follow 
them, different from this posthumous History of Baronies^ 
which his advertisement of it apparently suggests to be 
the only manuscript left finished by the. author. This is 
compiled much. in the manner of his other writings. In 
the first book he discourses largely of land baronies; in 
the second book he treats briefly of titular baronies ; and 
in the third' of feudal tenure in capite. 

Mr. Madox's large and valuable collection of transcripts, 
in ninety -four volumes in folio and quarto, consisting chiefly 
. of extracts from records in the exchequer, the patent and 
clause rolls in the Tower, the Cotton library, the archives 
of Canterbury and Westminster, the collections ol Christ's 
College, Cambridge, &c. made by him, and intended as 
materials for a feudal history of England from the earliest 
times, were presented by his widow to the British museum, 
where they are now preserved. They were the labour of 
thirty years; and Mr. Madox frequently declared, that 
when young he would have given 1500 guineas; for them. 
Fifty-nine volumes of Rymer's Collection of Public Acts 
relating to the history and government of England from 
1115 to 1698 (not printed in his Foadera, but of which 
there is a catalogue in vol. XVII.) are also deposited in the 
Museum by an order of the House of Lords; 1 ■ 

MAECENAS (Caius Cilmus), the great friend and 
« counsellor of Augustus Caesar, was himself a polite scholar, 
but is chiefly memorable for having been the patron and 
protector of men of letters. He was descended -from a 
most ancient and illustrious origin, even from the kings of 
Hetruria, as Horace often tells us ; but his immediate fore- 
fathers were only of the equestrian order. He is supposed 
to have been born at Rome, because his. family lived there ; 
but in what year antiquity does not tell us. His educa- 
tion is supposed to have been of the most liberal kind, and 
agreeable to the dignity and splendour of his birth, as he 
excelled in every thing that related to arms, politics, and 
letters. How he spent his younger years is. also unknown, 
there being no mention made of him, by ttfiy writer, before 
the death of Julius Caesar, which happened in the year of 
Rome 709. Then Octavius Caesar, who was afterwards 
called Augustus, went to Rome to take possession of his 
uncle's inheritance ; and, at the same time, ^Maecenas l>e- 

* Nichols** Bowyer. ,_ '. 

M JE C E N A S. 95 

Came first publicly known ; though he appear* to have been 
Augustus's friend, and, as it should seem, guardian, from 
bis childhood. From that time he accompanied him 
through all his fortunes, and was his counsellor and ad- 
viser upon all occasions ; so that Pedo Albinovanus, or 
rather the unknown author whose elegy has been ascribed 
to him, justly calls him " Caesaris dextram," Caesar's right 

A. U. C. 710, the year that Cicero was killed, and Ovid 
born, Maecenas distinguished himself by his courage and 
military skill at the battle of Modena, Where the consuls 
Hirtius and Pansa were killed in fighting against Antony ; 
as he did afterwards at Philippi. After this last battle, 
began the memorable friendship between him and Horace. 
Horace, as Suetonius relates, was a trib&ne in the army of 
Brutus and Cassius, and, upon the defeat of those generals, 
made a prisoner of war. Maecenas, finding him an accom- 
plished man, became immediately his friend and protector, 
and afterwards recommended him to Augustus, who re- 
stored him to his estate, with no small additions. In the 
mean time, though Maecenas behaved himself well as a 
soldier in these and other * battles, yet his principal pro- 
vince was that of a minister and counsellor. He was the 
adviser, • the manager, the negotiator, in every thing that 
related to civil affairs. When the league was made at 
Brundusium betwen Antony and Augustus, he was sent to 
act: on the part of Augustus, and afterwards, when this 
league was about to be broken, through the suspicions of 
each party, he was sent to Antony to ratify it anew. 

U. C. 717, when Augustus and Agrippa went to Sicily, 
to fight Sextus Pompeius by sea, Maecenas went with 
them ; but soon after returned, to appease some commo- 
tions which were rising at Rome : for though he usually 
attended Augustus in all his military expeditions, yet 
whenever there was any thing to be done at Rome, either 
with the senate or people, he was also dispatched thither 
for that. purpose. He was indeed invested with the go- 
vernment while Augustus and Agrippa were employed in 
the wars. Thus Dion Cassius, speaking of the year 718, 
says. that. Maecenas " had then, and some time after, the 
administration of civil affairs, not only at Rome, but 
throughout all Italy," .and V. Paterculus relates, that after 
then battle of Actium, which happened in the year 724; 
">fcfae government of the city was committed to Maecenas, a 
man of equestrian rank, but of an illustrious family." 

96 M M C E N A S* 

Upon the total defeat of Antony at Actium, he returned 
to Rome, to take the government into his hands, till Au- 
gustus could settle some necessary affairs in Greece and 
Asia. Agrippa soon followed Maecenas ; and, when Au- 
gustus arrived, he placed these two great men and faithful 
adherents, the one over his civil, the other over his military 
concerns. While Augustus was extinguishing the remains 
of the civil war in Asia and Egypt, young Lepidus, the 
son of the triumvir, was forming a scheme to assassinate 
him at his return to Rome. This conspiracy was discovered 
at Once by the extraordinary vigilance of Maecenas ; who, 
as Paterculus says, "observing the rash councils of the 
headstrong youth* with the same tranquillity and calratiesa 
as if uothing at all had been doing, instantly pat him to 
death, without the least noise and tumult, and by that 
means extinguished another civil war in its very beginning." 

The civil wars being now at an end, Augustus returned 
to Rome ; and after he had triumphed according to cus- 
tom, he began to talk of restoring the commonwealth. 
Whether he was in earnest, or did it only to try the judg- 
ment pf his friends, we do not presume to determine : 
however he consulted Maecenas and Agrippa about it* 
Agrippa advised him to it ; but Maecenas dissuaded him, 
saying, that it was not only impossible for him to live in 
safety as a private man, after what had passed, but that 
the government would be better administered, and flou- 
rish more in his hands than if he was to deliver it. up to 
the senate and people. The author of the "Life of 
Virgil" says that Augustus, " wavering what he should do, 
consulted that poet upon the occasion." But this life is 
not of sufficient authority ; for, though it has usually beeli 
ascribed to Servius or Donatus* yet the critics agree, that 
it was not written by either of them. Augustus, in the 
mean time, followed Maecenas's advice, and retained the 
government : and from this time Maecenas indulged him- 
self, at vacant hours, in literary alnusemtnts, and the con- 
versation of the men of letters. In the year 734 Virgil 
died, and left Augustus and Maecenas heirs to his posses* 
sious. Maecenas was excessively fond of this poet, who, 
of ell the wits of the Augustan age, stood highest in his 
esteem ; and, if the " Georgics" and the " JEtaeid" be 
owing to the good taste and encouragement of this patron, 
as there is some reason to think, posterity eaimot'comussv 
morate htm. with too much gratitude. ■ The anther of khe 

• -*♦ 

M M C E N A S. 97 

* < Life of Virgil*' tells us that the poet " published the 
Georgics in honour of Maecenas, to whom they are ad- 
dressed ; M and adds, that " they were recited to Augustus 
four days together at Atella, where he rested himself for 
some time, in his return from Actium, Maecenas taking 
upon him the office of reciting, as oft as Virgil's voice 
failed him." Horace may be ranked next to Virgil in 
Maecenas's good graces : we have already mentioned how 
and. what time their friendship commenced. Propertius 
also acknowledges Maecenas for his favourer and protector : 
nor must Varins be forgot, though we have nothing of his 
remaining; since we find him highly praised by both Vir- 
gil and Horace. He was a writer of tragedies: and Quin- 
tilian thinks he may be compared with any of the ancients. 
In a word, Maecenas's house was a place of refuge and 
welcome to all the learned of his time ■, not only to Virgil, 
Horace, Propertius, and Varius, but to Fundanius, whom 
Horace extols as an admirable writer of comedies ; to Fus- 
cus Aristius, a noble grammarian, and Horace's intimate 
friencV; to Plotius Tueca, who assisted Varius in correcting 
the " ^Eneid" after the death of Virgil ; to Valgius, a poet 
and very learned man, who, as Pliny tells us, dedicated a 
took to Augustus " De usu Herbarum ;" to Asinius Pollio, 
an excellent tragic writer, and to several others, whom it 
would be tedious to mention. All these dedicated their 
works, or some part of them at least, to Maecenas, and 
repeatedly celebrated his praises in them; and we may 
observe further, what Plutarch tells us, that even Au- 
gustus himself inscribed his " Commentaries" to him and 
to Agrippa. 

Maecenas continued in Augustus's favour to the end of 
his life, but not uninterruptedly. Augustus had an intrigue 
with Maecenas's wife ; and though the minister bore this 
liberty of his master's very patiently, yet there wag once a 
coldness on the part of Augustus, although not of long 
continuance. Maecenas died in the year 745, as is sup- 
posed, at an advanced age. He must have been older than 
Augustus, because he was a kind of tutor to him in his 
youth. Horace did not probably long survive liim, as 
there is no elegy of his upon Maecenas extant, nor any 
account of one having ever been written, which would 
probably have been the case, had Horace survived him any 
time. Sanadon, -the French editor of Horace, insists that 
the poet died before his patron ; and that the recommen- 

Voj.. XXL H 

98 M JE C E N A 8. 


dation of him to Augustus was found only ia Maecenas's 
will, which had not been altered. 

Maecenas is said never to have enjoyed a good state of 
health in any part of his life ; and many singularities are 
related of his bodily constitution. Thus Pliny tells us, 
that he was always in a fever; and that, for three years 
before his death, he had not a moment's sleep. Though he 
was certainly an extraordinary man, and possessed many 
admirable virtues and qualities, yet it is agreed on all 
bands that he was very luxurious and effeminate. Seneca 
has allowed him to have been a great man, yet censures 
him very severely on this head, and thinks that his effemi- 
nacy has infected even his style. " Every body knows," 
says he, " how Maecenas lived, nor is there any occasion 
for me to describe it : the effeminacy of his walk, the de- 
licacy of his manner, and the pride he took in shewing 
himself publicly, are things too notorious for me to insist 
on. But what ! Is not his style as effeminate as l\imself } 
Are not his words as soft and affected as his dress, his 

Suipage, the furniture of his house, and his wife ?" Then, 
;er quoting some of his poetry, " who does not perceive," 
says he, " that the author of these verses must have been 
the man, who was perpetually walking about the city with 
his tunic loose, and all the other symptoms of the most 
effeminate mind ?" V. Paterculus does not represent 
him as less effeminate than Seneca, but dwells more on 
his good qualities. " Maecenas," says he, " was of the 
equestrian order, but sprung from a most illustrious origin. 
He was a man, who, when business required, was able to 
undergo any fatigue and watching; who consulted pro- 
perly upon all occasions, and knew as well how to execute 
what he had consulted ; yet a man, who in seasons of lei* 
sure was luxurious, soft, and effeminate, almost beyond a 
woman. He was no less dear to Caesar than to Agrippa, 
but distinguished by him with fewer honours ; for he al- 
ways continued of the equestrian rank, in which he was 
born ; not that he could not have been advanced upon the 
least intimation, but be never solicited it." His patronage 
of men of letters is, after all, the foundation of his fame ; 
and having by general consent given a name to the patron$ 
of literature, bis own can never be forgotten. * 

1 Maecenas Meib6mii. — Life, by Schomberg, compiled from Meibouius and 
the abbe Richer.— Gent Mag. vol. LXXVL— Saarii Onomast. 


MjESTLINUS (Michael), a celebrated astronomer of 
Germany, whose name deserves to be preserved, was born 
about 1542, in the dutchy of Wirtemberg, and spent his 
youth in Italy, where he made a public speech in favour of 
Copernicus, which served to wean Galileo from Aristotle and 
Ptolemy, to whom he had been hitherto entirely devoted. 
He returned afterwards to Germany, and became professor 
of mathematics at Tubingen ; where he had among bis 
scholars the great Kepler. Tycho Brahe, though be did not 
assent to Msestlin, has yet allowed him to be an extra- 
ordinary person, and well acquainted with the science of 
astronomy. Kepler has praised several ingenious inven- 
tions of Msestlin's, in his " Astronomia Optica." He died 
in 1 590, after having published many works in mathema- 
tics and astronomy, among which were his treatises " De 
Stella nova Cassiopeia ;" " Ephemerides," according to the 
Prutenic Tables, which were first published by Erasmus 
Reinoldus in 1551. He published likewise "Thesis d§ 
Eclipsibus ; v and an " Epitome of Astronomy," &c. * 


MAFFEI (Francis Scipio), a celebrated Italian writer, 
and a marquis, was born of an illustrious family at Verona, 
in 1675, and was very early associated to the academy of 
the Arcadi at Rome. At the age of twenty -seven, he dis- 
tinguished himself at Verona, by supporting publicly a thesis 
on love, in which the ladies were the judges and assessors; 
and displayed at once his talents for gallantry, eloquence, 
and poetry. Anxious for glory of all kinds, he made his 
next effort in the army, and served as a volunteer at the 
battle of Donawert, in 1704; but the love of letters pre* 
vailed, and he returned into Italy. There his first literary 
enterprise, occasioned by an affair of honour, in which his 
elder brother was involved, was an earnest attack upon the 
practise of duelling. He brought against it all the argu- 
ments to which it is so evidently exposed ; the opposite 
practice of the ancients, the suggestions of good sense, the 
interests of social life, and the injunctions of religion. He 
proceeded then to the drama, and produced his "Merope," 
which was acted with the most brilliant success. Having 
thus purified tragedy, he proceeded to render the same 
service to comedy, and wrote one entitled " La Ceremo- 
nia," which was much applauded. Jn 1732, he visited 

\ Martini Bio;. Philos.— Diet, Hist. 

H 2 

*<to M A F F EI. 

France, where be passed four years, caressed itr thfc gwfct-. 
est degree for bis talents and learning ; and then Wettt 
into England, where he was much esteemed, to Hoi* 
fend, and finally td Vienna, and was most hotiourabry *fe-* 
eeived by the emperor Charles VI. After setferal ye*t* 
thus employed, he returned into Italy, and in litertrry ac* 
tivity, extended his attention to altoost every subject of btr-« 
than knowledge. He died in 1755, at the age of eighty. 
He was gifted with a cornprehensiVe genius, a lively wit, 
and a penetrating mind, eaget for discoveries, and Well 
dalcolated for miking them. His disposition was cheerful, 
sincere, and disinterested, full of zeal for religion, and 
&tthftfi in performing its duties. The people of Verona 
almost idolized him. During bis last illness they offered 
public prayers for his recovery, and the council of state 
decreed solemn obsequies after his death, with th£ cere- 
mony of a funeral oration ht the cathedral of Verona. 
: Lady Mary Wortley Montague, in her letters lately pub- 
lished, has given a very lively description of Maffei's em- 
ployments: "After having made the tour of Europe in 
search 6f antiquities, he fixed his residence in his native 
t&toti of Verona, where he erected himself a little empire, 
from the general esteem, and a conversation (so they Call 
an assembly) which he established in his palace, one of 
the largest in that place, and so lu'ckily situated, that it 
is between the theatre and the ancient amphitheatre. He 
made piazzas heading to each of them, filled with shops, 
frfrere were sold coffee, tea, chocolate, all sorts of street- 
meats, and in the midst, a court well kept, and sartded, 
for the use of those young gentlemen who would exercise 
tfaeir managed horses, or show their mistresses their sftfll in 
fiding. His gallery was open every evening at five o'clock, 
inhere he had a fine collection of antiquities, and two large 
cabinets of medals, intaglios, and cameos, arranged ift 
exact order. His library joined to it : and on the other sidfe 
a suite of five rooms, the first of which was destined to 
dancing, the second to cards (but all games of hazard ex- 
cluded), and the others (where he himself presided in an 
easy chair), sacred to conversation, which always turned 
upon some point of learning, either historical or poetical. 
Controversy and politics being utterly prohibited, he ge- 
nerally proposed the subject, and took great delight in in- 
structing the young people, who were obliged to seek the 


•medal, or explain the inspription that iHustjpteel any fact 
they discoursed of. Those who chose the diversion D f the 
public walks, or theatre, went thither, but never failed ' 
returning to give an account of the drama, which produced 
a critical dissertation on that st*bject^ the marquis having 
given shining proofs of his skill in that art. His tragedy 
of " Merope," which is much injured by Voltaire's trans- 
lation*, being esteemed a master -piece ; and his <con»edy of 
*he " Ceremonies," being a just ridicule of those formal 
fopperies* it has gone a great way in helping to banish 
them out of Italy. The walkers contributed to the enteiv 
taiMaeAt by an account of some herb, or Bower, which led 
the tray to a botanical conversation *, or, if they were such 
inaccurate observers as to have nothing of that kind to 
offer, they repeated some pastoral description. One day 
in the week was set apart for music, vocal and instrument- 
tal, but no mercenaries were admitted to the concert. 
Thus, at a very little expence (his fortune not permitting a 
-large one), he had the' happiness of giving his countrymen 
a taste of polite pleasure, and shewing the youth how to 
pass their time agreeably without debauchery." 

The complete catalogue of his works would resemble 
•that of a library ; the chief of them are these: 1. " Rime 
e prose," Venice, 1719, 4to. 2. "La scienza Cavalle- 
resca," Rome, 1710, 4to. This is against duelling, and 
has passed through six editions. 3. " Merope," of which 
there have been many more editions, and several foreign 
versions. 4. " Traduttori Italiani," &c. Venice, 1720, 
Svg 9 contains an account of the Italian translations from 
£he classics. 5. " Theatre Italiano," a selection of Ita- 
lian tragedies, in 3 vols. 8vo. 6. " Cassiodori complexi- 
ties, in Epistplas <et Acta Apostolorum," &c. Flor. 1721. 
ff. *' Istoria Diploipatica," or a critical introduction to 
djpknaaus knowledge. 8. w Degli Anfoeatri," on amphi- 
theatres, particularly that of Verona, 1723, 9. "Sup- 
ptefigHHum Acaciarum," Venice, 1728. 10. " Museum 
Vejronense," 1789, folio. Ih «' Verona 11 lustrata," 17 $2, 
folio. 12. An Italian translation of the first book of 
Homer, in blank verse, printed at London, in 1737. 
1& <( La fteligione di Gentili Del morire," 1736, 4to. 
.14. " Osservationi Letterarie," intended to serve as a conti- 
nuation of the Giornale de' Leterati d' Italia. He published 
tdse a work on grace, some editions of the fathers, apd 

102 MA FFEt. 

other matters. A complete edition of his works was pub 5 * 
lished at' Venice in 1790, in 18 vols. 8vo. l 

MAFFEI, or MAFFjEUS (John Peter), a learned Je- 
suit, was born at Bergamo in 1536, and was instructed by 
his uncles Basil and Chrysostom Zanchi, canons regular 
of that city, in Greek, Latin, philosophy and theology. 
His studies being finished he went to Rome, where his 
talents became so well known that several princes invited 
him to settle in their dominions, but he gave the prefer- 
ence to Genoa, where in 1563 he was appointed professor 
of eloquence, with an ample salary. He continued in that 
office two years, and was chosen to the office, of secretary 
of state; but iix 1565, he returned to Rome, where he 
entered into the society of Jesuits. He spent six years as 
professor of eloquence in the Roman college, during which 
he translated, into the Latin language, the history of the 
Indies by Acosta, which was published in 1570. He then 
went to Lisbon at the request of cardinal Henry, and com- 
piled from papers and other documents with which he was 
'to be furnished, a complete history of 'the Portuguese con- 
quests in the Indies, and of the progress of the Christian 
religion in that quarter. He returned to Italy in 1581, 
and some years after was placed, by Clement VIII. in the 
Vatican, for the purpose of continuing, in the Latin lan- 
guage, the annals of Gregory XIII. begun by him in the 
Italian ; of this he had finished three books at the time of 
his death, which happened at Tivoli Oct. 20, 1603. Soon 
after he entered among the Jesuits he wrote the life of 
Ignatius Loyola; but his principal work is entitled '* Histo- 
riarum Indicarum," lib. XVI. written in a very pure style, 
which has been frequently reprinted. The best edition is 
in two volumes 4to, printed at Bergamo in 1747. The 
purity of his style was the effect of great labour. Few 
men ever wrote so slowly ; nothing seemed to please him, 
and he used to pass whole hours in polishing his periods ; 
but we cannot readily credit all that has been reported on 
this subject, as that be never could finish above twelve or 
fifteen lines in a day; that he was twelve years in writing 
his history of the Indies, and that, to prevent his mind 
being tainted with bad Latin, he read his bretiiary in Greek. 
There are, however, some other particulars of his personal 

1 Fabreni Vitae Italorum.— Moreri,— .Diet, Hist,— Lady. M. W. Mootqgne'ft 
Works, vol. IV. p. 266, edit. 1803. 


history which correspond a little with all this. He disliked 
the ordinary commons of the Jesuits 9 college, and had al- 
ways something very nice and delicate provided for hitri, 
considering more substantial and gross food as incompati- 
ble with elegant writing ; yet with all this care, he was of 
such an irascible temper as to be perpetually giving offence, 
and perpetually asking pardon. 1 

MAGALHAENS (Ferdinand de), better known by the 
name of Magellan, an eminent navigator, was by birth a 
Portuguese. He served with much reputatiou during five 
years under Albuquerque, in the East Indies, particularly 
at the conquest of Malacca in 1510, but as his services 
were not well repaid, he accepted from Charles V. king of 
Spain, the command of a fleet, with which, in 1519, he 
discovered the straits called after himself at the extremity 
of South America. Soon after this he took possession of 
the Ladrone and Philippine islands in the name of Charles 
V. ; and had be acted with prudence, might have had the 
honour of being accounted the first circumnavigator of the 
globe. His severities, however, towards the natives of 
Matan, compelled them to resist ; aqd in the contest Ma- 
galhaens received a wound from an arrow in the leg, and 
being ill supported by his men, he was killed by a lance, in 

MAGALHAENS (John Hyacinth de), said to be a 
lineal descendant (Mr. Nichols says great-grandson) of the 
preceding, was born in 1723, and became an Augustine 
monk at Lisbon, but, having renounced the Roman Catho- 
lic religion, came to reside in England, about 1764. He 
was an able linguist, and well versed in chemistry and 
other branches of natural philosophy. He published seve- 
ral treatises in that science, particularly a work on mine- 
ralogy,' taken principally from Cronstadt ; an account of 
various philosophical instruments ; and a narrative of the 
last days of Rousseau, to which his name is not affixed. 
He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1774, and 
was a member of. several foreign academies. He died at 
his lodgings at Islington, Feb. 7, 1790. 3 

MAGALOTTI (Laurence), a celebrated philosopher 
and mathematician, Waft born at Rome October 23, 1637. 

1 Niceron, vol. V.— Moreri. — BibK Do Maine et Du Verdier, vol. IT; 

* Jtallart's Academic des Sciences, vol. II.— Rees's Cyclopaedia. — Buroey's 
Ifrooveries in the South Safe 

* Nichols's fiowyer, vol. Vill.^Lvioos'a Eotfroas, toJ. {11. 

104 MAG A L O TT L 

After studying jurisprudence, in which he made a great 
and very rapid progress at Pisa, be begail to devote bis 
main attention to mathematics and natural philosophy, 
which he cultivated at Florence, during three years, under 
the celebrated Vincent Viviani, and was made secretary to 
the academy del Cimento, the duties of which office be 
discharged with the utmost assiduity and care. Being di- 
rected by the prince to draw up an account of the experi- 
ments made there, he published it in 1666, when it was 
received with universal applause by men of science. While 
engaged on this work, he obtained leave from Leopold to 
pay a visit to his father at Rome, and with a view to obtain 
some ecclesiastical promotion. Having failed in this ob- 
ject, he returned to Florence, and obtained a place at the 
court of the grand duke Ferdinand II. ; and shortly after a 
pension was given him by pope Alexander VII. About 
1666 he drew up and published a small volume relative to 
the history of China, which was received with great ap- 
plause ; and at the same time he published a small, but 
elegant compendium of the Moral Doctrine of Confucius. 
Having considerable poetical talents, he was the first per- 
son who published a good translation of the Odes of Ana - 
creon in Italian verse. He was very conversant in many 
of the modern languages, and could write and speak 
French, Spanish, and English, with the correctness and 
ease of the natives of those countries. When in England 
he became the intimate friend of the illustrious Mr. Robert 
Boyle, whom he vainly attempted to convert from the 
errors of the protestant faith. After being employed in 
several missions to foreign princes, he was in 1674 ap- 
pointed ambassador to the imperial court, where he ac- 
quired the particular favour of the emperor, and formed 
connections with the men most eminent for science and 
literature ; but, finding a very inconvenient delay of the 
necessary pecuniary remittances from his court, he deter- 
mined to return to Florence without waiting the permission 
of the duke Shortly after, that prince recalled him, and 
gave him apartments in his palace, with a considerable 
pension, but Magalotti preferred retirement, and the c^tttet 
prosecution of his studies. I» 1684 he c composed fifteen 
Italian odes, in which he has drawn the picture of a wq- 
man of noble .birth and exqpisite . beauty, distinguished 
not only by every personal, but by every mental charm, 
and yet rendering herself chiefly the object of admiration 

M A G A L O T T I. 101 

and delight by her manners and conduct, whom, with no 
great gallantly, he entitled " The Imaginary Lady." His 
next work consisted of Letters against Atheists, in which 
bis learning and philosophy appear to great advantage. la 
1689 be was appointed a counsellor of state to the grand 
duke, who sent him "his ambassador into Spain to nego- 
tiate a marriage between one of his daughters and king 
Charles II. ; but soon after be had accomplished the object 
of this mission, he sunk into a temporary melancholy. Afteif 
recovering in about a year, he resumed his literary labours, 
and published works upon various subjects, and left others 
which were given to the world after his decease, which 
happened in 1712, when he had attained the age of 75. 
Magalotti was as eminent for his piety as he was for his 
literary talents ; unimpeachable in his mprela, liberal, be- 
neficent, friendly, polite, and a lively and cheerful, as 
well as very instructive companion. His house was the 
constant resort of men of letters from all countries, whom 
he treated with elegant hospitality. He was deeply con- 
versant with the writings of the ancient philosophers, and 
was a follower of the Platonic doctrine in his poems. In bis 
natural and philosophical investigations he discarded all 
authority, and submitted to no other guide but experiment. 
Among the moderns he was particularly attached to Gali- 
leo. After his death a medal was struck in honour of his 
memory, with the figure of Apollo raised on the reverse, 
and the inscription Omkia Lustrat. 

His principal works are, 1. " Saggi di naturali^sperienne 
fatte nel academia de Cimento," &c. 1666, fol. reprinted 
in 1691. 2. " Lettera proemiale per la traduzione della 
ooncordia dei quattro 'Evangeliste di Giansenio, ,t &c. 1680, 
with various other translations, the titles of which may be 
seen in Fabroni. 3. " Lettere familiare,** Venice, 1761, 
4te, written against the Atheists. A second volume ap- 
peared in 1 768. 4: M Lettere scientificfee," Florence, 1721, 
4to. 6. ,c danzonette AnacreoMichfcdi Lindoro Eleato" 
(his academical name), Florence, 1723, &c. A long list is 
given fey Fabroni of hw unpublished #<jrk«;' but neither 
these no* his printed works ate much known in England or 

MAGGI, or MAGIUS {tft/ROfttE), an ingenious an* 

learned tottta bf^ttte sixteentffr<eentury, was born at Anghi- 

106 M A G G I. 

ari in Tuscany. He was educated in the Italian universi- 
ties, where his genius' and application carried him almost 
through the whole circle of sciences ; for, besides the belies 
lettres and law, he applied to the study of war, and even 
wrote books upon the subject. In this also he afterwards 
distinguished himself: for he was sent by the Venetians to 
the isle of Cyprus, with the commission of judge-martial ; 
.and when the Turks besieged Famagosta, he performed all 
the services to the place that could have been expected 
from a skilful engineer. He contrived a kind of mine and 
fire-engines, by which he laid the labours of the Turks in 
ruins : and he destroyed in a moment works which had 
Cost them no small time and pains. But they had too 
good an opportunity of revenging themselves on him ; for 
the city falling at last into their hands, in 1571, Magius 
became their slave, and was used very barbarously. His 
comfort lay altogether, in the stock of learning with which 
he was provided ; and so prodigious was his memory, that 
he did not think himself unqualified, though deprived en- 
tirely of books, to compose. treatises full of quotations* As 
he was obliged all the day to do the drudgery of the 
meanest slave, he spent a great part of the night in writ- 
ing. He wrote in prison a treatise upon bells, " De tin- 
tinnabulis," and another upon the wooden horse, " De 
equuleo," He was determined to the first of these sub- 
jects by observing, that the Turks had no bells ; and to, 
the second, by ruminating upon the various kinds of tor- 
ture to which his dismal situation exposed him, which 
brought to his reflection, that the equukus had never been 
thoroughly explained. He dedicated the first of these 
treatises to the emperor's ambassador at Constantinople, and 
the other to the French ambassador -at the same place. 
He conjured these ambassadors to use their interest for his 
liberty ; which while they attempted to procure him, they 
only hastened bis death : for the bashaw Mahoiqet, whQ 
had not forgot the mischief* which Magius had done the 
Tyrks at the siege of Famagosta, being informed that he 
had been at the Imperial ambassador's house, wbitber they 
had indiscreetly carried him, caused him to. be seized 
again, and strangled that night in prison. This happened 
in 1572, or 1573, it is not certain which. 

The books which he published before he went to Cyprus, 
are, 1. " De mundi exitio per exustionem libri quinque," 
Basil, 1562, folio. 2. " Vitee Hltmrium virorum, auctore 

M A G G I. 107 

&milio Probo, cum commentariis," Basil, folio. 3. ".Corti- 
mentaria in quatuor institutionum civilium libros," Lugd. 
8vo. 4. " Miscellanea, sive varice lectiones," Venet. 1564, 
8to. He also published some books in Italian ; the most 
celebrated of which is his " Delia forttficatione delle 
citta," which contains an account of his machines and in- 

There were other men of considerable eminence in Italy 
of the same name, among whom we may enumerate, a 
brother of the preceding, Bartholomew Maqqi, a phy- 
sician at Bologna, who wrote a treatise in Latin, " On the 
Cure of Gun-shot Wounds/' Bologna, 1552, 4to; Vin- 
cent Mag«i, a native of Brescia, and celebrated professor 
of ethics at Ferrara and Padua, author of several works ; 
Francis Maria Maggi, who published " Syntagmata lin- 
guarum Georgia," Romae, 1670, folio; and lastly, Charles 
Maria Maggi, an Italian poet of the seventeenth century, 
and one of the restorers of good taste in Italy, after the 
barbarous ravages of the school of Marini. He was born ' 
at Milan in 1630, and was secretary to the senate of that 
city. He died in 1690, and his works were published in 
the following year by Muratorf, at Milan, in 4 vols. 12mo. 
This poet is Mentioned with very high encomiums in the 
letters between Mrs. Carter and Miss Talbot. The dow- 
ager lady Spencer also, when resident at Pisa, published 
a " Scelta" of his works ; and in 1811, " The Beauties" of 
C. M. Maggi, " paraphrased,' 9 were published by Mariane 
Starke. * 

MAGINI (John -Anthony), or Maginus, professor of 
mathematics in the university of Bologna, was born at 
Padua in 1536. . He was remarkable for his great assi- 
duity in acquiring and improving the knowledge of the 
mathematical sciences, with several new inventions for these 
purposes, and for the extraordinary favour he obtained 
from most princes of his time. This doubtless arose partly 
from the celebrity he had in matters of astrology, to which 
he was greatly addicted, making horoscopes, and foretell- 
ing events both relating to persons and things. He was 
invited by the emperor Rodolphus to come to Vienna, 
where he promised him a professor's chair, about 1597; 
but not being able to prevail on him to settle there, he 
nevertheless gave him a handsome pension. 

»G«n, Dict—Nictron, vol. XY1H— Fabrooi, vol. XVIL— Brit»h Critic, 
vol. XXXVII. 

toy M A G I N I. 



It is said, be was so mych addicted to astrological pre* 
dictions, that be not only foretold many good and evil 
events relative to others with success, but even foretold his 
own death, which came to pass the same year : all which 
he represented as under the influence of the scars. Tama* 
sini says, that Magini, being advanced to his 6 1st y4ar, 
was struck with an apoplexy, which ended his days ; and 
that a long while before, he had told him and others, that 
be was afraid of thai year. And Hoffeni, his pupil, says, 
that Magtni died under an aspect of the planets, which, 
according to bis own prediction, would prove fatal to him ; 
and he mentions Riccioli as affirming that he said, the 
figure of his nativity, and his climacteric year, doomed 
him to die about that time; which happened in 1616, in 
the 6£d year of his age. 

His writings do honour to his memory, as they were 
very considerable, and upon learned subjects. The prin- 
cipal were die following: 4. His £pheuieris, in 3 volumes, 
from the year 1580 to 1630. 2. Tables of Secondary Mo* 
tions. 3. Astronomical, Gnomonical, and Geographical Pro- 
blems. 4. Theory of the Planets, according to Coperni- 
cus. 5. A Confutation of Scaliger's Dissertation concern- 
ing the Precession of the Equinox. 6. A Primum Mobile, 
in 12 books. 7. A Treatise of Plane and Spherical Trigo- 
nometry. 8. A Commentary on Ptolomy's Geography. 
9. A Cborographical Description of the Regions and Cities 
of Italy, illustrated with 60 maps ; with some other papers 
on astrological subjects. 1 

MAGLIABECHI (Anthony), one of the most cele- 
brated, and certainly one of the most extraordinary men 
of bis time, was born at Florence, Oct. 28 or 29, 163 3. 
His parents, who were of low rank, are said to have been 
satisfied when they got him into the service of a man who 
sold fruit and herbs. He had never learned to read, and 
yet was perpetually poring over the leaves of old books, 
that were used as waste paper in his master's shop. A 
bookseller who lived in the neighbourhood, and who bad 
often observed this, and knew the boy could not read, 
asked him one day, " what he meant by staring so much 
on printed paper 1" He said, " chat he did not know how 
it was, but that be loved it ; that he was very uneasy in 
the business he *as in, and should be the happiest creature 

;v*l. XKVL~4Hitk»'« Bpct— Martin* *feg> Pfck*.— Go*. Diet. 

M A C L I A B £ C H L 100 

in the wbrid, If he could life vrith him, who had always §6 
jfrany books abtut him/' The bookseller, pleated with 
his answer, consented to take him, if taskmaster was willing 
to part with him. Young Magliabechi thanked htm with 
tears in his eyes, and having obtained bis master's Wave, 
went directly to bis new employment, which be had not 
followed long before be eoiiM find any book that was asked 
for, as ready as the bookseller himself. This account of 
bis early life, which Mr. Spenee received from a gentle- 
man of Florence, who was well acquainted with Magliabe- 
chi and his family, differs considerably from that given by 
Niceron, Tiraboscbi, ami Fabroni. From the latter, in* 
deed, we learn that he was placed as an apprentice to a 
goldsmith, after he had been taught the principles of 
drawing, and he had a brother that was educated to the 
law, and made a considerable figure in that profession. 
His father died while he was an infant, but Fabroni makes 
no mention of his poverty. It seems agreed, however, that 
after he had learned to read, that became his sole employ- 
ment, but he never applied himself to any particular study. 
He read every book almost indifferently, as tbey happened 
to come into his hands, with a surprizing quickness; and 
yet such was his prodigious memory, that be not only de- 
tained the sense of what he read, but often all the words, 
and the very manner of spelling them, if there was any 
thing peculiar of that kind in any author. 

This extraordinary application, and talents, soon recom- 
mended him to Ermini, librarian to the cardinal de Me- 
dic is, and to Marmi, the grand duke's librarian, who in- 
troduced him into the company of the literati, and made 
him known at court. Every where be began to be looked 
upon as a prodigy, particularly for his vast and unbounded 
memory, of which many remarkable anecdotes have been 
given. A gentleman at Florence, who had written a piece 
that was to be printed, lent the manuscript to Magliabechi; 
and some time after it had been returned with thanks, • 
came to him again with the story of a pretended accident 
by which he had lost his manuscript. The author seemed 
inconsolable, and intreated Magliabechi, whose character 
for remembering what he read was already very great, 
to try to recollect as much of it as he possibly could, and 
Write it down for him against his next visit. Magliabechi 
assured him he would, and wrote down the whole MS. 
without' missing a word, or even varying any where from 


the spelling. Whatever qur readers may think of this trial 
of his memory, it is certain that by treasuring up at least 
the subject and the principal parts of all the books he ran 
over, his head became at last, as one of his acquaintances 
expressed it to Mr. Spence, " An universal index both of 
titles and matter. 9 ' 

By this time Magliabechi was become so famous for the 
vast extent of his reading, and his amazing retention of 
what he had read, that he was frequently consulted by the 
learned, when meditating a work on any subject For ex- 
ample, and a curious example it is, if a priest was going to 
compose a panegyric on any saint, and came to consult 
Magliabechi, he would immediately tell him, who had said 
any thing of that saint, and in what part of their works, 
and that sometimes to the number of above an hundred 
authors. He would tell not only who had treated of the 
subject designedly, but point out such as bad touched upon 
it only incidentally ; both which he did with the greatest 
exactness, naming the author, the book, the words, and 
often the very number of the page ih which they were in- 
serted. All this he did so often, so readily, and 60 exactly^ 
that he came at last to be looked upon as an oraple, on ac- 
count of the ready and full answers that he gave to all 
questions, that were proposed to him in any faculty or 
science whatever. The same talent induced the grand 
duke Cosmo III. to appoint him his librarian, and no man 
perhaps was ever better qualified for the situation, or more 
happy to accept it. He was also very conversant with 
the books in the Laureutian library, and the keeping of 
those of Leopold and Francis Maria, the two cardinals of 
Tuscany. Yet all this, it is said, did not appease his vo- 
racious appetite ; he was thought to have read all the books 
printed before his time, and all in it. Doubtless this 
range, although v^ry extensive, must be understood of 
Italian literature only or principally. Crescembini paid 
him the highest compliment on this. Speaking of a dis- 
pute whether a certain poem had ever been printed or not, 
he concluded it had not, " because Magliabechi had never 
seen it." We learn farther that it was a general custom 
for authors and printers to present him with a copy of 
whatever they printed, which must have been a consider* 
able help towards the very large collection of books which 
he himself made. 


His mode of reading in his latter days is said to have 
been this.. When a book first came into his hands, he 
would look over the title-page, then dip here and there in 
the preface, dedication and advertisements, if there were 
any ; ajid then cast his eyes on each of the divisions, the 
different sections, or chapters, and then he would be able 
to retain the contents of that volume in his memory, and 
produce them if wanted. Soon after he had adopted this 
method of what Mr. Spence* calls " fore-shortening his 
reading," a priest who had composed a panegyric on one 
of his favourite saints, brought it to Magliabechi as a 
present. He read it over in his new way, the title-page 
and heads of the chapters, &c. and then thanked the priest 
very kindly " for his excellent treatise." The author, in 
some pain, asked him, " whether that was all that he 
intended to read of his book?" Magliabechi coolly an- 
swered, " Yes, for I know very well every thing that is 
in it." This anecdote, however, may be explained other- 
wise than upon the principles of memory. Magliabechi 
knew all that the writers before had said of this saint, and 
be knew this priest's turn and character, and thence judged 
what he would chuse out of them and what he would omit. 

Magliabechi had even a local memory of the place where 
every book stood, as in his master's shop at first, and in 
the Pitti, and several other libraries afterwards ; and seems 
to have carried this •farther than only in relation to the 
collections of books with which he was personally ac- 
quainted. One day the grand duke sent for him after he 
was his librarian, to ask him whether he . could get him a 
book that was particularly scarce. " No, sir," answered 
Magliabechi ; " for there is but one in the world ; that is 
in the grand signior's library at Constantinople, and is the 
seventh book on the second shelf on the right hand as you 
go in." Though this extraordinary man must have lived a 
sedentary life, with the most intense and almost perpetual 
application to books, yet he arrived to a good old age. 
He died in his eighty-first year, July 14, 1714. By his 
will he left a very fine library of his own collection for the 
use of the public, with a fund to maintain it ; and what- 
ever should remain over to the poor. By the funds which 
he left, by the addition of several other collections, and 
the bounty- of some of the grand dukes, his library was 
so much augmented as to vie with some of the most cor** 
jiderable in Europe. Of this collection, a catalogue and 

lit M A Gil A B E C H 1. 

description of the works primed in the fifteenth century 
was published by Fossi, under the title " Catalogus codi- 
cum seeculo XV impressorum in Bibliotheca Magliabe- 
chiana, Florentise adservantur," Florence, 3 vols. foK 1735 

r Of the domestic habits of Magliabechi, we have many 
accounts that represent him as an incorrigible sloven. His 
Attention was so entirely absorbed by his books and studies, 
that he totally neglected all the decencies of form and 
ceremony, and often forgot the most urgent wants of hu- 
man nature. His employment under the grand duke did 
not at all change his manner of life : the philosopher still 
continued negligent in his dress, and simple in his man- 
ners. An old cloak served him for a gown in the day, and 
for bed-clothes at night. He had one straw chair for his 
table, and another for his bed ; in which he generally con- 
tinued fixed among bis books till he was overpowered by 
aleep< The duke provided a commodious apartment for 
him in his palace ; of wbich Magliabechi was with much 
difficulty persuaded to take possession ; and which he 
quitted in four months, returning to his house on various 
pretences, against all the remonstrances of his friends. 
He was, however, characterized by an extraordinary mo* 
desty, and by a sincere and beneficent disposition, which his 
friends often experienced in their wants. He was a great 
patron of men of learning, and had the highest pleasure in 
assisting them with his advice and information, in furnish- 
ing, them with all necessary books and manuscripts. Car- 
dinal Noris used to call 'him his Maecenas; and, writing to 
him one day, he told him he thought himself more obliged 
to him for direction in his studies, than to the pope for 
raising r him to the purple. He had the utmost aversion 
to any thing that looked like constraint. The grand duke 
knew his disposition, and therefore always dispensed with 
his personal attendance upon him ;. and, when he had 
any orders to give him, sent him them in writing. The 
pope and the emperor would gladly have drawn him into 
their service, but he constantly refused their most ho- 
nourable and advantageous offers. The regimen he ob- 
served contributed not a little to preserve his health to old 
age. He always kept his head warmly covered, and took 
at certain times treacle, which he esteemed an excellent 
preservative against noxious vapours. . He loved strong 
wine, bfit drank it in small quantities. He lived Upon the 


plainest and roost ordinary food. Three hard eggs and a 
dranrght of water was his usual repast. He took tobacco, 
to which he was a slave, to excess ; but was absolute mas- 
ter of himself in every other article. 

He died in the midst of the public applause, after en- 
joying, during all the latter part of his life, such an 
affluence as very few persons have ever procured by their 
knowledge or learning, and which, as he had acquired 
honourably, he bestowed liberally. 

Though he oever composed any work himself, yet the 
commonwealth of learning are greatly obliged to hira for 
several, the publication of which was owing to him; such 
as the Latin poems of Henry de Settimello, the " Hodoe- 
poricon" of Ambrose Carnal du la, the " Dialogue" of Be- 
nedict Aretin, and many others. A collection of letters 
addressed to him by literary men was printed at Florence 
in 1745, but is said to be incomplete. * 

MAGNI, or MAGNUS (Valerian), a celebrated Ca- 
puchin, born at Milan in 1586, descended from the earls 
of Magni, acquired great reputation in the seventeenth 
century by his controversial writings against the protestants, 
and philosophical ones in favour of Descartes against 
Aristotle. He passed through the highest offices in his 
Order, and was apostolical missionary to the northern king<- 
doms. It was by his advice that pope Urban VIII. abo* 
lished the Jesuitesses in 1631. Uladislaus king of Poland, 
solicited a cardinal's hat for Magni; but the Jesuits arc 
said to have opposed it. They certainly informed against 
him as a heretic, because he had said that the pope's primacy 
and infallibility were not founded on scripture, and he was 
imprisoned at Vienna ; but regained his liberty by favour 
of the emperor Ferdinand III. after having written very 
warmly against the Jesuits in his defence, tie retired at 
last to Saltzburg, and died there, 1661, aged seventy- 
five. Mention is made of Magni in the sixteenth Pro- 
vincial Letter ; and one of his Apotogetical Letters may be 
found in the collection entitled " Tuba magna, n torn. II.* 

MAGNOL (Peter), a celebrated botanist of Mont- 
pellier, was born in 1638. He Was bredTfo physic, but, 
being a protestaut, could not take his degree there. He 
appears, however, afterwards to have obtained i't elsewhere, 

i • 

i Tirnboeehi^-Fabroni Vit® Jjtalprum, fql. ^VIJ.— f*ic^on,.r*1. iV«-^ 
Spence's Paralfel. 

* Gen. Diet.— Mors*.— L'AvocaV Diet. Hist. ' 

Vol. XXI. I 


and practised physic ajt Montpeilier for a long course of 
.years, and at the same time very assiduously cultivated 
botany, with the most enlarged views to its advancement 
as a science. He was beloved for his urbanity, and esteemed 
for his knowledge. Numerous botanists flocked at this 
time to Montpeilier, that neighbourhood being famous for 
its vegetable riches ; and these were all eager to enjoy the 
society, and to benefit by the guidance and instructions of 
so able a man. Among the pupils of Magnol were Fagoo 
and the illustrious Tournefort, who regularly studied under 
him, and on many subsequent occasions gratefully acknow- 
ledged their obligations to him. He was not chosen pub- 
lic professor till 1694, when he assumed the guise at least 
of Catholicism. 

In 1676 our author published at Lyons his first work, 
the " Botanicum Monspeliense," republished at Montpei- 
lier in 1688, with a new title-page and appendix. In this 1 
book all the plants enumerated are found wild about Mont- 
peilier, and almost entirely gathered there by the author 
himself. It is, in fact, one of the most original. and au- 
thentic works of its kind, being to the Montpeilier bo- 
tanists what Ray's Synopsis is to those of Britain, the basis 
of all their knowledge. In 1689 Magnol published an 
octavo volume entitled " Prodromus Historic Generalis 
Plantarum," in which he undertook a scheme of natural 
arrangement, according to the method of Ray, deduced 
from all the parts of a plant; and the vegetable kingdom 
is. disposed into 76 families,, subdivided into genera. In 
1607 appeared the " Horfcus Regius Monspeliensis," 8vo, 
an alphabetical catalogue of the garden, in which several 
new or rare species are described as well as figured. In 
their generic distribution the author conforms to Tourne- 
fort principally, and his preface shews how much he bad 
contemplated this subject and its difficulties. When we 
consider that Magnol had had the care of the garden only 
three years previous to the publication of this rich cata- 
logue, and that he found the collection in a very poor 
state, the book is an honourable monument of his in- 
dustry as well as knowledge. 

In 1708 Magool was admitted a member of the 'academie 
des sciences of Paris, in the place of his distinguished 
friend Tournefort, and contributed some papers to their 
memoirs. He died in 1715, at the age of seventy-seven. 
He left a son, named Anthony, who was professor of phy- 

M A G N O" L/ US 

sic at Montpellier, but not of Botany. To this ton we are' 
indebted for the publication of the " Novus Character 
Plantarum," on which the fame of Magnol as a systematic 
botanist chiefly rests. This posthumous work appeared ia 
1720, making a quarto volume of 341 pages. The system 
therein taught is much celebrated by Linnaeus, who in his 
Classes Plantarum, 375— -403, gives a general view of it, 
expressing his wonder that so new and singular a system 
had not made more proselytes. That noble genus of trees 
or shrubs, called the Magnolia, received that name from 
Plumier, in honour of our author. l 

MAGNON (John), a French poet of the seventeenth 
century, was bred up as an advocate, and for some time 
followed that profession at Lyons. He then became a 
dramatic writer, and produced several pieces, of which 
the least bad is a tragedy called Artaxerxes ; this has some 
plot, good sentiments, and characters tolerably supported. 
He then conceived the extraordinary project of writing an 
encyclopaedia in verse, which was to consist of ten volumes, 
each containing twenty thousand verses. Being asked, 
after some time, when this work would be finished ? ^ Very 
Soon," said he, " I have now only a hundred thousand 
verses to write." His project, however, was cutoff, not- 
withstanding this near approach to its conclusion, as he 
was murdered by thieves at Paris, in 1662. His verses 
were bad enough to account for bis facility in producing 
them, yet he was a friend of Moliere. A part of his great 
work appeared in folio in 1663, with the magnificent title 
of " Science Universelle ." The preface was still mo?£ 
pompous : " Libraries," says he, " will hereafter be for 
ornament only, not use." Yet how few contain this won- 
derful work ! 2 

MAGNUS (John), archbishop of Upsal, in Sweden, was 
born at Lincopingin 1488; was a violent oppdser of the 
pro test ant religion, and laboured much, though in vain, 
to prevent the king, Gustavus, from introducing it into 
his kingdom, Magnus, being persecuted on this account, 
retired to Rome, where he was received with great marks 
of regard, and died therein 1544. He was author of, t. 
" A History of Sweden," in twenty-four books, published 
in 1554, in folio. 2." A History of the Archbishops of 

1 From an interesting article in Reea's Cyclopedia, by tir J. E. Smith. 
* Moreri.— Diet. Hist-— A copy of t his " Science UnirerseUe" is in the British. 

I 2 


UpsaV' which he carried down a a low as 1544. This was 
aisc in folkv and, appeared in \$S7 and 1560. * 

MAGNUS (Olaus), brother of the former, and his sue- 
oesfor in the archbishopric of Upsal, distinguished himself 
at the council of Trent, and buffered in Sweden, as his 
brother also had done, many vexations from his attach- 
ment to the Roman catholic persuasion. His work, by 
which ha is very generally known, is " A History of the 
manners, customs, and war* of the People of the North." 
This contains many curious particulars, but many also tfhat 
are minute, and several that are doubtful ; nor does the 
author ever fail to display his animosity against the pro- 
testants. He died at Rome in \555. 1 

MAHOMET, or MOHAMMED, founder of the system 
of religious imposture called Mahometanism, was born in 
the year 569, at Mecca, a city of Arabia, of the tribe of the 
Komhites, which was reckoned the noblest in all that 
country ; and was descended in a direct line from Pher 
Koraish, the founder of it. Yet in the beginning of his 
Ufe he #as in a very poor condition ; for his father dying 
before be was two years old, and while his grandfather was 
Mill living, all the power and wealth of his family devolved 
to his uncles, especially Abu Taleb. Abu Tafeb, after 
the death of his father, bore the chief sway in Mecca du- 
ring the whole of a very long life ; and it was under his 
protection chiefly, that Mahomet, when he first began to 
propagate his imposture, was sufficiently supported against 
&U Opposers, so as to be able, after his death, to establish 
it through all Arabia by his own power. 

Aftef his father's death he continued under the tuition 
x)f his mot-feet, till the eighth year of his age ; when she also 
dying, he was taken home to his grandfather, who at his 
death, which happened the year after, committed him to 
the care of bis uncle Abu Taleb, to be educated by him. 
Abii Taleb, being a merchant,* taught him his business* 
and, as soon as he was of sufficient age, sent him with his 
camels into Syria ; in which employment he continued 
♦mftter his ttnele till the 25th year of his age. One of the 
chief flfren of the city then dying, and his widow, whose 
name was Cadiga, wanting a factor to manage her stock, 
/she invited Mahomet into her service. He accepted her 

i Chaufepie.— Nrceron, vol. XXXV. 
< « Nk*Ton, roi. XXXV.— Bibl. du Verdi* r, toU III. p. 135. 


terms, traded three years for her at Damascus and otbfr 
places, and acquitted himself in this charge so .much to 
her satisfaction, that, about the twenty-eighth year of hip 
age, she gave herself to him in marriage, although sbeiwajs 
twelve years older. From being her servant he was now 
advanced to be master of both her person and fortune; 
and, finding himself equal in wealth to the best men of 
the city, he began to entertain ambitious thoughts of posr 
sessing the sovereignty over it. , -i 

- Among the various means to effect this, none $eetm$4 
to him more eligible than that imposture which he after- 
wards published with so much success, and so much mis? 
xhief to the x world. The extensive trade which he carried 
on in Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, having made him w$tjl 
acquainted with both Christians and Jews, and given bioa 
an opportunity of observing with what eagerness they an 4 
the several sects into which the Christians of the Eastwer* 
then miserably divided, engaged against each other, h? 
concluded that nothing would be more likely to gain 9 
party firm to him for the attaining the ends at which bj 
aimed, than the invention of a new religion. In thjs> 
however, he proceeded lejsu rely ; for it was not till hi? 
thirty-eighth year that he began to prepare his design* 
,He then withdrew himself from his former way of livings 
which is said to have been very licentious and wicked ; 
and, affecting an hermit's life, used every morning tq 
retire into a solitary cave near Mecca, called the Cave of 
Rira ; and there continued all day, exercising himself, a$ 
he pretended, in prayers, fastings, and holy meditations. 
Thus he went on for two years, during which time h§ 
gained over his wife Cadiga, who was his first proselyte, 
oy pretending visions which be had seen, and voices which 
he had heard, in* his retirement. It is to be observed, 
says Dr. Prideaux, that Mahomet began this imposture 
about the same time that the bishop of Rome, by virtue, 
of a grant from the tyrant Ph ocas, first assumed the title 
of universal pastor. Phocas made this grant in the year 
606, and Mahomet in the same year retired to his cave to 
contrive that deception which be beg^n in the year 608 
to propagate at Mecca. 

In his fortieth year, Mahomet h§gan to t^ke upon him, 
the style of the Apostle pf God, ami under that character 
to ca,rry on the plan which h$ bfl|d now contrived ; but for 
four years bf confiue4 &*> ^QCtrins? f# such as be either 


bad most confidence in, or thought himself most likely to 
'gain. When he had gained a few disciples, some of whom, 
however, were the principal men of the city, he began to 
publish it to the people at Mecca, in his forty-fourth year, 
and openly to declare himself a prophet sent by God, to 
convert them from the error of paganism, and to teach 
them the true religion. On his first appearance, he was 
treated with derision and contempt, and called by the peo- 
ple a sorcerer, magician, liar, impostor, and teller of fables; 
of which he frequently complains in the Koran ; so that 
for the first y ear he made little or no progress. But per- 
severing in his design, which he managed with great ad- 
dress, he afterwards gained so many proselytes, that in the 
fifth year of his pretended mission, he had increased his 
party to the number of thirty-nine, himself making the 
fortieth. People now b^gan to be alarmed at the progress 
he made. Those who were addicted to the idolatry of 
their forefathers, stood up to oppose him as an enemy of 
their gods, and a dangerous innovator in their religion. 
Others, who saw further into his designs, thought it time 
to put a stop to them, for the sake of preserving the 
government, at which they thought he aimed : and there- 
fore they combined together against him, and intended to 
have cut him off with the sword. But Abu Taleb, his uncle, 
defeated their design ; and by his power, as being chief 
of the tribe, preserved him from many other attempts of 
the same nature ; for though Abu Taleb himself persisted 
in the paganism of bis ancestors, yet he had so much 
affection for the impostor, as being his kinsman, and one 
that was bred up in his house, and under his care, that he 
extended his full protection to Mahomet as long«as he lived. , 
The principal arguments, which Mahomet employed to 
delude men into a belief of this imposture, were promises 
and threats, both well calculated to influence the affections 
of the vulgar. His promises were chiefly of Paradise, 
which with great art he framed agreeably to the taste of 
the Arabians t for they, lying within the torrid zone, were, 
through the nature of their climate, as well as the corrup- 
tion of their manners, exceedingly given to the love of 
women ; and the scorching heat and dryness of the coun- 
try, making rivers of water, cooling drinks, shaded gar- 
dens, and pleasant fruits, most refreshing and delightful 
unto them, they were from hence apt to place their 
highest enjoyment in things of this nature. For this rea- 


son, be made the joys of hU Paradise to consist totally in 
these particulars ; which he promises them abundantly in 
many places of the Koran. On the contrary, he described 
the punishments of hell, which he threatened to all who 
would not believe in him, to consist of such torments as 
would appear to them the most afflicting and grievous to 
be borne ; as, " that they should drink nothing but boil- 
ing and stinting water, nor breathe any thing but exceed- 
ing hot winds, things most terrible in Arabia;, that they 
should dwell for ever in continual fire, excessively burning, 
and be surrounded with a black hot salt smoke, us with a 
coverlid, &c." and, that he might omit nothing which could 
work on their fears, he terrified them with the threats of. 
grievous punishments in this life. To which purpose be 
expatiated, upon all occasions, on the terrible calamities 
which had befallen such as would not be instructed by the 
prophets who were sent before him; how the old world 
was destroyed by water, for not being reformed at the 
preaching of Noah; how Sodom was consumed by fire 
from heaven, for not hearkening to Lot when sent unto 
them ; and how the Egyptians were plagued for despising 
Moses : for he allowed the divinity of both the Old and 
New Testament, and that Moses and Jesus Christ were 
prophets sent from God ; but alledged that the Jews and 
Christians -had corrupted those sacred books, and that he 
was sent to purge them from those corruptions, and to 
restore the law of God to that original purity in which it 
was firsb delivered. And this is the reason, that most of 
the passages which he takes out of the Old and New Tes- 
taments, appear different in the Koran from what we find 
tbem in those sacred books. 

Mahomet pretended to receive all his revelations from 
the angel Gabriel, who, he said, was sent from God, on 
purpose to deliver them unto him. He was subject, it is 
said, to the falling-sickness, and whenever the fit was upon 
him, be pretended it to be a trance, and that then the 
angel -Gabriel was come from God with some new revela- 
tions. These revelations lie arranged in several chapters ; 
which make -up the Koran, the Bible of the Mahometans. 
The original of this book was laid up, as he taught his fol- 
lowers, in the archives of heaven ; and the angel Gabriel 
brought him the copy of it, chapter by chapter, as occa- 
sion required that they should be published to the people ; 
that is, as often -as any new measure w?s to be pursued, 


any objection against him or bis religion to be answered, 
any difficulty to be solved, any discontent among bis peo- 
ple to be quieted, any offence to be removed, or any 
thing else, done for the furtherance of his grand scheme, 
his constant recourse was to the angel Gabriel for a new 
revelation ; and then appeared some addition to the Ko- 
ran, to serve bis purpose. But what perplexed him most 
was, that his opposers demanded to see a miracle from 
him ; " for," said they, " Moses, and Jesus, and the rest 
of the prophets, according to thy own doctrine, worked 
miracles to prove their mission from God ; and therefore, 
if thou be a prophet, and greater than any that were sent 
before thee* as thou boastest thyself to be, do thou work 
the like miracles to manifest it onto us." This objection 
he endeavoured to evade bv several answers : all of which 
amount only to this, " that God had sent Moses and Jesus 
with miracles, and yet men would not be obedient to their 
word ; and therefore he had now sent him in the last place 
without miracles, to force them by the power of the sword 
to do his will." Hence it has become the universal doc- 
trine of the Mahometans, that their religion is to be pro- 
pagated by the sword, and that all true mussulmen are 
bound to tight for it. It has even been said to be a cus- 
tom among tjiem for their preachers, while they deliver 
their sermons, to have a drawn sword placed by them, to 
denote, that the doctrines they teach are to be defended 
and propagated by the sword. Some miracles, at the 
same time, Mahomet is said to have wrought ; as, " That 
he clave the moon in two ; that trees went forth to meet 
him, &c. &c." but those who relate them are only such as 
are ranked among their fabulous and legendary writers : 
their learned doctors renounce them ail ; and when they 
are questioned, how without miracles they can prove his 
mission, their common answer is, that the Koran itself is 
the greatest of all miracles; for that Mahomet, who was 
an illiterate person, who could neither write nor read, or 
that any man else, by human wisdom alone, should be able to 
compose such a book, is, they think, impossible. On this 
Mahomet himself also frequently insists, challenging in 
several places of the Koran, both men and devils, by their* 
united skill, to compose any thing equal to it, or to any 
part of it From all which they conclude, and as they 
think, infallibly, that this book could come from none other 
but God himself ; and that Mahomet, from whom they re- 
ceived it, was his messenger to bring it unto them. 


That the Koran, as to style and language, is tbe.stan- 
dard of elegance in the Arabian tongue, and that Maho- 
met was in truth what they affirm him to have been, a rude 
and illiterate man* are points agreed on all sides. A ques- 
tion therefore will arise among those who are not so sure 
that this book was brought by the angel Gabrtel from hea- 
ven, by whose help it was compiled, and the imposture 
framed ? There is the more reason to ask this, because 
this. book itself contains so many particulars of the Jewish 
and Christian religions, as necessarily suppose the authors 
of it to have been well skilled in both; which Mahomet, 
who was bred an idolater, and lived so for the first forty 
years of his life, among a people totally illiterate, for such 
his tribe was by principle and profession, cannot be sup- 
posed to have been : but this is a question not so easily to 
be answered, because the nature of the thing required it to 
have been transacted very secretly. Besides this, the 
scene of this imposture being at least six hundred mites 
within the country of Arabia, amidst those barbarous na- 
tions, who all immediately embraced it, and would not 
permit any of another religion to live among them, it could 
not at that distance be so well investigated by those who 
were most concerned to discover the fraud. That Maho- 
met composed the Koran by the help of others, was a thing 
well known at Mecca, when he first published his impos- 
ture there ; and be was often reproached on that account 
by his opposers, as he himself more than once complains. 
In the twenty-fifth chapter of the Koran, his words are : 
" They say, that the Koran is nothing but a lie of thy own 
invention, and others have been assisting to thee herein.* 1 
A passage in the sixteenth chapter also, particularly points 
at one of those who was then looked upon to have had a 
principal hand in this matter: " I know they will say, that 
a man hath taught him the Koran ; but he whom they pre- 
sume to have taught him is a Persian by nation, and 
apeaketb the Persian language. But the Koran is in the 
Arabic tongue, full of instruction and eloquence/' • The 
person here pointed at, was one Abdia Ben Salon, a Per- 
sian Jew, whose name he afterwards changed into Ab- 
dullah Ebn Salem, to make it correspond with the Arabic 
dialect ; and almost aH who have written of this imposture 
have mentioned him tas ihe chief architect used by Aiabo* 
met in the framing of it : for he was an artfol man, tfeo-i 
roughly skilled in all the learning of the Jews; aud there* 

122 M A H O M E T. 


fore Mahomet seems to have received from him whatsoever 
of the rites and customs of the Jews he has ingrafted into 
his religion. Besides this Jew, the impostor derived some 
aid from a Christian monk : and the many particulars in 
the Koran, relating to the Christian religion, plainly prove 
him to have had such an helper. He was a monk of Syria, 
of the sect of the Nestorians. The name which he had in 
his monastery, and which he has since retained among the 
western writers, is Sergius, though Bahira was that which 
he afterwards assumed in Arabia, and by which he has ever 
since been mentioned in the East, by all that write or speak 
of him. Mahomet, as it is related, became acquainted 
with this Bahira, in one of his journeys into Syria, either at 
Bostra or at Jerusalem : and receiving great satisfaction 
from him in many of those points in which he had desired 
to be informed, contracted a particular friendship with 
him i so that Bahira being not long after excommunicated 
for some great crime, and expelled his monastery, fled to 
Mecca to him, was entertained in his house, and became 
his assistant in the framing of his imposture, and continued 
with him ever after ; till Mahomet having, as it is reported, 
po farther occasion for him, to secure the secret, put him 
to death. 

Many other particulars are recorded by some ancient 
writers, both as to the composition of the Koran, and also 
as to the manner of its first propagation ; as, that the im- 
postor taught a bull to bring it him on his horns in a pub- 
lic assembly, as if it had been this way sent to him from 
God ; that he bred up pigeons to come to his ears, to 
make it appear as if the Holy Ghost conversed with him ; 
stories which have no foundation at all in truth, although 
they have been credited by great and learned men. Gro- 
tius in particular, in that part of his book " De veritate, 
&c." which contains a refutation of Mahometanism, relates 
the story of the pigeon ; on which our celebrated orien- 
talist Pococke, who undertook an Arabic version of that 
performance, asked Grotius, " Where he had picked up 
this story, whether among the Arabians, or the Christians ?" 
To which Grotius replied, that " he had not indeed met. 
with it in any Arabian author, but depended entirely upon 
the authority of the Christian writers for the truth of it." 
Pococke .thought fit, therefore, to omit it in his version, 
lest we should expose ourselves to the contempt of the 
Arabians, by. not. being able to distinguish the religion o£ 

M A H O M £ T. 18* 

Mahomet from the tale* and fictions which its enemies 
have invented concerning it; and by pretending to con* 
fate the Koran, without knowing the foundation on which 
its authority stands. 

In the eighth year of bis pretended mission, his party 
growing formidable at Mecca, the city passed a decree, by 
which they forbade any more to join themselves with him. 
This, however, did not much affect him, while his uncle 
Abu Taleb lived to protect him : but he dying two years 
after, and the government of the city then falling iiuo the 
hands of his enemies, the opposition was renewed against 
him, and a stop soon put to the further progress of his de- 
sighs at Mecca. Mahomet, therefore, seeing all bis hopes 
crushed here, began to think of settling elsewhere; and as 
his uncle Abbas lived for the most part at Tayif, a town 
sixty miles distant from Mecca towards the East, and was 
a man of power and interest, he took a journey thither, 
tinder his protection, in order to propagate his imposture 
there. But, after a month's stay, finding himself unable 
to gain even one proselyte, he returned to Mecca, with a 
resolution to wait for such further advantages as time and 
opportunity might offer.. His wife Cadiga being now dead, 
after living with him twenty-two years, he took two other 
wives in her stead, Ayesha the daughter of Abubeker, and 
Lewda the daughter of Zama ; adding a while after to 
them a third, named Haphsa the daughter of Omar ; and 
by thus making himself son-in-law to three of the princi- 
pal men of his party, he strengthened his interest consi- 

In the twelfth year of his pretended mission is placed 
the mesra, that is, his famous night-journey from Mecca 
to Jerusalem, and thence to heaven ; of which he tells us 
in the seventeenth chapter of the Koran ; for the people 
calling on him for miracles to prove his mission, and find- 
ing himself unable to feign any, to solve the matter, he 
invented this story of his journey to heaven. The stpry, 
as related in the Koran, and believed by the Mahometans, 
is this. At night, as he lay in his bed with his best be* 
loved wife Ayesha, be heard a knocking at his door; upon 
which, arising, he found there the angel Gabriel, with 
seventy pair of wings expanded from his sides, whiter thaa 
snow, and clearer than crystal, and the beast Alboruk 
standing by him ; which, they say, is the beast on which 
the prophets used to ride when they were carried from one 


place to another, upon the execution of any divine com* 
inand. Mahomet describes it to be a beast as white as 
milk, and of a mixt nature, between an ass and a mule, 
and of a size between both, but of such extraordinary swift- 
ness as to equal even lightning itself. 

As/ soon as Mahomet appeared at the door, the angel 
Gabriel kindly embraced him, saluted him in the name of 
God, and told him that he was sent to bring him unto God 
into heaven ; where he should see strange mysteries, which 
were not lawful to be seen by any other man. He prayed 
him then to get upon Alborak ; but the beast having lain 
idle and unemployed from the time of Christ to Mahomet, 
was grown so mettlesome and skittish, that he would not 
stand still for Mahomet to mount him, till at length he was 
forced to bribe him to it, by promising him a place in Pa- 
radise. When he was firmly seated on him, the angel 
Gabriel led the way, with the bridle of the beast in his 
hand, and carried the prophet from Mecca to Jerusalem 
in the twinkling of an eye. On his coming thither, all the 
departed prophets and saints appeared at the gate of the 
temple, to salute him ; and thence, attending him into 
the chief oratory, desired him to pray for them, and then, 
withdrew. After this, Mahomet went out of the temple 
• with the angel Gabriel, and found a ladder of light ready 
fixed for them, which they immediately ascended, leaving 
Alborak tied to a rock till their return. 

On their arrival at the first heaven, the angel knocked 
at the gate ; and informing the porter who he was, and 
that he had brought Mahomet the friend of God, he was 
immediately admitted. This first heaven, be tells us, was 
all of pure silver ; from whence he saw the stars hanging 
from it by chains of gold, each as big as mount Noho, 
near Mecca,, in Arabia. On his entrance, he met a de* 
crepid old man, who, it 6eems, was our first father, Adam ; 
and as he advanced, he saw a multitude of angels in all 
manner of shapes ; in the shape of birds, beasts, and men. 
We must not forget; to observe, (hat Adam had the piety 
immediately to, embrace the , prophet, giving God thauks 
for so great a son ; and then recommended himself to his 
prayers. .Frpjm this first heaver)) the impostor tells us* he 
ascended. into the secwd, whiph was, at tft$ ( five, 
hundred ye%rs journey above it ; aj)d, be makes to be 
the distance of every one of the/seven heaven,?, each above 
ib^Qtfaer*:, Jiejte the gatsfr being opepedto him as before, 


at his entrance he met Noah, who, rejoicing much at the 
sight of him, recommended himself to his prayers. Thi» 
heaven wis all of pure gold, and there were twice as many 
angels in it as in the former ; for he tells us that the num- 
ber of angels in every heaven increased as he advanced. 
From this second heaven he ascended into the third, which 
was made of precious stones, where ,he met Abraham, who 
also recommended himself to his prayers ; Joseph the son 
of Jacob, did the same in the fourth heaven, which was 
all of emerald ; Moses in the fifth, which was all of ada- 
mant ; and John the Baptist in the sixth, which was all of 
carbuncle : whence he ascended into the seventh, which 
was all of divine light, and here he found Jesus Christ. 
However, it is observed, that here he alters his style ; for 
he does not say that Jesus Christ recommended himself to 
his prayers, but that he recommended himself to the 
prayers of Jesua Christ. 

The angel Gabriel having brought him thus far, told 
him that he was not permitted to attend him any further; 
and therefore directed him to ascend the rest of the way to 
the throne of God by himself. This he performed with 
great difficulty, passing through rough and dangerous 
places, till he came where he heard a voice, saying unto 
hicn, ** O Mahomet, salute thy Creator ;" whence, as- 
cending higher, be came into a place where he saw a vast 
expansion of light, so exceedingly bright, that his eyes 
could not bear it. This, it seems, was the habitation of 
the Almighty, where his throne was placed ; on the right 
side of which, he says, God's name and his own were writ- 
ten in these Arabic words : " La ellah ellallah Mohammed 
resul ollah ;" that is, " There is no God but God, and 
Mahomet is his prophet," which is at this day the creed of 
the Mahometans. Being approached to the divine pre- 
sence, he tells us that God entered into a familiar converse 
with him, revealed to him many hidden mysteries, made 
- him understand the whole of his law, gave him many things 
in charge concerning his instructing men in the knowledge 
of it; and in conclusion, bestowed on him several privi- 
leges above the rest of mankind. He then returned, and 
found the angel Gabriel waiting for him in the place where 
he left him. The angel led him back along the seven 
heavens, through which he had brought him, and set him 
again upon the beast Alborak, which stood tied at the rock 
pear Jerusalem. Then he conducted him back to Mecca, 


in tbe same manner as he brought him thence.; and aH thf* 
within the space of the tenth part of one night. 

On his relating this extravagant fiction to the people the 
next morning after he pretended the thing to have hap- 
pened, it was received by them, as it deserved, with a ge- 
neral outcry ; and the imposture was never in greater 
danger of being totally blasted, than by this ridiculous 
fable. But, how ridiculous soever the story may appear, 
Mahomet had a further design in it than barely telling such 
a miraculous adventure of himself to the people. Hitherto 
he had only given them the Koran, which was his. written 
law ; and had pretended to be nothing more than barely 
the messenger of God in publishing it, as it was delivered 
to him by the angel Gabriel. But now, learning from his 
friend Abdalla, that the Jews, besides the written law dic- 
tated by God himself, bad also another law, called the 
oral law, given with it, as they pretend, to Moses himself 
while in the mount ; and understanding that this law, 
which had its whole foundation in the sayings and dictates 
of Moses, was in as great veneration with them as the 
other ; he had a mind for the future to advance his autho- 
rity to tbe same pitch, and to make all his sayings and 
dictates pass for oracles among the mussulmen, as those 
which were pretended to proceed from Moses did among 
the Jews ; and for this end chiefly it was, that he invented 
this story of his journey to heaven. 

The story, however, whatever advantages he might gain 
by it when the imposture became more firmly established, 
was deemed at present so grossly ridiculous, that it occa- 
sioned the revolt of many of his disciples,' and made his 
stay at Mecca no longer practicable. But what he lost at 
Mecca he gained at Medina, then called Yathreb, a city ly- 
ing 270 miles north-west from Mecca ; which was inhabited, 
the one part by Jews, and the other by heretical Christians. 
These two parties not agreeing, feuds and factions rose at 
length so high among them, that one party, exasperated 
against the other, went over to Mahomet. Thus we are 
told, that in the thirteenth year of his pretended mission, 
there came to him from thence seventy-three men and two 
women. Twelve of these he retained awhile with him at 
Mecca, to instruct them in his n£w religion ; then sent 
them back to Yathreb, as his twelve apostles, to propagate 
it in that town. In this they laboured abundantly, and 
with such success, that, in a short time they drew over, the 

MAHOMET. 1527 

greatest part of the inhabitants; of which Mahomet re- 
ceiving an account, resolved to go thither immediately, 
fading it unsafe to continue any longer at Mecca. 

On the 12th day of the month, which the Arabs call the 
Former Rabia, that is, on the 24th of our September, he 
came to Yathreb, and was received with great acclamations 
by the party which called him thither. This party is sup*' 
posed to have been the Christians, and this supposition is 
con6rmed by what he says of each of them in the fifth 
chapter of the Koran, which is one of the first he published 
after his coming to Yathreb. His words are these: " Thou 
shalt find the Jews to be very great enemies to the true 
believers, and the Christians to have great inclination and 
amity towards them." By which we may see into what a 
deplorable decay the many divisions and distractions which 
then reigned in the eastern church had brought the Chris- 
tian religion, when its professors could so easily desert it 
for that gross imposture which an illiterate barbarian 
proposed to them. On his first coming to Yathreb, he 
lodged in the bouse of Chalid Abu Job, one of the chief 
men of the party that called him thither, till be had built 
a house for himself. This he immediately undertook, and 
erected a mosque at the same time, for the exercise of his 
new-invented religion ; and having thus settled himself in 
this town, he continued there to the time of his death. 
From this flight of Mahomet, the Hegira, which is the aera 
of the Mahometans, begins its computation : Hegira, in 
the Arabic language, signifying flight. It was first ap- 
pointed by Omar, the third emperor of the Saracens, and 
takes its beginning from the 16th of July, in the year 622* 
Indeed the day that Mahomet left Mecca was on the first 
of the Former Rabia ; and he came to Medina on the 12th 
of the same month, that is on the 24th of our September ; 
but the Hegira begins two months before, from the first 
of Mobarram : for, that being the first month of the Ara- 
bian year, Omar would make no alteration as to that, but 
anticipated the computation fifty-nine days, that he might 
commence his sera from the beginning of that year, in 
which the flight of the impostor happened, from which it 
took its name. 

The first thing that Mahomet did after he had settled 
himself at Medina, was to marry his daughter Fatima to 
his cousin Ali. She was the only child then living of six 
which were born to him of Cadiga his first wife ; and 


indeed the only one which h4 had, notwithstanding the mill* 
titude of his wives who survived hihn. Having now ob- 
tained the end at which he had long been aiming, that is, 
that of having a town &t his command, he entered upon a 
scheme entirely new. Hitherto he Bad been only preach- 
ing his religion for thirteen years together ; for the re- 
maining ten years of his life he took the sword, and fought 
for it He had long been teazed and perplexed at Mecca 
with questions, and objections, and disputes about what he 
had preached, by which he was often put to silence ; but 
henceforth he forbad all manner of disputing, telling his 
disciples that his religion was to be propagated not by dis- 
puting, but by fighting. He commanded them therefore 
to arm themselves, and slay with the sword all that would 
not embrace it, unless they submitted to pay a yearly tri- 
bute for the redemption of their lives : and according to 
' this injunction, even to this day, all who live under any 
Mahometan government, and are not of their religion, pay 
an annual tax for a mulct of their infidelity; and are pu- 
nished with death if they contradict or oppose any doc- 
trine taught by Mahomet. After he had sufficiently in- 
fused this doctrine into his disciples, he next proceeded 
to put it in practice ; and having erected his standard, called 
them all to come armed to it. His first expeditions were 
against the trading caravans, in their journeys between 
Mecca and Syria, which he attacked with various success ; 
and if we except the establishing and adjusting a few par- 
ticulars relating to his grand scheme, as occasion required^ 
his time, for the two first years after his flight, was wholly 
spent in predatory excursions upon his neighbours, in 
robbing, plundering}, and destroying all those that lived 
near Medina, who would not embrace his religion. 

In the third year of the Hegira, A. D.^624, he made, 
war upon those tribes of the Arabs which were of the Jew- 
ish religion near him ; and having taken their castles, and 
reduced them under his power, he sold them all for slaves, 
and divided their goods among his followers. But the. 
battle of Ohud, which happened towards the end of this 
year, had like to have proved fatal to him ; for his uncle 
Hamza, who bore the standard, was killed, himself grie- 
vously wounded, and escaped only by one of his compa- 
nions coming to his assistance. This defeat gave rise to. 
many objections against bim ; some asked, How a prophet 
of God could be overthrown in a battle by the infidels r 


and others murmured as much for the loss of their frienchr 
and relations who were slain. To satisfy the former, he 
laid the cause of the overthrow on the sins of some that 
followed him ; and said, that for this reason God suffered 
them to be overthrown, that so the good might be distin- 
guished from the bad, and that those who were true be- 
lievers might on this occasion be discerned from those who 
were not. To quiet the complaints of the latter, he in* 
vented his doctrine of fate and predestination ; telling them 
that those who were slain in the battle, though they bad 
tarried at home in their houses, must nevertheless have 
died at that moment, the time of every man's life being 
predetermined by God ; but as they died fighting for the 
faith, they gained the advantage of the crown of martyr- 
dom, and the rewards which were due to it in Paradise $ 
both which doctrines served his purpose so well, that he 
propagated them afterwards on all occasions. They have 
also been the favourite notidns of the Mahometans ever 
since, and enforced especially in their wars ; where, it must 
be owned, nothing can be more conducive to make them 
fight valiantly, than a settled opinion, that to whatever 
dangers they expose themselves, they cannot die either 
sooner or later than is predestinated by God ; and that, in 
case this predestined time be come, they shall, by dying 
martyrs for their religion, immediately enter into Paradise 
as the reward of it. 

In the fourth year of the Hegira, A. D. 625, he waged 
war with the Nadirites, a tribe of the Jewish Arabs in thef 
neighbourhood ; and the same year fought the battle of 
Beder, and had many other skirmishes with those who re- 
fused to submit : in all Which he had sometimes prosperous 
and sometimes dubious success. But while his army was 
abroad on these expeditions, some of his principal men 
engaging in play and drinking, quarrelled, and raised 
such a disturbance among the rest, that they had like to 
have endangered his whole scheme ; and, therefore, to 
prevent any mischief of this kind for the future, he forbade 
the use of wine, and all games of chance. In the fifth and 
sixth years, he was engaged in various wars, and subdued 
several tribes of the Arabs. After so many advantages ob- 
tained, being much increased in strength, he marched his 
army against Mecca, and fought a battle near it ; the con- 
sequence of which was, that, neither side gaining any vie* 
tory, they agreed on a truce for ten years. The condition^ 

Vol. XXI. K 

1.10 MAHOMET. 

of it were, that all within Mecca, who were for Mahomet, 
might have liberty to join themselves to him ; and on the 
other side, those with Mahomet, who had a mind to leave 
him, might haye the liberty to return to Mecca. By this 
truce, Mahomet, being very much confirmed in his power, 
took on him. thenceforth the authority of a king, and was 
inaugurated as such by the chief men of his army. 

Having thus made a truce with the men of Mecca, and 
thereby obtained free access* for any of his party to go into 
that city, he ordained them to make pilgrimages thither, 
which have ever since been observed, with much super- 
stition, by all his followers, once every year ; and now 
being thus established in the sovereignty, at which he had 
long been aiming, he assumed ail the insignia belonging 
to it; still retaining the sacred character of chief pontiff of 
his religion, as well as the royal., with which he was in- 
vested. He transmitted both to his successors, who, by 
the title of Caliphs, reigned after him : so that, like the 
' Jewish princes of the race of Maccabees, they were kings 
and chief-priests of their people at the same time. Their 
pontifical authority consisted chiefly in giving the inter- 
pretation of the Mahometan law, in ordering all matters 
of religion, and in praying and preaching in their public 
mosques : and this at length was all the authority the ca- 
liphs had left ; as they were totally stripped of the rest, 
first by the governors of the provinces, who, about the 
325th year of the Hegira, assumed the regal authority to 
themselves, and afterwards by others, who gradually 
usurped upon them ; till at length, after a succession of 
ages, the Tartars came in, and, in that deluge of destruc- 
tion with which they over-ran all the East, put a total end 
not only to their authority, but to their very name and 
being. Ever since that time, most Mahometan princes 
have a particular officer appointed in their respective do- 
minions, who sustains this sacred authority, formerly in- 
vested in their caliphs ; who in Turkey is called the Mufti, 
and in Persia the Sadre. But they, being under the power 
of the princes that appoint them, are in reality the mere 
creatures of state, who make the law of Mahomet speak 
just such language as is .necessary to support the measures 
of the government, however unjust or tyrannical. 

In the seventh year of the Hegira, A. D. 628, the im- 
postor led forth his army against Caibar, a city inhabited 
fcy A r ^hs of the Jewish religion ; and, after routing them 

MAHOMET*. 131 

ift battle, he besieged their city, and took it by storm. 
Having entered the town, he took up his quarters in the 
house of Hareth, one of the principal inhabitants of the 
place, whose daughter Zainoh, preparing a shoulder of 
mutton -for his supper, poisoned it. Here those who would 
ascribe miracles to Mahomet, tell us, that the shoulder of 
mutton spake to him, and discovered that it was poisoned ; 
but, if it did so, it was, it seems, too late to do him any 
good ; for Basher, one of his companions, beginning too 
greedily to eat of it, fell down dead on the place ; and al- 
though Mahomet had not immediately the same fate, be- 
cause, not liking the taste, he spit out again what he had 
taken into his mouth, yet he took enough to have a fatal 
effect ; for he never recovered, and, at the end of three 
years, died of this meal. The maid being asked why she 
did this, answered, that " she had a mind to make trial, 
whether he Were a prophet or not : for, were he a prophet," 
said she, " he would certainly know that the meat was 
poisoned, and therefore would receive no harm from it; 
but, if he were not a prophet, she thought she should do 
the world good service in ridding it of so wicked a ty- 
rant." - ' 

After this, he reduced under his subjection other towns 
belonging to the Jewish Arabs, and having increased his 
strength by these acquisitions to an army of 10,000 men, he 
resolved to make himself master of Mecca. For this pur- 
pose, pretending that the people of Mecca had broken the 
truce, he marched suddenly upon them, before they were 
aware of his design : when, being utterly incapable of 
putting themselves into any posture of defence against 
him, they found themselves necessitated to surrender im- 
mediately. As soon as it was heard among the neighbour* 
ing Arabs, that Mahomet had made himself master of 
Mecca, several other tribes made head against him, and 
in the first encounter routed his army, though greatly su- 
perior to theirs in number : but the impostor, having ga- 
thered up his scattered forces, and rallied them again into 
a body, acted more cautiously in the second conflict, and 
gave his enemies a total defeat, and took from them their 
baggage, with their wives and children, and all their sub- 
stance. After this, his power being much increased, the 
fame of it so terrified the rest of the Arabs, who had not 
yet felt his arms, that they ail submitted to him. So that* 
in this year,, which is the tenth of the Hegira, and the 


133 • MAHOMET. 

63ist of our Lord, his empire and bis religion became 
established together through all Arabia. 

Jfe spent t£e remainder of the year in sending lieute- 
nant* into all his provinces, to govern in bis name, to de- 
stroy the heathen temples, and all the other retrains of the 
Arabian idolatry, and establish his religion in its stead. 
Towards the end of it, he took a journey in pilgrimage to 
itlecca, where a great concourse of people resorted to him 
from all parts of Arabfa, whom be instructed in bis law, 
and then returned to Medina. This pilgrimage is called, 
by his followers, the pilgrimage of valediction, because it 
was the last he made : for, after his return to Medina, he 
began daily ' to decline, through the force of that poisoi* 
which he had taken three years before at Caibar. It had 
never been removed from his constitution, and at length, 
brought him so low, that he was forced, on the 28th day 
of Saphar, the second month of their year, to take to hi* 
bed; and? on the 12th day of the following month, he 
died, after a sickness of thirteen days. During his sicknesa 
he much complained of the meat which he had taken at 
Caibar ; telling those who came to visit him, that he had 
felt the torments of it in his body ever since : so that, not- 
withstanding the intimacy he pretended with the angel 
Gabriel, and the continual revelations be received from 
him, he could not be preserved from perishing by the snares 
of a girl. 

He was buried in the place where he died, which wag 
in the chamber of his best-beloved wife, at Medina. The 
story that Mahomet's tomb, being of iron, is suspended in 
the air, under a vault of loadstones, i? a mere fable ; and 
the Mahometans laugh, when they know that the Chris- 
tians relate it, as they do other stories of him, for a cer- 
tain matter of fact. A king of Egypt, indeed,, formerly 
attempted to do this, when he had a mind tp procure the 
same advantage to a statue of bis wife. " Dinocrates the 
architect," says Pliny, "had begun to roof the temple 
of Arsinoe, at Alexandria, with load-stone, that her 
image, made of iron, might seem to hang there in the 
air." But no such attempt was ever made in regard to 
Mahomet ; whose body continued in the place where he 
was buried, without having been moved or disturbed* 
They have, it is said, built over it a small chapel, joining 
to one of the corners of the chief mosque of that city i 
the first mosque which was erected to that impious super* 


stition, Mahomet himself being, as hath been related 
above, the founder of it. 

Thus ended the life of this famous impostor, who was 
sixty-three years old on the day he died, according to the 
Arabian calculation, which makes only sixty-one of out 
years. For twenty-three years he had taken upon him to 
be a prophet ; of which he lived thirteen at Mecca, and 
ten at Medina, during which time, by his great address 
and management, he rose from the meanest beginnings to 
such a height of power as to be able to make one of the 
greatest revolutions that ever happened in the world. This 
revolution immediately gave birth to an empire, which, in 
eighty years, extended its dominion over more kingdoms 
and countries than the Roman empire cpuld subdue in 
eight hundred : and, although it continued in its flourish-* 
ing condition not much above three hundred years, yet 
out of its ashes have sprung up many other kingdoms and 
empires, of which there are three at this day, the largest, 
if not the most potent upon the face of the earth ; namely; 
the empire of Turkey, the empire of Persia, and the em- 
pire of the Mogul in India. Mahomet was a man of a 
good stature and a comely aspect, and affected much to be 
thought like Abraham. He had a piercing and sagacious 
wit, and was extremely wcjl versed in all those arts which 
are necessary to lead mankind. In the first part of his 
life, be was wicked and licentious, much delighted in ra- 
pine, plunder, and bloodshed, according to the usage of 
the Arabs, who have generally followed this kind of life, 
The Mahometans, however, would persuade us, that he 
was a saint from the fourth year of his age : for then, they 
say, the angel Gabriel separated him from his fellows, white 
he was at play with them ; and, carrying him aside, cut open 
his breast, took out his heart, and wrung out of it that black 
drop of blood, in which they imagined was contained the fames 
peccati\ so that he had none of it ever after. This is contra* 
dieted, however, by two predominant passions, ambition 
and lust. The coqrse which he took to gain empire abun- 
dantly shews the former ; and the multitude of women with 
whom he was connected, proves the latter. While Cadiga 
lived, which was till his fiftieth year, it does not appear that 
he had any other wife : for, she being the origin and foun- 
dation of all his fortunes and grandeur, it is probable be 
durst not displease her, by bringing in another wife. But 
she waa no soonei' dead, th^n he multiplied them to a great 


number, besides which he had several concubines. They 
thai reckon the fewest, allow him to have married fifteen ; 
but others reckon them to have been one and twenty, of 
which five died before him, six he divorced, and ten were 
alive at his death. 

But of ail his wives, Ayesha, the daughter of that Abu-* 
beker who succeeded him, was by far his best beloved. 
He married her very young, and took care to have her 
bred up in all the learning of Arabia, especially in the ele- 
gance of their language, and the knowledge of their anti- 
quities ; so that she became at length one of the most ac- 
complished ladies of her time. She was a bitter enemy to 
Ali, he being the person who discovered her incontinence 
to Mahomet, and therefore employed all her interest, upon 
every vacancy, to binder him from being chosen Caliph, 
althouga, as son-in-law to the impostor, he had the fairest 
pretence to it ; and when at last, after having been thrice 
put by, he attained that dignity, she appeared in arms 
against him ; and although she did hot prevail, caused 
such a defection from hiip, as ended in his ruin. She lived 
forty-eight years after the death of Mahomet, and was in 
great reputation with her sect, being called by them the 
Prophetess, and the mother of the faithful/ One of the 
principal arguments which, the followers of Mahomet used, 
to excuse his having so many wives, is, that he might be- 
get young prophets : he left, however, neither prophet 
nor prophetess long behind him of all his wives. The six 
children which he had by Cadiga, his first wife, all died 
before him, except Fatima, the wife of Ali, who only sur- 
vived him sixty days ; and he had no child by any of the 

As the impostor allowed the divinity of the Old and 
New Testament, it is natural to suppose that he would at- 
tempt to prove his own mission from both ; and the texts 
used for this purpose by those who defend his cause, are 
these following. In Deuteronomy it is said, " The Lord 
came down from Sinai, and rose up from Seir unto them : 
he shined forth from mount Pharan, and he came with ten 
thousand of saints: from his right-hand went a fiery law 
for them. 9 ' By these words, according to the Mahometans, 
are meant the delivery of the law to Moses, on mount Si- 
nai ; of the gospel to Jesus, at Jerusalem ; and of the 
Koran to Mahomet, at Mecca : for, say they, Seir are the 
mountains of Jerusalem, where Jesus appeared $ .and Pha* 


ran the mountains of Mecca, where Mahomet appeared. 
But they are here mistaken in their geography ; for Pha- 
ran is a city of Arabia Petreea, near the Red Sea, towards 
the bottom of the gulph, not far from the confines of Egypt 
and Palestine, and above 500 miles distant from Mecca. 
It was formerly an episcopal see, under the patriarchs of 
Jerusalem, and famous for Theodorus, once bishop of it ? 
who was the first that published to the world the opinion of 
the Monothelites. It is at this day called Fara : and hence 
the deserts, lying from this city to the borders of Pales-* 
tine, are called the deserts or wilderness of Pharan, and 
the mountains lying in it, the mountains of Pbaran, in holy, 
scripture; near which Moses first began to repeat, and 
more clearly to explain the law to the children of Israel, 
before his death : and it is to that; to which the text 
above mentioned refers. 

The Psalmist has written, u Out of Sion, the perfecr 
tion of beauty, God hathshined ;" which the Syriac version 
reads thus, "Out of Sion God bath shewed a glorious 
crown." From this some Arabic translation having ex- 
pressed the two last words by " eclilan mahmudan," that 
is, " an honourable crown," the Mahometans have under- 
stood the name Mahomet; and so read the word thus, 
" Out of Sion hath God shewed the crown of Mahomet." 
In Isaiah we read, " And he saw a chariot, with a couple 4 
of horsemen, a chariot of asses and a chariot of camels. 1 ' 
But the old Latin version hath it, " Et vidit currum duo- 
rum equitum, ascensorein asini, & ascensorem cameli ;" 
that is, " And he saw a chariot of two horsemen, a rider 
upon an ass, and a rider uppn a camel." Here, by the 
rider upon an ass, they understand Jesus Christ, because 
he so rode to Jerusalem ; and by the rider upon a camel 
Mahomet, because he was of the Arabians, who used to 
ride upon camels. Our Saviour, in St. John, tells his dis- 
ciples, " If I go not away, the Comforter will not come 
unto you : but if I depart, I will send him unto you." By 
the Comforter, the Mahometans will have their prophet 
Mahomet to be meant : and therefore, among other titles, 
they gave him that of Paraclet, which is the Greek word 
used in this text for the Comforter, made Arabic. They 
also say, that the very name of Mahomet, both here and in 
other places of the gospel, was expressly mentioned ; but*' 
that the Christians have, through malice, blotted it out, 
and shamefully corrupted those holy writings ; nay, they 


insist, that at Paris there is a copy of the Gospels without 
those, corruptions, in which the coming of Mahomet is 
foretold in several places, with his name expressly men- 
tioned in them. Such a copy, it must be owned, would 
be highly convenient, and to the purpose : for then it would 
be no easy matter to refute this text in the 61st chapter of 
the Koran \ " Remember, that Jesus, the son of Mary, said 
to the children of Israel, i am the messenger of God : he 
hath sent me to confirm the Old Testament, and to declare 
unto you, that there shall come a prophet after me, whose 
name shall be Mahomet." 

It is not our business to confute these glosses ; and if it 
was, the absurdity of them is sufficiently exposed by barely 
relating them. Upon the whole, since the Mahometans 
can find nothing else in all the books of the Old and New 
Testament to wrest to their purpose, but the texts above- 
mentioned, it appears to us, that their religion, as well as 
its founder, is likely to receive but little sanction from the 

~ Mahomet was succeeded by Abubeker, agreeably to the 
wishes of the deceased prophet ; who, after a reign of two 
years, was followed by Omar ; and in the twelfth year of 
his government he received a mortal wound from the hand 
of an assassin, and made way for the succession of Oth« 
4nan, the secretary of Mahomet. After the third caliph, 
twenty-four years after the death of the prophet, Ali was 
invested, by the popular choice, with the regal and sacer- 
dotal office. Among the numerous biographers of Maho- 
met, we may reckon Abulfeda, Maracci, Savary, Sale, 
Prideaux, Boulainvilliers, D'Herbelot, Gagnier, Gibbon, 
9nd the author of the article in the Modern Universal His- 
tory. * 

MAHOMET II. the eleventh sultan of the Turks, born 
at Adrianople, the 24th of March, 1430, is to be remem- 
bered chiefly by us, for taking Constantinople in 1453, 
and thereby driving many learned Greeks into the West, 
which was a great cause of the restoration of learning in 
Europe, as the Greek literature was then introduced here. 
He was on£ of the greatest men upon record, with regard 
to the qualities necessary to a conqueror : and he conquered 
two empires, twelve kingdoms, and two hundred consider- 
able cities. He was very ambitious of the title of Great, 

1 Prideayx has been chiefly followed in the preceding account 


which the Turks gave him, and even the Christians haye 
not disputed it with him ; for he was the first of the Otto- 
man emperors, whom the Western nations dignified with 
the title of- Grand Seignior, or Great Turk, which pos- 
terity has preserved to his descendants. Italy had suffered 
greater calamities, but she had never felt a terror equal to 
that which this sultan's victories imprinted. The inhabit* 
ants seemed already condemned to wear the turban ; it is 
pertain that pope Sixtus IV. represented to himself Rome 
as already involved in the dreadful fate of Constantinople ; 
and thought of nothing but escaping into Provence, and 
once more transferring the holy see to Avignon. Ac- 
cordingly, the news of Mahomet's death, which happened 
the 3d of May, 1481, was received at Rome with the 
greatest joy that ev?r was beheld there. Sixtus caused 
all the churches to be thrown open, made the trades-people 
leave off their work, ordered a feast of three days, with 
public prayers and processions, commanded a discharge 
of the whole artillery of the castle of St. Aqgelo all that 
time, and put a stop to his journey to Avignon. Some 
authors have written that this sultan was an atheist, and 
derided all religions, without excepting that of his pro- 
phet, whom he treated as no better than a leader of ban- 
ditti. This is possible enongh ; and there are many cir- 
cumstances which make it credible. It is certain he en<* 
gaged in war, not to promote Mahometism, bur to gratify 
his own ambition : be preferred his own interest to that of 
the faith he professed ; and to this it was owing that he 
tolerated the Greek church, and even shewed wonderful 
civility to the patriarch of Constantinople. His epitaph 
deserves to be noted ; the inscription consisted only of nine 
or ten Turkish words, thus translated : " I proposed to 
myself the conquest of Rhodes and proud Italy." 

He appears to be the first sultan who was a lover of arts 
and sciences ; and even cultivated polite letters. He often 
rfead the History of Augustus, and the other Ceesars ; and 
be perused those of Alexander, Constantine, and Theodo- 
aius, with more than ordinary pleasure, because thete had 
reigned in the same country with himself. He was fond 
of painting, music, and sculpture ; and he applied himself 
to the study of agriculture. He was much addicted to • 
astrology, and used to encourage his troops by giving out 
that the motion and influence of the heavenly bodies pro- 
mised him the empire of the world. Contrary to the genius 

13S MAHOME t. 

of his country, he delighted so much in the knowledge 
of foreign languages, that he not only spoke the Arabian, 
to which the Turkish laws, and the religion of their legis- 
lator Mahomet are appropriated, but also the Persian, the 
Greek, and the French, that is, the corrupted Italian. 
Landin, a knight of Rhodes, collected several letters 
which this sultan wrote in the Syriac, Greek, and Turkish 
languages, and translated them into Latin. Where the 
originals are is not known ; but the translation has been 
published several times; as at Lyons, 1520, in 4 to; at 
Basil, 1554, 12 mo, in a collection published by Opori- 
nus; at Marpurgh,' 1604, in 8vo, and at Leipsic, 1690, 
in 12mo. Melchior Junius, professor of eloquence at 
Strasburg, published at Montbeliard, 1595, a collection 
of letters, in which there are three written by Mahomet II. 
to Scanderbeg. One cannot discover the least air of 
Turkish ferocity in these letters : they are written in as 
civil terms as the most polite prince in Christendom could 
have used. 1 

MAIER (Michael), a celebrated German alchymist and 
rosicrucian of the seventeenth century, who sacrificed his 
health, his fortune, his time, and his understanding, to 
those ruinous follies, wrote many works, all having re- 
ference, more or less, to the principles or rather absurdi- 
ties of his favourite study. The following are mentioned 
as the chief of these publications. 1. " Atalanta fugiens," 
1618, 4to, the most rare and curious of his works. 2. 
u Septimana philosophica," 1620, 4to. In both these 
works he has given abundance of his reveries. 3. " Si- 
lentium post clamores, seu tractatus Revelationum fratrum 
rose® Crucis," 1617, 8vo. 4* " De fraternitate rosea& 
Crucis," 1618, 8vo. 5. " Jocus severus," 1617, 4to. 
6. " De rosea C nice," 1618, 4to. 7. " Apologeticus re*< 
velationum fratrum rosea? Crucis,*' 1617, 8vo. 8. "Canti- 
lenee intellectuales," Rome, 1624. 9. " Museum Chy- 
micum," 1708, 4to. 10. " De Chrculo physico-quadrato," 
1616, 4to. s 

MAIGNAN (Emanuel), a religious minim, and one of 
the greatest philosophers of his age, was born at Toulouse, 
of an ancient and noble family, July 17, 1601. While he 
was a child, he discovered an inclination to letters and the 
sciences, and nothing is said to have had so great an effect 

i Guillet Hist, de Mahomet II,— Universal Hist,— -Gibbon, * Diet. Hist, . 

M A I G N A N 130 

in quieting his infant clamours, as putting some tittle book 
into his hands. He went through his course in the college 
of Jesuits, and acquitted himself with great diligence in 
every part of scholarship, both with respect to literary and 
religious exercises. He was determined to a religious life, 
by a check given to his vanity when he was learning rhe- 
toric. He had written a poem, in order to dispute the 
prize of eloquence, and believed the victory was unjustly 
adjudged to another. This made him resolve to ask the 
minim's habit, and having acquitted himself satisfactorily 
in the trials of hi3 probation-time, he was received upon 
his taking the vow in 1619, when he was eighteen. He 
went through his course of philosophy under a professor 
who was very much attached to the doctrine of Aristotle ; 
and he omitted no opportunity of disputing loudly against 
all the parts of that philosopher's scheme, which be sus- 
pected of heterodoxy. His preceptor considered this as a 
good presage ; and in a short time discovered, to his great 
astonishment, that his pupil was very well versed in ma- 
thematics, without having had the help of a teacher. In 
this, like Pascal, he had been his own master ; but what 
he says of himself upon this point must be understood with 
some limitation ; namely, that " in his leisure hours of one 
year from the duties of the choir and school, he discovered 
of himself as many geometrical theorems and problems, as 
were to be found in the first six books of Euclid's Ele- 

However freely he examined the opinions of philosophy, 
instead of shewing himself incredulous in matters of di- 
vinity, he implicitly submitted to all the tenets of bis 1 
church. But, as the arguments of the Peripatetics were 
commonly applied to illustrate and confirm those tenets, 
where he did not upon examination find them well- 
grounded, he made no scruple to prefer the assistance of 
Plato to that of Aristotle. His reputation was so great, 
that it spread beyond the Alps and Pyrenees ; and the ge- 
neral of the minims ordered him to Rome, in 1636, to fill 
a professor's chair. His capacity in mathematical disco- 
veries and physical experiments soon became known ; 
especially from a dispute which arose between him and 
father Kircher, about the invention of a catoptrical work* 
In 1648 his book " De perspectiva horaria" was printed 
at Rome, at the expence of cardinal Spada, to whom it 
was dedicated, and greatly esteemed by all the curious. 

140 M A I G N A N. 

Erom 'Borne he returned to Toulouse, in 1650, and was so 
well received by bis countrymen, that they created him 
provincial tbe same year ; though he was greatly averse to 
having bis studies interrupted by the cares of any office, 
and he even refused an invitation from the king in 1660, 
to settle in Paris, as it was his only wish to pass the re- 
mainder of his days in the obscurity of the cloister, where 
he bad put on the habit of the order. Before this, in 1652, 
he published bis " Course of Philosophy," at Toulouse, 
in 4 vols. 8vo, in which work, if he did not invent the ex- 
planation of physics by the four elements, which some 
have given to Empedocles, yet he restored it, as Gassen*- 
dus did the doctrine of the atomists. He published a se- 
cond edition of it in folio, 1673, and added two treatises 
to it ; the one against tbe vortices of Des Cartes, the other 
upon the speaking-trumpet invented by our countryman 
sir Samuel Morland. He also formed a machine, which 
shewed by its movements that Des Cartes's supposition 
concerning the manner in which the universe was formed, 
or might have been formed, and concerning the centri- 
fugal force, was entirely without foundation. 

Thus this great philosopher and divine passed a life of 
tranquillity in writing books, making experiments, and 
reading lectures. He was perpetually consulted by the 
most eminent philosophers, and was obliged to carry on a 
very extensive correspondence. Such was the activity of 
his mind that he is said to have studied even in his sleep j 
for his very dreams employed him in theorems, and he 
was frequently awaked by the exquisite pleasure which he 
felt upon the discovery of a demonstration. The excellence 
of bis manners, and his unspotted virtues, rendered him 
, qo less worthy of esteem than bis genius and learning. He 
died at Toulouse Oct. 29, 1676, aged seventy-five. It is 
said of him, that he composed with great ease, and with- 
out any alterations at all. See a book entitled " De vita, 
moribus, & scriptis R. patris Emanuelis Maignani Tolosa* 
tis, ordinis Minimorum, philosophi atqiie mathematici prae- 
stantissimi, elogium," written by F. Saguens, and printed 
at Toulouse in 1697, a work in which are some curiotis 
facts, not, however, unmixed with declamatory pueri- 
lities. ' 

, i life as abofc— Niceron, yoK XXXL— -0en. Dict.-~A$Qreri. 

M A I L L A. 141 

MAILLA (Josbph-Anns-Marie de Moyrjac de), a 
learned Jesuit, was liorn in the French province of Bogey 
on the borders of Savoy, in 1§70.. From the age of twen* 
ty -eight be had made himself - so completely master of 
Chinese learning of all kinds, that he was considered as a 
prodigy, and in 1703, was sent as a missionary into that 
country, where he was highly esteemed by the emperor 
Kam-Hi, who died in 1722. By that prince he was em* 
ployed, with other missionaries, to construct a chart of 
China, and Chinese Tartary, which was engraved in 
France in 1732. He made also some separate maps of par- 
ticular provinces in that vast empire, and the emperor was 
so pleased with these performances, that he fixed the au- 
thor at bis court. Maiila likewise translated the " Great 
Annals" of China into French, and transmitted his manu- 
script to France in 1737, comprising the complete history 
of tbe Chinese empire. Tbe first volumes appeared id 
1777, under the care of the abb£ Grosier, and tbe whole 
was completed by him in 1785, making thirteen volumes 
4to. Tbe style of tbe original is heavy, and contains many 
long and tedious harangues, whicb the editor has sup* 
pressed : it gives many lively and characteristic traits of 
men and manners. Maiila died at Pekin June 28, 1748, 
having lived forty -five years in China, and attained bis 
seventy-ninth year. He was a man of a lively but placid 
character, of an active and persevering spirit, whicb no 
labours repressed. The late emperor Kien Long paid the 
expences of his funeral, which was attended by a proces- 
sion of seven hundred persons. 1 

MAILLARD (Oliver), a famous preacher, and a cor- 
delier, was a native of Paris, where he rose to the dignity 
of doctor in divinity. He was entrusted with honourable 
employments by Innocent VIII. and Charles V III, of France, 
by Ferdinand of Arragon, &c. and is said to have served 
the latter prince, even at the expence of his master. He 
died at Toulouse June 13, 1502. His sermons, whioh re- 
mained in manuscript, are full of irreverent familiarities, 
and in tbe coarsest style of his times. His Latin sermons 
were printed at Paris, in seven parts, forming three vo- 
lumes inSvo; tbe publication commenced in 1711, and 
was continued to 1730. In one of bis sermons for Lent, 
the words hem ! hem ! are written in the margin to n>ark 

i T)ict. Hist. 

142 M A I L L A R D. 

the places«where, according to the custom of those cfayfl* 
the preacher was to stop to cough/ Niceron has giveri 
some amusing extracts fsom others of them, which, amidst 
' all their quatntnesses, 9how him to have been a zealous re- 
prover of the vices of the times, and never to have spared 
persons of rank, especially profligate churchmen. He even 
took liberties with Louis XI. of France to his face, and 
when one of the courtiers told him that the king had 
threatened to throw him into the river, " The king is my 
master," said our hardy priest, " but you may tell him, 
that I shall get sooner to heaven by water, than he will 
with his post-horses." Louis XI. was the first who estab- 
lished posting on the roads of France, and when this bon 
mot was repeated to him, he was wise enough to allow 
Maillard to preach what he would and where he would. 
The bon mot, by the way, appears id the " Navis Stulti- 
fera," by Jodocus Badius, and was probably a current jest 
among the wits of the time. 1 

MAILLEBOIS (John-Baptist Demarets, marquis of), 
was the son of Nicolas Desmarets, controller-general of 
the finances towards the end of Louis XIV.'s reign, and 
was born in 1682. He first signalized himself in the- war 
on the Spanish succession, and completed his reputation 
by two brilliant campaigns in Italy. He was afterwards 
sent against Corsica, which he reduced, but it threw off 
subjection immediately on his departure. This expedition 
obtained him the staff of mareschal of France. In the war 
of 1741, he gained new laurels in Germany and Italy: but 
in 1746, he was defeated by the famous count Brown, in 
the battle of Placentia. He died in February 1762, in 
the 80th year of his age. The account of his campaigns 
in Italy was published in 1775, in three volumes quarto, 
accompanied with a volume of maps. The author of this 
work was the marquis of Pezay, who executed it with great 
judgment. 9 

MAILLET (Benedict de), a French theorist of some 
note, was born in 1659, of a noble family in Lorraine. At 
the age of thirty-three he was appointed consul-general of 
Egypt, and held that situation with great credit for six- 
teen years. Having strenuously supported the interests of 
his sovereign, he was at length rewarded by being removed 
to Leghorn, which was esteemed the chief of the French 

i Niceroq, vol. XXIIJ.— Bib!. Croix du Maine— Moreri. * Diet. Hist 


M A I L L E T. 14*3 

consulships. In 1715 he was employed to visit and inspect 
the other consulships of Barbary and the Levant, and ful- 
filled this commission so much to the satisfaction of his 
court, that he obtained leave to retire, with a considerable 
pension, to Marseilles, where be died in 1738, at the age 
of seventy-nine. De Maillot did not publish anything 
himself, but left behind him papers and memoirs, from 
which some publications were formed. The first of these 
was published in 8vo, by the abb6 Mascrier, under the 
feigned name of Telliamed, which is De Maillet reversed. 
The subject is the origin of our globe, and the editor has 
thrown the sentiments of his author into the form of dia- 
logues between an Indian philosopher and a French mis- 
sionary. The philosopher maintained that all the land of 
this earth, and its vegetable and animal inhabitants, rose 
from the bosom of the sea, on the successive contrac- 
tions of the waters : that men had originally been tritons 
with tails ; and that they, as well as other animals, had 
lost their marine, and acquired terrestrial forms }>y their 
agitations when left on dry ground. This extravagance 
had its day in France. The same editor also drew from 
the papers of this author, a description of Egypt, published 
in 1743, in 4 to, and afterwards in two volumes 12mo. ' 

MAIMBOURG (Louis), a man celebrated in the re* 
public of letters, was born at Nancy, in Lorrain, in 1610. 
He was very* well descended, and his parents were people 
of considerable rank and fortune. He was admitted into 
the society of the Jesuits in 1626 ; but obliged afterwards 
to quit it by the order of pope Innocent XI. in 1682, for 
having asserted too boldly the authority of the Gallican 
church against the court of Rome. Louis XIV. however, 
made him sufficient amends for this disgrace by settling 
on him a very honourable pension, with which he retired 
into the abbey of St. Victor at Paris. Here he died in 
1686, after having made a will by which it appears that 
he was extremely dissatisfied with the Jesuits. Bayle has 
given, the substance of it, as far as relates to them, and 
calls it a kind of a declaration of wan It sets forth, " That 
a gentleman of Nancy, in Lorrain, had been educated and 
settled in France from twelve years of age, and by that 
means was become a very faithful and loyal subject of that 

1 Diet. Hist. — Journal du Nil, par P. Chateauneuf, Hamburgh, 1799. — Major 
Kennel's Geography of Herodotus.— Diet; Hist. 

144 HAIMBO U-R'6. 

ting; that he was no* almost seventy-six years *1d; that 
bis father and mother being very rich had founded ft col* 
lege for the Jesuits at Nancy, fifty years ago ; and that for ten 
years before this foundation they had supplied those fathers 
with every thing they wanted. He declares, that they did 
all this in consideration of bis being admitted into that 
order; and yet that now he was forcibly turned out of it. 
He wills, therefore, by this testament, that all the lands, 
possessions, &c. which the Jesuits received of his father 
and mother, do devolve, at his decease, to the Carthusian 
monastery near Nancy ; affirming, that his parents would 
never have conferred such large donations upon them, 
but upon condition, that they would not banish their son 
from the society, after they had once admitted him ; and 
that, therefore, since these conditions had been violated 
on the part of the Jesuits, the possessions of his family 
ought to return to him." 

Maimbourg had a great reputation as a preacher, and 
published' two volumes of sermons. But what have made 
him most known were the several histories he published. 
He wrote the History of Arianism, of the Iconoclasts, of 
the Croisades, of the Schism of the West, of the Schism 
of the Greeks, of the Decay of the Empire, of the League, 
of Lutheranism, of Calvinism, the Pontificate of St. Leo; 
and he was composing the " History of the Schism of Eng- 
land" when he died. These histories form 14 vols. 4to, 
or 26 in 12mo. . Protestant authors have charged him with 
insincerity, have convicted him of great errors and misre- 
presentations, in their refutations of his " History of Lu- 
theranism and Calvinism. 1 ' The Jansenists criticized his 
*' History of Arianism,'* and that of the u Iconoclasts," 
leaving all the rest untouched. The " History of Cal* 
vinism," which he published in 1681, stirred up a violent 
war against him ; the operations whereof he left entirely 
to his enemies, without ever troubling himself in the least 
about it, or acting either offensively or defensively. The 
abb6 L' Avocat says that his historical works were admired at 
first, on account of a kind pf romantic style which prevails 
in them ; but this false taste did not continue long, and 
the greatest part of them were exploded while their author 
was yet living. It is asserted that P. Maimbourg never 
took up his pen till he had heated his imagination by wine, 
nor ever attempted to describe a battle till he had drank 
two bottles; making use of this precaution, as he said 

M A I M B O U R a 145 

jestingly, lest the horrors of the combat should enfeeble 
his sty U*. The same biographer adds, that Theodore Maim- 
bourg, his cousin, turned Calvinigt, then went back to the 
.catholic church, then changed afresh to " what is called 
the reformed religion," and died a Socinian at London* 
abeut 1693. This last left an answer to <c M. BoSsuet'fr 
Exposition of the Catholic Faith ;" and other works. r 

.MAIMONIDES (Moses), or Moses the son of Maimon, 
a eel ebrated rabbi, called by the Jews " The eagle of the 
doctors," was born of an illustrious family at Cordova in 
Spain, 1 13 U He is commonly named Moses Egyptius, 
because he retired early, as it is supposed, into Egypt, 
where be spent his whole life in quality of physician to the 
Soldan. As soon as he arrived there he opened a school, 
which was presently filled with pupils from all parts, espe- 
cially from Alexandria and Damascus ; who did such cre- 
dit to t'heir master by the progress they made under him, 
that they spread his name throughout the world. Maimo- 
nides was, indeed, according to all accounts of him, a jmost 
uncommon and extraordinary man, skilled in all lan- 
guages, and versed in all arts and sciences. As to lan- 
guages, the Hebrew and Arabic were the first he acquired, 
and what he understood in the most perfect manner ; but 
perceiving that the knowledge of these would distinguish 
him only among his own people, the Jews, he applied him- 
self also to the Chaldee, Turkish, &c. &c. of all which he 
became a master in a very few years. It is probable also, 
that he was not ignorant of the Greek, since in his writings 
he . often quotes Aristotle, Plato, Galen, Themistius, and 
others; unless we can suppose him to have quoted those 
.authors from Hebrew and Arabic versions, for which, how- 
ever, as far as we can find, there is no sufficient reason. 
.. He was famous for arts as well as language. In all 
IttfftnGhgs of philosophy, particularly mathematics, he was 
extremely well skilled ; and his experience in the art of 
healing was so very great, that as we have already intimated, 
he was called to be physician in ordinary to the king* 
,Tbet*e is a letter of his extant, to rabbi Samuel Aben 
Tybbon, in which he has described the nature of this 
o£ce, and related also what vast incumbrances and labours 
the pfactice of physic brought upon him. Of this we shall 
give a short extract, because nothing can convey a clearer 

* Gen. Diet,— Morwri.T-L'AYOcat'i Diet. HUt 


146 M A I M O N I D E S, 

or a juster idea of the man, and of the esteem and venera- 
tion in which he was held in Egypt. Tybbon had con- 
sulted him by a letter upon some difficult points, and bad 
told him in the conclusion of it, that as soon as he could 
find leisure he would wait upon him in person, that they 
.might canvas them more fully in the freedom of conversa- 
tion. Maimonides replied, that he should be extremely 
glad to see him, and that nothing could give him higher 
pleasure than the thoughts of conversing with him ; but 
yet. that he must frankly confess to him that he durst not 
encourage him to undertake so long a voyage, or to think 
of visiting him with any such views. " 1 am," says he, 
"so perpetually engaged, that it will be impossible for you 
to reap any advantage from me, or even to obtain a single 
hour's private conversation with me in any part of the 
four-and-twenty. I live in Egypt, the king in Alkaira ; 
which places lie two sabbath-days journey asunder. My 
common attendance upon the king is once every morning ; 
but when his majesty, his concubines, or any of the royal 
family, are the least indisposed, I am not suffered to stir a 
foot from them; so that my whole time, you see, is 
almost spent at court. In short, I go to Alkaira every 
morning early, and, if all be well there, return home 
about noon ; where, however, I no sooner arrive, than I 
.find my house surrounded with many different sorts of 
people, Jews and Gentiles, rich men and poor, magistrates 
and mechanics, friends as well as enemies, who have all 
been waiting impatiently for me. As I am generally half 
famished upon my return from Alkaira, I prevail with this ~ 
multitude, as well as I can, to suffer me to regale myself . 
with a bit of dinner ; and as soon as I have done, attend 
this crowd of patients, with whom, what with examining 
into their particular maladies, and what with prescribing 
for them, I am often detained till it is night, and am al- 
ways so fatigued at last, that I can scarcely speak, or 
even keep myself awake. And this is my constant way 
of life," &c. 

But however eminent Maimonides was as a physician, 
he was not Less so as a divine. The Jews have this saying 
of him, " A Mose ad Mosen non surrexit sicut Moses ; ,f 
by which they would insinuate, that of all their nation 
none, ever so nearly approached to the wisdom and learn- 
ing of their great founder and lawgiver, as Moses, the son 
of Maimon. He' was, says Isaac Casaubon, " a man of 

M A I M O N I D E S, 147 

great parts and sound learning ; of whom, I think, we 
may truly say, as Pliny said of old of Diodorus Siculus, 
that he was the first of his tribe who ceased to be a trifler." 
He was so far from paying an undue regard to absurd 
fables and traditions, as his nation had always been accus- 
tomed to do, that he dissuaded others from it in the most 
express terms. " Take heed,' 9 says he, " and do not waste 
your time in attempting to draw sense or meaning out of 
that which has no meaning in it; I myself have spent a 
great deal of time fn commenting upon, and explaining the 
Gemara, from which I have reaped nothing but my labour 
for my pains." 

The works of Maimonides are very numerous. Some of 
them were written in Arabic originally, but are now extant 
in Hebrew translations only. The most considerable are 
his Jad, which is likewise called " Mischne Terah," his 
"More Nevochim," and his "Peruschim, or Commen- 
taries upon the Misna." His " Commentaries upon the 
Misna" he began at the age of three-and-twenty, and 
finished in Egypt, when he was about thirty. They wer6 
translated from the Arabic by rabbi Samuel Aben Tybbon. 
His " Jad" was published about twelve years after, written 
in Hebrew, in a very plain and easy style. This has always 
been esteemed a great and useful work, being a complete 
code, or pandect of Jewish law, digested into a clear and 
regular form, and illustrated throughout with an intel- 
ligible commentary of his own. " Those," says Collier, 
" that desire to learn the doctrine and the canon law con- 
tained in the Talmud, may read Maimonides's compendium 
of it in good Hebrew, in his book entitled Jad ; wherein 
they will find a great part of the fables and impertinences 
in the Talmud entirely discarded." But of all his produc- 
tions, the " More Nevochim" has been thought the most 
important, and valued the most, not only by others, but 
also by himself. This was written by him in Arabic, when 
he was about fifty years old ; and afterwards translated into 
Hebrew, under his own inspection, by rabbi Samuel Aben 
Tybbon. The design of it was to explain the meaning of 
several difficult and obscure words, phrases, metaphors, 
parables, allegories, &c. in scripture ; which, when inter- 
preted literally, seemed to have no meaning at all, or at 
least a very absurd and irrational one. Hence the work, 
as.Buxtorf says, took its title of " More Nevochim," that 
is, " l>octor perplexorum ;" as being written for the use 

L 2 


and benefit of those who were in doubt whether they 
should interpret such passages according to the letter, or 
rather figuratively and metaphorically. It was asserted by 
many at that time, but very rashly, that the Mosaic rites 
and statutes had no foundation in reason, but were the 
effects of mere will,, and ordained by God upon a principle 
purely arbitrary. Against these Maimonides argues, shews 
the dispensation in general to be instituted with a wisdom 
worthy of its divine author, and explains the causes and 
reasons of each particular branch of it. This procedure, 
however, gave offence to many of the Jews ; those espe- 
cially who had long been attached to the fables of the 
Talmud. They could not conceive that the revelations of 
God were to be explained upon the principles of reason; but 
thought that every institution must cease to be divine the 
moment it was discovered to have any thing in it rational. 
Hence, when the " More Nevocbim" was translated into 
Hebrew, and dispersed among the Jews of every country, 
great outcries were raised, and great disturbances occa- 
sioned about it. They reputed the author to be a heretic 
of the worst, kind, one who had contaminated the religion 
of the Bible, or rather the religion of the Talmud, with 
the vile allay of human reason ; and would gladly have 
burnt both him and his book. In the mean time, the wiser 
part of both Jews and Christians have always considered 
the work in a very different light, as formed upon a most 
excellent and noble plan, and calculated in the best man* 
ner to procure the revereuce due to the Bible, by shewing 
the dispensation it sets forth to be perfectly conformable 
to all our notions of the greatest wisdom, justice, and 
goodness : for, as the learned Spencer, who has pursued 
the same plan, and executed it happily, observes very 
truly, " nothing contributes more to make men atheists, 
and unbelievers of the Bible, than their considering th$ 
rites and ceremonies of the law as the effects only of ca- 
price and arbitrary humour in the Deity : yet thus they will 
always be apt to consider them while they remain iguorant 
of th<e causes and reasons of their institution." 

Besides these three works of Maimonides, a great many 
pieces are said to have been written by him upon theology, 
philosophy, logic, medicine, &c. and in various languages, 
as Arabic, Chaldee, and Greek. It may easily indeed bp 
conceived, that a man of his uncommon abilities might be 
^ qualified to write upon almost every subject, as there was 

MAIM0NIDE8. 149 

hardly any thing to be found in the republic of letters, 
which he had not read. He had turned over not only all 
the Hebrew, but all the Arabian, Turkish, Greek, Egyp- 
tian, and Taltnudic writers, as appears by the use he has 
made of them in his works. He tells us in more places 
than one, that he had perused with great attention, all the 
ancient authors updn the rise and progress of idolatry, 
with a view of explaining the reasons of those rites and or- 
dinances in the law, which were instituted to abolish it : 
and, in the preface to his " Commentary upon the Misna," 
he expressly says, that there was no book written in any lan- 
guage, upon the subject of philosophy, which he had not 
read entirely through. 

This wonderful rabbi died in Egypt, in 1204, when he 
was seventy years of age, and was buried with his nation 
in the land of Upper Galilee. The Jews and Egyptians 
bewailed his death for three whole days, and called the 
year in which he died " Lamentum lamentabile," as the 
•highest honour they could confer upon his name., See the 
preface of John Buxtorf the son, to his Latin translation 
of the " More Nevochim," whence this account of the 
author is chiefly taken. 1 



MAINTENON . (Madam de), a very extraordinary 
French lady, who, from a low condition and many misfor- 
tunes, was raised at last to be the wife of Louis XIV. was 
descended from the ancient family of d'Aubign£ ; her pro- 
per name being Frances d'Artbigng. M. d'Aubigue, her 
grandfather, was born in 1550, and died in 1630, in his 
80th year. He was a man of great merit, a man also of 
rank, a leading man among the Protestants in France, and 
much courted to go over to the opposite party. When he 
perceived that there was no safety for him any. longer in 
his own country, be fled for refuge to Geneva, about 1619. 
The magistrates, and the clergy there, received him with 
great marks of honour and distinction ; and he passed the 
remainder of his life among them in great esteem. Meze- 
ray says, that " he was a man of great courage and bold* ~ 
m»ss, of a ready wit, and of a fine taste in polite learning, 
as well as of good experience in matters of wan" 

The son of this d'Aubign£ was the father of madam de 
Maintenon ; her mother the daughter of Feter de Cardillac, 

) Preface as above.-*Wolfii Bibl. Hebrsea.— Saxii Onomasticop. 


lord of Lane; and of Louisa de Montalembert They 
were married at Bourdeaux, Dec. 27, 1627, not without 
some apprehensions, it is said, on the part of the lady, 
upon her being united, we know not how, to a man of a 
most infamous character, and who had actually murdered 
his first wife : for such was Constance d'Aubign£. Going 
to Paris soon after his marriage, he was for some very gross 
offence cast into prison ; upon which madam d'Aubign£ 
followed to solicit his pardon ; but in vain: cardinal Riche- 
lieu was indexible, and told her, that " to take such a 
husband from her, was to do her a friendly office*" Ma- 
dam d'Aubign6, more attached to her husband in propor- 
tion as he became more miserable, obtained leave to shut 
herself up in prison with him. Here she had two sons, and 
becoming pregnant a third time, obtained leave from court 
to have her husband removed to the prison of Niort, that 
they might be nearer the assistance which they derived 
from their relations. 

In this prison madam de Maintenon was born, Nov. 27, 
1635; from which miserable situation, however, she was 
taken a few days after by madafri Villette, her aunt by her 
father's side, who, out of compassion to the child, gave 
her to the care of her daughter's nurse, with whom she 
was bred for some time as a foster-sister. Madam Villette 
also sent the prisoners several necessaries, of which they 
were in extreme waht. Madam d'Aubign6 at length ob- 
tained her husband's enlargement ; but it was upon con* 
dition that he should turn Roman Catholic. D'Aubigne* 
promised all ; but, forgetting his promises, and fearing to 
be involved again in trouble, he was determined to seek 
his fortune abroad. Accordingly in 1639, he embarked 
for America with his wife and family ; and arriving safely 
there, settled in Martinico, where he acquired considera- 
ble plantations. Madam d'Aubigng returned in a little 
time with her children to France, to carry on some law- 
suits, and recover some debts; but madam Villette per- 
suading her to desist from her pretensions, she returned to 
America, where she found her husband ruined by gaming. 
In 1646, he died, when madam d'Aubigne* was left, in the 
utmost distress, to support herself, and manage the edu- 
cation of her children, as she could. She returned to 
France, leaving her debts unpaid, and her daughter as a 
pledge in the hands of one of her principal creditors ; who, 
however, soon sent her into France after her mother, 


Here neglected by her mother, who was indeed little able 
'to support her, she fpll into the hands of madam Villette 
at Poictou, who received her with great marks of affection ; 
ijmd told her, that she should be welcome, if she thought 
fit, to live with her, where at least she should never be 
reduced to want a subsistence. The niece accepted the 
offer which her aunt made her, and studied to render her- 
self necessary and agreeable to a person, upon whom she 
saw she must depend for every thing. She particularly 
laboured to insinuate herself into the. affections of her cou- 
sin, with whom she had one common nurse : and to omit 
nothing that might please them, she expressed a great de- 
sire to he instructed in the religion of her ancestors. She 
was impatient to have some conversation with ministers, 
and to frequent their sermons, and in a short time became 
firmly attached to the Protestant religion. In the mean 
time madam de Neuillant, a relation by her mother's side, 
and a Roman catholic, had been busy in advertising some 
considerable persons of the danger she was in, as to her 
salvation ;.,and bad solicited an order, which was granted, 
from the court, to take her out of the hands of madam 
Villette, and to have her instructed in the Roman Catholic 
religion. . She accordingly took her to herself, and made 
a convert of her : which however was not effected without 
many threats, artifices, and hardships, which drove her at 
length to a compliance with the solicitations of madam de 

In 1651, she was married .to the abbe" Scarron. Madam 
de Neuillant, being obliged to go to Paris, took her along 
with her; and there becoming known to this old famous 
buffoon, who admired her for her wit, she preferred mar- 
rying him to the dependent state she was in. Scarron was 
of an ancient and distinguished family, but deformed, in- 
firm, and in no very advantageous circumstances; as he 
subsisted only on a pension, which was allowed him by the 
court, in consideration of his wit and parts. She lived 
with him, however, many years ; and Voltaire says that this 
part of her life was undoubtedly the happiest. Her beauty, 
but still more her wit, for she was never reckoned a complete 
beauty, distinguished her greatly ; and her conversation 
was eagerly sought by all the best company in Paris. Upon 
the death of her husband, which happened in 1660, she 
was reduced to the same indigent condition she was in be- 
' fore her marriage ; but her friends did all they could to 


prevail upon the court to continue to her the pension which 
Scarron had enjoyed : in order to which, petitions were 
frequently given in, beginning always with, "The widow 
Scarron most humbly prays your majesty," &c. For a 
time all these petitions signified nothing ; and the king was 
so weary of them, that he has been heard to say, " Must 
I always be pestered with the widow Scarron ?" At 
length, madam de Montespan, his mistress, undertook to 
present one to him : " How V 7 cried the king, " the 
widow Scarron again ! Shall 1 never hear of any thing 
else ?" *' Indeed, Sire," replied madam de Montespan, 
" you ought to have ceased hearing of it long ago." The 
pension was granted, and madam Scarron went to thank 
madam de Montespan, who was so struck with the charms 
of her conversation, that she presented her to the king, 
who is reported to have said : " Madam, I have made you 
wait a long time; but your* friends are so numerous, that 
I was desirous of your owing this to me alone." Voltaire 
tells us,, he had this fact from cardinal Fleury, who took a 
pleasure in often repeating it, because he said Louis XIV. 
had made him the same compliment when he gave him the 
bishopric of Frejus. 

Some time after, madam de Montespan, wishing to 
conceal the birth of the children she had by the king, cast 
her eyes on madam Scarron, as the mo&t likely person to 
keep the secret, and educate them properly ; and madam 
Scarron undertook this charge by his majesty's order, and 
became their gov ernante. She then led a hard, unplea- 
sant, and retired life, with only her pension of 2000 livres, 
and had the mortification of knowing that she was disagree-* 
able to the king. His majesty had indeed a degree of 
dislike to her : he looked upon her as a wit ; and though 
he possessed much wit himself, he could not bear those 
who made a display of it, He never mentioned her to 
madam de Montespan, but by the name of " your bel- 
esprit." When the children grew older, they were sent 
for to court, which occasioned the king to converse some-* 
times with. madam Scarron, in whom he found so much 
sense, sweetness, and elegance of manners, that he not 
only lost by degrees his dislike to her, but gave her a par* 
tic qiar proof of his esteem: looking over the state of the 
pensions, and seeing " two thousand francs for madam 
Scarron," he erased the sum, and wrote **two thousand 
prQWUs/' .The young duke pf Maine also contributed not 


a little to remove his majesty's prejudices. The king fre- 
quently played with him, and being much pleased with the 
sense that appeared even in his eyes, and with the manner 
in which he answered his questions, said to him one day, 
" You are very wise ;" " I may well be so," replied the 
child, " for I have a governess who is wisdom itself/* 
" Go," said his majesty, " go, tell her you bring her a 
hundred thousand franks for your sugar plumbs." Madam 
Searron attended this young prince sometime after to the 
waters of Barege, from whence she wrote to the king him- 
self, to inform him of all that passed. He was much 
pleased with her letters, and said, " I had no idea that a 
bel-esprit could write so well." This circumstance pro- 
bably gave rise to the report that Louis XIV. was first cap- 
tivated by a letter she wrote in madam de Montespan's 
name; but it is a mere story. Madam de Montespau 
wrote at least as good letters as madam Scarrort, and even 
as madam de Sevign6. 

In 1679, the king bought her the lands of Main tenon, 
worth 250,000 iivres, which was the only estate she ever 
had, though afterwards in a height of favour that afforded 
her the means of purchasing immense property. Here she 
had a magnificent castle, in a most beautiful country, not 
more than fourteen leagues from Paris, and ten from Ver- 
sailles. The king, seeing her extremely pleased with the 
acquisition of her estate, called her publicly madam de 
Mam tenon ; which change of name was of greater use to 
her than she heroelf could have foreseen. She could not 
well be raised to the rank in which she was- afterwards seen, 
with the name of Scarron, which must always have been 
accompanied with a mean and burlesque ideai * A woman, 
whose very name was a jest, must have detracted from the 
respect and veneration which was paid to the great and 
pompous Louis ; cior could ail the reserve and dignity of 
the widow efface dhe impression made by the remembrance 
of her buffoonish husband. It was necessery, therefore, 
that madam de Maintenon should obliterate madam 

In the mean tint e, her elevation was to ber only a retreat. 
Shut up in her apartment, which was on the same floor 
with the king's, st) e confined herself to the society of two 
or three ladies, as retired as herself; and even these she 
saw but seldom. The king came to her apartment every 
(Jay after dinner, \ >efore and after supper, and continued 

154 maintenon; 

there till midnight. Here he did business with his mini- 
sters, while madam de Maintenon employed herself in 
reading or needle-work, never shewing any eagerness to 
talk of state affairs, often seeming wholly ignorant of them, 
and carefully avoiding whatever had the least appearance 
of cabal and intrigue. She studied more to please him 
who governed, than to govern ; and preserved her credit, 
by employing it with the utmost circumspection. She did 
not make use of her power,; to give the greatest dignities 
and employments among her own relations. Her brother 
count d'Aubign6, a lieutenant-general of long standing, 
was not even made a marshal of France ; a blue ribbon, 
and some appropriations in the farms of the revenue, were 
all his fortune : which made him once say to the marshal 
de Vivone, the brother of madam de Montespan, that 
" he had received the staff of marshal in ready money." It 
was rather high fortune for the daughter of this count, to 
marry the duke de Noailles, than an advantage to the 
duke. Two more nieces of madam de Maintenon, the 
one married to the marquis de Caylus, the other to the 
marquis de Villette, had scarcely any thing. A moderate 
pension, which Louis XIV. gave to madam de Caylus, 
was almost all her fortune ; and madam de Villette had 
nothing but expectations. This lady, who was afterwards 
married to the celebrated lord Bolingbroke, often re- 
proached her aunt for doing so little for her family ; and 
once told her in some anger, that " she took a pleasure in 
ber moderation, and in seeing her family the victim of it." 
This Voltaire relates as a fact, which he bad from M. de 
Villette herself. It is certain, that M. de Maintenon sub- 
mitted every thing- to her fears of doing what might be 
contrary to the king's sentiments. She did not even dare 
to support her relation the cardinal de Noailles, against 
father le Tellier. She bad a great friendship for the poet 
Racine, yet did not venture to protect him against a slight 
resentment of the king's. One day, moved with the elo- 
quence with which he had described to ber the people's 
miseries in 1698, she engaged him to draw up a. memorial, 
which might at once shew the evil and the remedy. The 
king read it ; and, upon his expressing some displeasure at 
it, she had the weakness to tell the author, and not the 
courage to defend him. Racine, still weaker, says Vol- 
taire, was so hurt, that it was supposed tx> have occasioned 
bis death. The same natural disposition, which made, her 

M A I N T E N O N. 155 

incapable of conferring benefits, made her also incapable 
of doing injuries. When the minister Louvois threw him- 
self at the feet of Louis XIV. to hinder his marriage with 
the widow Scarron, she not only forgave him, but fre- 
quently pacified the king, whom the rough temper of this 
minister as frequently angered. 

About the end of 168,5, Louis married madam de Main- 
tenon ; and certainly acquired an agreeable and submissive 
companion. He was then in his forty-eighth year, she in 
her fiftieth. The only public distinction which made her 
sensible of her secret elevation (for nothing could be con- 
ducted more secretly then, or kept a greater secret after- 
wards, than this marriage) was, that at mass she sat in one 
of the two little galleries, or gilt doors, which appeared 
only to be designed for the king and. queen : besides this, 
she had not any exterior appearance of grandeur. That 
piety and devotion, with which she had inspired the king, 
and which she had applied very successfully to make her- 
self a wife, instead of a mistress, became by degrees a 
settled disposition of mind, which age and affliction con- 
firmed. She had already, with the king and the whole 
court, given herself the merit of a foundress, by assent-* 
bling at Noisy a great number of women of quality ; and 
(he king had already destined the revenues of tne abbey of 
St. Denis, for the maintenance of this rising community. 
St. Cyr was built at the end of the park at Versailles, in 
1686. She then gave the form to this establishment ; anfl, 
together with Desmarets, bishop of Cbartres, made the 
rules, and was herself superior of the convent. Thither 
she often went to pass away some hours ; and, as we learn 
from herself, melancholy determined her to this employ- 
ment. " Why cannot I," says she in a letter to madam 
de la Maisonfort, " why cannot I give you my experience ? 
Why cannot I make you sensible of that uneasiness, which 
wears out the great, and of the difficulties they labour 
under to employ their time ? Do not you see that I am 
dying with melancholy, in a height of fortune, which once 
my imagination could scarcely have conceived ? I have' 
been young and beautiful, have had a relish for pleasures, 
and have been the universal object of love. In a more 
advanced age, 1 have spent my time in intellectual amuse- 
ments. I have at last risen to favour; but I protest to 
you, my dear girl$ that every one of these conditions 
leaves in the mind a dismal vacuity." If any thing, says 

156 M A I N T E N O N. 

Voltaire, could shew the vanity of ambition, it would cer- 
tainly be this letter. She could have no other uneasiness 
than the uniformity of her manner of living with a great 
king ; and this made her say once to the count d'Aubign6, 
her brother, " I can hold it no louger ; I wish I was dead.** 

The court grew now every day less gaj' and more serious, 
after the king began to live a retired life with madam de 
Maintenon. It was the convent of St. Cyr which revived 
the taste for works of geniusi Madam de Maintenon in- 
treated Racine, who had renounced the theatre for Jan- 
senism and the court, to compose a tragedy, and to take 
the subject from the Bible. Racine composed "Esther :** 
and this piece having been first represented at th<* u ~ 
of St. Cyr, was afterwards acted several times at V 
before the king, in the winter of 1689. At the c 
the king, which happened Sept. 2, 1715, madam d 
tenon retired wholly to St. Cyr, where she spent 
nfainder of her days in acts of devotion. What . 
surprising is, that Louis XIV. made no certain p 
for her, but only recommended her to the duke of ( 
She would accept of no m.ore than an annual pei 
80,000 livres; and this was punctually paid her ' 
death, which happened the 15th of April, 1719. 
la Beaumeile published in 1755, " M. de Maintenor 
ters," 9 vols. 12mb; and " Memoirs" for her 1 
&c. the whole reprinted in 12 vols, small 12mo. 
u Letters'* are curious and interesting, but there i 
veral trifling ones among them. The " Memoirs,' 
contain some remarkable anecdotes, are not alway: 
depended on as to facts, and are frequently censura 
indelicacy. 1 

MAJOR, or MAIR (John), a scholastic diviue ai 
torian, was born, not at Haddington, as is usual] 
but at Gleghorn, a village near North Berwick, in 
From some passages in his writings, it appears that 
sided for a time both at Oxford and at Cambridge 
the former particularly, we learn from the dedica 
one of his works to cardinal Wolsey, he resided, not 
months, as Wood says, but a year. The cardinal, 
he styles " your majesty," received him " after th 
manner of Christian hospitality, and invited him 
splendid salary to Oxford, where he had lately found 

* Marerl.— Siecle de ^ouis XIV— -Pict, Hist 


college, which Major did not accept, on account of the love 
he bore to his mother university of Paris." It appears 
that he went in 1493 to Paris, and studied in the college 
of St. Barbe, under the famous John Boulac. Thence he 
removed to the college of Montacute, where be began the 
study of divinity, under the celebrated Standouk. In 1498 
he was entered of the college of Navarre ; in 1505 he was 
created D. D. returned to Scotland in 1519, and taught 
theology for several years in the university of St: Andrew's. 
At length, disgusted with the quarrels of his countrymen, 
be returned to Paris, and resumed his lectures in the col- 
lege of Montacute, where he had several pupils, afterwards 
men of eminence. About 1530, he removed once more 
land, was chosen professor of divinity at St. An- 
and afterwards became provost It is usually sup- 
that he died' in 1547, but it is certain that he was 
1549; for in that year he subscribed (by proxy, 
>unt of his great age) the national constitutions of 
.rch of Scotland. He died soon after, probably in 
vvhich must have been in his eighty-second year. 
. says, that of all the divines who had written on the 
f the Master of Sentences (Peter Lombard), Major 
most learned and comprehensive. His History of 
d is written with much commendable freedom ; but 
barous style, and not always correct as to facts, 
the instructor, but not, as some have said, the pa- 
the famous George Buchanan. He also had the 
ted John Knox as one of his pupils. Baker in a 
e on the " Athenae," adds to the mention of this 
hat " a man would hardly believe be had been 
by him." Baker, however, was not sufficiently ac- 
d. with Major's character to be able to solve this 
Major, according to the very acute biographer of 
Dr. M'Crie) had acquired a habit of thinking and 
ing himself on Certain subjects, more liberal than 
opted in his native country and other parts of Eu- 
He had imbibed the sentiments concerning eccle- 
l polity, maintained by John Gerson, Peter D'Ailly, 
ers, who defended the decrees, of the council of 
tee, and liberties of the Galiican church, against 
ho asserted the incontrouiable authority of the so- 
pontiff. He thought that a general council was 
r to the pope, might judge, rebuke, restrain, and 
eve. ;pose him from his dignity ; denied the temporal 

158 MA J O R. 

supremacy of the bishop of Rome, and his right to inau- 
gurate or dethrone princes; maintained that ecclesiastical 
censures and even papal excommunications had no force, 
if pronounced on invalid or irrelevant grounds ; he held 
that tithes were merely of human appointment, not divine 
right; censured the avarice, ambition, and secular pomp 
of the court of Rome and the episcopal order ; was no 
warm friend of the regular clergy, and advised the reduc- 
tion of monasteries and holidays. His opinions respecting 
civil government were analogous to those which he held as 
to ecclesiastical policy. He taught that the authority of 
kings and princes was originally derived from the people ; 
that the former are not superior to the latter, collectively 
considered ; that if rulers become tyrannical, or employ 
their power for the destruction of their subjects, they may 
lawfully be controuled by them ; and proving incorrigible, 
may be deposed by the community as the superior power ; 
and that tyrants may be judicially proceeded against, even 
to capital punishment. The affinity between these and 
the political principles afterwards avowed by Knox, and 
defended by the classic pen of Buchanan, is too striking to 
require illustration. But although Major had ventured to 
think for himself on these topics, in all other respects be 
was completely subservient to the opinions of his age; and 
with a mind deeply tinctured with superstition, defended 
some of the absurdest tenets of popery by the most ridicu- 
lous and puerile arguments.. We .cannot, therefore, greatly 
blame Buchanan, who called him in ridicule, what he af- 
fected t*> call himself in humility, "Joannes, solo cogno- 
mine, Major." His works are, I. " Libri duo fallacia- 
rum," Lugd. 1516, comprising his " Opera Logica^a." 
2. " In quatuor sententiarum commentarius," Paris, 1516. 
S. w Commentarius in physica Aristotelis," Paris, 1526. 
4. " In primum et secundum sententiarum commentarii/* 
Paris, J 5 10. 5. u Commentarius in tertium sententia- 
rum," Paris, 1517. 6. " Literalis in Matthaeum expo- 
sition" Paris, 1518. From these two last may be collected 
Jiis sentiments on ecclesiastical polity, mentioned above. 
7, " De historia gentis Scotorum, sen historia majoris 
Britanniae," Paris, 1521, 4to. Of this a new edition was 
printed at Edinburgh, 1740, 4to. 8. " Luculenta in 4 
Evangelia expositiones," &c. Paris, 1529, folio. 9. "Pla- 
cita theological* 10. " Catalogue episcoporum Lucio* 



nensium." He also translated Caxtoh's Chronicle into 
Latin. 1 

MAJORAGIUS (Mark Antony), so named from a vil- 
lage in the territory of Milan, where he was born in 1514, 
applied himself to the study of belles lettres, and afterwards 
taught them at Milan, with very great reputation. He 
introduced into the schools of that place the mode of 
writing declamations which had been practised by the an* 
cients, and was found to be an useful method of exer- 
cising the genius of young men. His success attracted 
much envy, and his enemies are said to have instituted a 
law-suit against him for taking the name of Marcus Anto- 
nius Mdjorianus, instead of Antonius Maria, which was his 
proper name. He founded his defence on the more clas- 
sical sound of the name, and his plea was considered as 
valid. He died in 1555, at the early age of forty-one. 
Of his works are extant, 1. " Commentaries on the Rhe- 
toric of Aristotle, on the Oratory of Cicero, and on Vir- 
gil," all in folio. 2. Several Tracts, and among others, 
" De senatu Romano/ 9 in 4to. " De risu Oratorio et 
urbano." " De nominibus propriis veterum Romanorum*" 
3. " A Collection of Latin Speeches," Leipsic, 1628, 8vo. 
These works are all replete with learning. 9 

MAIRAN (Jqhn James D'Ortous de), a French phi- 
losopher, whose works do credit to his country, was born 
at Beziers, in 1678. He was early admitted into the aca- 
demy of sciences, and the 'French academy; and in the 
.former, in 1741, succeeded Fontenelle in the office of 
perpetual secretary. This place he filled with great repu- 
tation for three years, and displayed, like his predecessor, 
the talent of placing the most abstruse questions in a clear 
and intelligible light. He died at Paris, Feb. 20, 1771. 
-His works are, L. " Dissertation sur les variations du Ba- 
rom£tre," 1715, 12mo. 2. " Dissertation sur la cause de 
la lumiere des Phosphgres, et des noctiluques," 1717, 1 2mo. 
3. " Dissertation sur la Glace," 1719, 12mo. 4. " Lettre 
a M. Pabbe Bignon, sur la nature des Vaisseaux," 1728, 
;4to. 5. " Trait6 physique et historique de l*Aurore Bo- 
reale, 1 '. 1733, 4to. 6. " Dissertation, sur les forces mo- 
trices des corps," 1741, -12 mo. 7. " Lettre a Madame 
du Chatelet, sur la question des forces vives," 1741, 12 mo* 

1 Mackenzie's Scotch Writers.— Ath. Ox. vol. 1.— Dodd'sCh. Hist— M«Crie's 
life of Knox,— Inrja'i Lift of Buchanan. » Geo. Diet.— Moqexk— Tiraboschi* 

Uo M A 1 R A N. 

8. " Eloges des Acad£miciens de l'aeademie des. sciences, 
morts en 1741, 1743, and 1747," 12mo. In these com- 
positions, without imitating Fonteneile, he is thought 
nearly to equal him, in the talent of characterizing the 
persons he describes, and appreciating their merits justly. 

9. " Lettre au Pere Parent) in, contenanr diverses ques- 
tions, sur la Chine," 12mo. This is a curious work, and 
strongly displays the philosophical mind of the author. 

10. Many memoirs inserted in the volumes of the academy 
of sciences, and some other compositions of no great bulk. 
Mairan was much admired in society as an intelligent, 
agreeable, and lively companion. It is of him that ma- 
dame Pompadour relates the following anecdote, which, 
if we mistake not, has been attributed to Others : " His 
house had by chance taken fire, which was just getting into 
the second floor, where he was plodding calmly over his . 
circles and triangles. He is summoned to fly without de- 
lay : * Talk to my. wife,* says he, ' I meddle with none of 
these matters ;' and sat down again contentedly to muse 
on the moon, until he was forced out of the house." * 

MAIRE (John le), an early French poet, was born at 
Bavai, in Hainault, in 1473, and died, according to some 
authors, in 1524, according to others, towards 1548. He 
is the author of an allegorical poem entitled " Les trois 
Comes de Cupidon et d'Atropos, dont le premier fut in- 
vent6 par Seraphin, Poete Italien ; le 2« et le*3 de Maitre 
Jean lfe Maire," Paris, 1525, 8vo. Several other poems 
by him are extant, all indicating a lively imagination, wit, 
and facility of writing, but with little correctness, taste, 
or delicacy. Some of his productions are not even de- 
cent. He wrote also, " Les Illustrations des Gaules, 
et singularites de Troyes," 1512, folio. And a pane- 
gyric on Margaret of. Austria, entitled " La Couronne 
Marguaritique," printed at Lyons, in 1546, in which be 
reports some curious traits of the wit and repartee of that 
princess. 8 

MA I BET (John), a French poet of later times, was 
born at Besan^on, in 1604, and was gentleman in waiting 
to the duke of Montmorency, under whom he signalized 
himself in two battles against the Hugonots. His patron 
settled upon him a pension of 15,000 livres ; but, not con- 

1 Diet. Hist Necrologie, toI. IV — Madame Pompadour's Lett****' \ 

9 Diet. Hist.— Morcrj.— Croix da Maine. 

M A I R £ T» 161 

tented with that, he complained heavily that the poets of 
his time received praises and incense, like the deities of 
antiquity, but nothing that could support life. He was 
in truth a lover of good cheer, and would have been more 
pleased with presents oft wine, or delicacies for. the table, 
than crowns of laurel, or any unsubstantial honour. His 
remonstrances were not ineffectual. He received many 
presents from the duke de Longueville, and favours in 
great number from cardinal Richelieu, the count of Sois- 
$ons, and cardinal la Valette. He married in 1648, and 
retired to Besan$on, where be principally resided from 
that time, though be lost his wife in about ten years. He 
bad some talent for negotiation, and conducted the busi- 
ness of a suspension of arms for Francbe Comt£ with such 
success, that the emperor rewarded him in 1668, by re- 
establishing an ancient claim to nobility that had been in 
his family. He died in 1686, at the age of eighty- four, 
Mairet was never rich, yet led a life of ease and gratifica- 
tion. He very early began to write. His first tragedy of 
" Chryseide," was written at sixteen ; " Sylvia," at se- 
venteen ; " Sylvianire," at twenty-one ; " The Duke de 
Ossane," at twenty-three ; u Virginia," at twenty-four ; 
and u Sophonisba," at twenty- five. He wrote in all, 1. 
Tvtelve tragedies, which, though they have some fine pas- 
sages, abound in faults, and are written in a feeble style 
of versification. Corneille had not yet established the 
style of the French drama. On the Sophonisba of Mairet, 
Voltaire has formed another tragedy of the same name* 
;2. A poem, entitled " Le Courtisan solitaire, 49 a perform- 
ance of some merit 3. Miscellaneous poems, in general 
moderate enough. 4, Some criticisms against Corneille, 
which were more disgraceful to the author than to the per- 
son attacked. His Sophonisba, however, was preferred 
to that of Corneille, but then that drama is by no means 
esteemed one of the happiest efforts of the great tragic poet. 1 
MAISTRE (Antoine le). France has produced se- 
veral great men of the name of Maistre, and among them 
Giles le Maistre, celebrated as an incorruptible magistrate 
in the corrupt times of Francis I. and Henry II. Anton}' 
le Maistre seems to have been of a different family, being 
the son of Isaac le Maistre, master of the accounts, and 
Catherine Arnaold, sister of the celebrated M. Arnauid, doc - 

• Nictron. vol XXV.-HDict. Hist.— Moreri. 

Vol. XXI. M 

162 M A I S T R E. 

tor of the Sorbonne. He was born at Paris, May 2, 160$. 
He appeared very early as a pleader, and with uncommon 
success, but.from religious feelings gave up his pursuits,, 
and retired to the society of Port-Royal, where his 
piety and mortification became conspicuous. " I have been 
busy," said he, " in pleading the causes of others, I am 
now studying to plead my own." He died Nov. 4, 1658, 
aged fifty-one. Of his works, there have been published, 
1. "Pleadings;" of the elegant style of which, Perrault 
speaks in the highest terms of approbation. 2. " A Trans- 
lation of Cbrysostom de Sacerdotio," with an elegant pre* 
face, 12mo. 3. " A life of St. Bernard, under the name 
of the sieur Lancy, 4to and 8vo. 4. Translations of se- 
veral writings of St. Bernard. 5. Several publications in 
favour of the Society of Port-Royal. 6. " The Life of 
Don Barth61emi des Martyrs," in 8vo, esteemed a very 
well-written composition ; but some biographers have at- 
tributed this to his brother, the subject of our next ar- 
ticle. ! 

MAISTRE (Louis Isaac le), more known under the 
name of Sacy 4 * (Isaac inverted), was brother of the former, 
and was bom at Paris, in 1613, where he was also edu- 
cated. After pursuing his studies with the greatest success 
under Du Verger, the abbe* of St. Cyrao, and other emi- 
nent teachers, he was admitted to the priesthood in 1648. v 
His reputation gained him the office of confessor to the 
society of Port Royal ; but that house being accused of 
Jansenism, he was involved in the persecution; was obliged 
to conceal himself in 1661 ; and in 1666 was confined in 
the Bastille. In that prison he composed some important 
works, particularly a translation of the whole Bible, which 
was finished on the eve of All- saints, 1668; and on the 
same day he obtained bis liberty, after being confined two 
years and a half. When this work was presented to the 
king and his 4 minister, le Maistre desired no other reward 
than that of being allowed frequently to visit the Bastille, 
to inspect the state of the prisoners. Some writers assert 
that during his confinement, he composed a history of thtf 
Old and New Testament, in one volume, under the name 
of Royaumont, a work known in this country by a transla- 
tion In 4to, published about the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, with nearly 300 plates; but others ascribe it f 

* Moreri.— Diet. Hist.-rFerranlt's Hooimes IHartrrs. 

is. A I S T R & 16$ 

Nicholas Fontaine. Le Maistre remained at Paris till 1 675, 
when be retired to Port-Royal ; but was obliged in 1679 
to quit it, and retired to Pompona, where be died, at the 
age of. seventy-one, in 1684. His works are, 1. His 
translation of the Bible, with explanations of the literal 
and spiritual sense taken from the fathers ; in which part 
he was assisted by du Fosse, Hur£, and le Tourne&ux. 
This work was published at Paris, in 1682* and several 
subsequent years, in 32 vols. 8vo\ Several other editions 
have been printed, but this is on the whole esteemed the 
best. 2. A translation of the Psalms, from the Hebrew 
and the Vulgate together. 3. A translation of the Ho- 
milies of St. Chrysostom on St. Matthew, in 3 vols. 8vo. 
4. A translation of Kempis on the Imitation of Christ, un- 
der the name of de Beuil, prior of S. Val, Paris, 1663, 
8vo. 5. A translation of Phsedrus, under the name of St 
Aubin, 12mo. 6. Three comedies of Terence, 1 2mo. 7. 
The Letters of Bongprs, published under the name of 
Brianviile. 8. The poem of St. Prosper, on ingratitude, 
rendered in verse and prose. 9. " Les enluminures de 
I'Alaianach des Jesuites," 1654, 12mo; an attack upon 
the Jesuits, which was so far relished as to be reprinted in 
1733. 10. " Heures de Port-Royal," called by the Jesuits 
Hours of Jansenism, 12mo. 11. " Letters of Piety," in 
2 vols. 8vo, published at Paris in 1690. The merits of 
this author are fully displayed in the memoirs of Port- 
Royal, written by Nicholas Fontaine, and published at 
Cologne, in 1738, in 2 vols. 12ID0. 1 

MAITLAND (Sir Richard), a cultivator and preserver 
of Scotch poetry, the son of William Maitland of Lething- 
ton, and of Martha, daughter of George lord Seaton, was 
born in 1496. Having finished his course of literature and 
philosophy in the university of St. Andrews, he visited 
France in order to prosecute the study of the law. In 
1 554 he appears to have been one of the extraordinary 
lords of session. About 1561 he was deprived of his sight, 
a misfortune which, however, did not prevent his being 
admitted in that year to the office of an ordinary lord of 
session, by the title of lord Lethington; and in 1562, he 
was appointed lord privy-seal, and a member of the privy- 
council. His office as keeper of the privy seal he resigned 
in 1567, in favour of his second son, the subject of our 

J Morcji. — Diet. Hist — - Duptt>. 
M 2 

164 MA I T LA N'D. 

next article. In 1583 be was excused from attendance at 
a judge, unless when it suited his convenience ; but from 
a sense of the importance of the duties of that office, he 
resigned it in favour of sir Lewis Ballenden. Sir Richard 
died March 20, 1586. His eldest son, air William Mak* 
land, secretary to queen Mary, makes a considerable figure, 
in the history of that princess. 

Sir Richard Maitladd is celebrated as a man of learning, 
talents, and virtue. His compositions breathe the genuine 
spirit of piety and benevolence* The chearfulness of hi* 
natural disposition, and his affiance in divine aid, seem to 
have supported him with singular equanimity under the 
pressure of blindness and old age. His poem " On the 
Creation and Paradyce Lost" is printed in Allan RdttiiayV 
" Ever-Green." A considerable number of his produc- 
tions are to be found among Mr. Pinfcerton's "Ancient 
Scotish Poetry," 1786, 2 vols. 8vo; two are in the Bib- 
liographer, vol. III. p. 114, and many more remain un- 
published. A MS. containing " The Selected Poemes of 
Sir Richard Metellan" was presented by Drumoiond to the 
university of Edinburgh ; but it seems merely to consist of 
gleanings from the two volumes deposited in the library of 
Magdalen-college, Cambridge* Two of his unpublished 
tHrorks, a genealogical history of the family of Seaton, and 
decisions of the court of session from 1550 to 1565, are 
preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh. It is sop- 
posed that he did hot write his poems before he bad nearly 
attained his sixtieth year. On that and other account! 
they afford some gratification to curiosity, bat little to 
taste. The Maitland Collection of Poems in the Pepysian 
' library has served to connect his name with the history of 
early Scotish poetry. 1 

. MAITLAN D (John), lord of Thirlstorte, and afterward* 
chancellor of Scotland, one- of the Latin poets of that 
country,, the second son of the preceding, was born about 
1537. He was educated in Scotland, and afterwards sent 
to France to study the law. On hisret(irn\ to his native 
country, he practised that profession with great success. 
In 1567, as already noticed, his father resigned the privy- 
seal in his favour; but in 1570 he was deprived of that 
office, from his attachment to queen Mary. In 1581 he 
was made a senator of the college of justice. In 1 584 be 

"* Irvine's Live* of the Scotish Poets. — Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, toJ> 1IL 

M A I T L A N D. \6S 

became tecretary of state to king James VI. and the year 
following, on the death of the earl of Arrau, was created 
lord chancellor of Scotland. The power and influence of 
the chancellor created him many enemies among the 
Scotch nobility, who made several unsuccessful attempts 
to destroy him. Id J 589 he attended the king on his 
voyage to Norway, where his royal bride, the princess of 
Denmark, was detained by contrary jpnds. The marriage 
was there completed, and they passed the winter at Co- 
penhagen* During this residence in Denmark, Maitland 
became intimately acquainted with Tycbo Brahe. In 1590 
he was created lord Maitland of Thirlstone. Towards the 
end of 1592, the chancellor incurred the queen's dis- 
pleasure for refusing to relinquish his lordship of Mussel- 
burgh, which she claimed as part of Dumferling. He ab- 
sented himself from court for some time, but was at length 
restored to favour. He died of a lingering illness Oct. 4, 
1595, and was much regretted by the king. He is spoken 
of by Spotiswood and Johnston as a man of great learning, 
and eminent political abilities. Of his works, we have 
" Johannis Metellani, Thirlstoni domini, epigram ma ta 
Latina," published in the second volume of the " DelicitB 
Foetarum Scotorum," Amst. 1637 ; a satire in the Scotch 
language " aganist sklanderous toungis," and an " admo- 
nitioun" to the regent Mar, published in Mr. Pinkerton's 
collection of "Ancient Scotish Poems." l 

MAITLAND (John), duke of Lauderdale, grandson of 
the preceding, was a statesman of great power and autho~ 
rity, bat of most inconsistent character. On the breaking 
out of the wars in Scotland in the reign of Charles I. he 
was a zealous covenanter; and in Jan. 1644-5, one of the 
commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge, during which, 
upon the death of his father the earl of Lauderdale, be, 
succeeded to his titles and estate. He took an active but 
not very useful part in the above treaty ; " being," says 
lord Clarendon, " a young man, not accustomed to an or- 
derly and decent way of speaking, and having no gracious 
pronunciation, and full of passion, he made every thing 
much more difficult than it was before." In April 1647, 
be came with the earl of Dumfermling to London, with a 
commission to join with the parliament commissioners in 

\ Mackenzie's Scotch Writers, vol. Ill — Park's edition of the Royal and 
Noble Authon. 


persuading the king to sign the covenant and proposition* 
offered to him ; and in the latter end of the same year, he, 
in conjunction with the earl of Loudon, chancellor of Scot-* 
land, and the earl of Lanerick, conducted a private treaty 
with his majesty at Hampton court, which was renewed 
and signed by him on Dec. 26 at Carisbrook castle. By 
this, among other very remarkable concessions, the king 
engaged himself to employ the Scots equally with the 
English in all foreign employments and negociations ; and 
that a third part of all the offices and places about the 
king, queen, and prince, should be conferred upon per- 
sons of that. nation ; and that the king and prince, or one 
of them, should frequently reside in Scotland. In August 
the year following, the earl of Lauderdale was sent by the 
committee of estates of Scotland to the prince of Wales, 
with a letter, in which, next to his father's restraint, they 
bewailed his highness' s long absence from that kingdom ; 
and since their forces were again marched into England, 
they desired his presence to countenance their endeavours 
for religion and his father's. re-establishment. In 1649, he 
opposed with great vehemence the propositions made by 
the marquis of Montrose to king Charles II. ; and in 1651 
attended his majesty in his expedition into England, but 
was taken prisoner after the battle of Worcester in Sep* 
tember the same year, and confined in the Tower of Lon- 
don, Portland-castle, and other prisons, till the 3d of 
March, 1659-60, when he was released from his imprison* 
*ment in Windsor- castle. 

Upon the Restoration he was made secretary of state for 
Scotland, and persuaded the king to demolish the forts 
and citadels built by Cromwell in Scotland; by which 
means he became very popular. He was likewise very 
importunate with his majesty for his supporting presbytery 
in that kingdom ; though his zeal, in that respect, did not 
continue long: In 1669, he was appointed lord commis- 
sioner for the king in Scotland, whither he was sent with 
great pomp and splendour to bring about some extraordi- 
nary points, and particularly the union of the two king- 
doms. . For this purpose he made a speech at the opening 
of the parliament at Edinburgh on the 19th of October 
that year, in which he likewise recommended the preser- 
vation of the church as established by law, and expressed 
a vast zeal for episcopal government. And- now the ex- 
tending of the king's power and grandeur in that kingdom 

* * 

M A I T L A N D, 167 

was greatly owing to the management of bis lordship 
although he had formerly been as much for depressing the 
prerogative ; and from the time of his commission the Scots v 
had reason to date all the mischiefs and internal commo- 
tions of that and the succeeding reign. Having under- 
taken to make his majesty absolute and arbitrary, be 
stretched the power of the crown to every kind of excess, 
and assumed to himself a sort of lawless administration, 
the exercise of which was supposed to be granted to him 
in consequence of the large promises he had made. In 
the prosecution of this design, being more apprehensive of 
other men's officious interfering, than distrustful of his own 
abilities, he took care to make himself his majesty's sole 
informer, as well as his sole secretary ; and by this means, 
not only the affairs of Scotland were determined in the 
court of England, without any notice taken of the king's 
council in Scotland, but a strict watch was kept on all 
Scotchmen, who came to the English court; and to at- 
tempt any acqess to his majesty, otherwise than by his 
lordship's mediation, was to hazard his perpetual resent- 
ment. By these arrogant measures, he gradually made 
himself almost the. only important person of the whole 
Scotch nation ; and iu Scotland itself assumed so much 
sovereign authority, as to name the privy-counsellors, to 
place and remove the lords of the session and exchequer, 
to grant gifts and pensions, to levy and disband forces, to 
appoint general officers, and to transact all matters belong- 
ing to the, prerogative. Besides which, he was one of the 
five lords, who had the management of affairs in England, 
and were styled the Cabal, and in 167&, was made mar- 
quis of March, duke of Lauderdale, and knight of the 
garter. But these honours did not protect him from the 
indignation of the House of Commons.; by whom, in No- 
vember the year following, he was voted a " grievance, 
and not fit to be trusted. or employed in any office or place 
of trust." And though his majesty, thought proper on 
the 25th of June, 1674, to create him a baron of England 
by the title of Baron of Petersham in Surrey, and earl of 
Guildford, yet the House of Commons the next year pre- 
sented an address to the king to remove him from all his 
employments, and from his majesty's presence and coun- 
sels for ever ; which address was followed by another of 
the same kind in May 1678, and by a third in May the 



- i 

He died at Tunbridge Wells, August 34, 1 682, leaving 
a character which no historian has been hardy enough to 
Tindicaie. In Clarendon, Burnet, Kennet, Hurne, Smoh 
let, &c. we find a near conformity of sentiment respecting 
his inconsistency, his ambition, and his tyranny *. Mr. • 
Laing observes, that " during a long imprisonment, his 
mind had been carefully improved by study, and impressed 
with a sense of religion, which was soon effaced on his 
return to the world. His learning was extensive and ac- 
curate ; in public affairs his experience wan considerable, 
and his elocution copious, though unpolished and indis- 
tinct. But his temper was dark and vindictive, incapable 
of friendship, mean and abject to his superiors* haughty 
and tyrannical to his inferiors; and his judgment* seldom 
correct or just, was obstinate in error, and irreclaimable 
by advice. His passions were furious and ungovernable, 
unless when his interest of ambition interposed ; his vio- 
lence was ever prepared to suggest or to execute the most 
desperate counsels ; and his ready compliance preserved 
his credit with the king, till his faculties were visibly im- 
paired with age." — The duke died without male issue, but 
his brother succeeded to the title of Earl, whose son 
Richard was the author of a translation of Virgil, which is 
rather literal than poetical, yet Dryden adopted many of 
the lines into his own translation. 1 

.MAITLAND ( WilltaM), an antiquary of some note, 
was born, according to the best accounts we can obtain, at 
Brechin in Forfarshire in Scotland, about 1693. What 
education he had is uncertain, but his original employment 
was that of a hair-merchant ; in the prosecution of which 
business he travelled into Sweden, and Denmark, to Ham* 
burgh, and other places. M length he settled in London, 
and applied himself to the study of English and Scottish 
antiquities, and must have acquired some literary reputa* 
tation, as in 1733 he was elected a fellow of the royal so- 
ciety, and in 1735 a fellow of the society of antiquaries, 

* What no historian, no relater of; 
facts could do, was accomplished by 
the rev. Johu Gascarth, fellow of Pem- 
broke-ball in Cambridge, in a funeral 
sermon for the duke. In this he clothes 
him with every virtue that ever adorned 
the best, -most pious, apd wisest of hu- 
man beings. After reading bis grace's 

history, one would suppose all this 
ironical ; bnt the author, whatever bis 
motives, appears to be serious. This 
sermon was published at London in 
1 683, 4to. It is, we believe, scarce, but 
the reader will find the substance of 
it in that very useful collection, " Wil - 
ford's Memorials." 

1 Laing'9 Hist, of Scotland,— Clarendon.—Burnet, kc— Birch's Lives. 

MAI T L AND. 169 

^vhtoh lit Msigned in 1740, on going to reside ia the coun- 
try. His fast publication was bis History of London, pub- 
lished ia folio, in 1739; a work compiled from Stow, and 
afterwards, ia 1765, enlarged by Entick to 2 vols, folio, 
with a great many views, plans, &c. ther plates of which 
are now in Mr. Nichols's possession. In 1740, as just 
mentioned, he retired into hi*, native country, and in 1753T, 
published a history of Edinburgh, comprised also in one 
folio volume. In 1757, appeared his work on the history 
and antiquities of Scotland, in 2 vols, folio ; a performance 
not in general so highly esteemed as the two former, al- 
though he appears to have taken considerable pains to 
acquire information, by a set of printed queries which he 
sent to every clergyman in Scotland, and himself tra- 
velled over it for the same pqrpose. On July the 16th of 
-the same year, he died, at Montrose, according to our 
account at the age of 64 ; the papers of the time say, at 
an advanced age, by which possibly it may be meant that 
be was still older ; but this is matter of doubt. He was 
said, in the accounts of his death, to hare died worth more 
than 10,000/. Mv. Maitland was rather a compiler from 
printed or written authorities, than an original collector of 
antiquary knowledge. Mr. Gough, a very competent judge, 
pronounces him, even in this respect, " self-conceited 
and credulous, 91 and adds that be " knew little, and wrote 
worse." The merit of his history of London was chiefly in 
supplying the place of Stowe, which was become scarce, 
and in modernizing the style. His " History of Edin- 
burgh" is the BpLost useful of his works. 1 

MAITTAIRE (Michael), an eminent classical editor, 
of a foreign family, was born in 1668. He was educated 
at Westminster school, under Dr. Busby, who kept him 
to the study of Greek and Latin some years longer than 
usual. He then gained another powerful friend in Dr. 
South, for whom he compiled a list of the Greek words 
falsely accented in Dr. Sherlock's books. This so pleased 
Dr. South, who was then a canon of Christ church, Oxford, 
that he made htm a canoneer student (i.e. one introduced 
by a canon, and not elected from Westminster school), 
where he took the degree of M. A. March 23, 1696. From 
1695 till 1699, he was second master of Westminster- 
school ; which was afterwards indebted to him for " Graecae 

1 Nichols's B««y«r. 

170 M A I T T A 1 R E. 

Linguae Dialecti, in usum Scholse Westmohasieriensis," 
1706, 8vo*, (a work recommended in the warmest terms 
by Dr. Knipe to the school over which he presided, " cui 
se sua omnia debere fatetur sedulus Author") and for 
" The English Grammar, applied to, and exemplified in, 
the English tongue," 1712, 8vo. In "Catalogue Librorum 
Manuscriptorum Angliee & Hiberniae," Oxon. 1697, t. ii. 
p. 27, is inserted " Librorum Manuscriptorum Ecclesiag 
Westmonasteriensis Catalogus. Accurante viro erudito 
Michaele Mattaerio." But before the volume was pub* 
lished, the whole collection, amounting* to 230, given by 
bishop Williams, except one, was destroyed, by an acci- 
dental fire in 1694. In 1699 he resigned his situation at 
Westminster-school ; and devoted his time solely to lite* 
rary pursuits. In 1711, he published " Remarks on Mr* 
Wbisi on's Account of the Convocation's proceedings! with 
relation to himself : in a Letter to the right reverend Fa- 
ther in God, George, Lord Bishop of Bath and Wells," 
8vo ; and also " An Essay against Arianism, and some 
other Heresies ; or a Reply to Mr. William Whiston's His* 
torical Preface and Appendix to bis Primitive Christianity 
revived," 8vo. In 1709, he gave the first specimen of his 
great skill in typographical antiquities, by publishing 
" Stephanorum Historia, vitas ipsorum ac libros complec- 
tens," 8vo; which was followed in J 717, by " Historia 
Typographorum aliquot Parisiensium, vitas & libros com* 
plectens," 8vo. In 1719, " Annales T-ypographici ab artis 
invents origine ad annum md. Hagse Com." 4to. Tp this 
volume is prefixed, " Epistolaris de antiquis Quintiliani 
editionibus Dissertatio, clarissimo viro D.'Jobanni Clericp." 
The second volume, divided into two parts, and continued 
to 1536, was published at the Hague in 1702 ; introduced 
by a letter of John Toland, under the title of " Conjectura 
verosimilis de prima Typographic Inventione." The third 
volume, from the same press, in two parts, continued to 
1557, and, by an Appendix, to 1564, in 1725, In 1733 
was published at Amsterdam what is usually considered as 
tlie fourth volume, under the title of " Annales Typogra- 
phic! ab artis invents origine, ad annum 1564, oper&Mich. 
Maittaire, A. M. Editio nova, auctior & emendatior, tomi 


. * Of this work Reitz published an edition at the Hague, 1738, 8vo, and 
a much mor* improved edition by Sturtz appeared at f^eipsic, in 1807. 

M A I T T A I R E. 171 

jprioii pars posterior* " In 1741 the work was closed at 
London, by " Annatium Typographicoruni Tomus Quintus 
Jk ultinuis ; indicem in tomos quatupr prseeumes complec- 
ten3 ;" divided (like the two preceding volumes) into two 

- In the intermediate years, Mr. Maittaire was diligently 
employed on various works of value. In 1 7 1 3 he published 
by subscription, u Opera & Fragmenta Veterum Poeta- 
?om/' 1713, two handsome volumes, in folio, dedicated to 
prince Eugene ; the title of some copies is dated 1721. In 
1714, he was the editor of the " Greek Testament,'* in 2 
Vote. The Latin writers, which he published separately, 
most of them with good indexes, came out. in the follow* 
itogor&r: In 1713, u Christus Patiens;" an heroic poem 
by Rene Rapin, first printed in 1674; " Paterculus ;" 
" Justin ;" " Lucretius ;" « Phasdrus ;"■ " Sallust ;" " Te- 
lence." In 1715, " Catullus, Tibullus, and Propertius ;" 
«< Cornelius Nepos ;" " Florus ;" " Horace ;" " Ovid," 3 
vols.; "Virgil." In 1716, "Caesar's Commentaries;'* 
" Martial;" "Juvenal and Persius ;" " Quintus Curtius." 
In 1719, "Lucan." In 1720, " Bonefonii Carolina." 
Here he appears to have stopped ; all the other classics 
which are ascribed to him having been disclaimed, by a 
jHemorandum which Mr. Nichols has preserved under Mait- 
taire's own hand, in the latter part of his lifef. In 1721 
he published " Batrachomyopachia Graece ad veterum 
exemplarium fidem recusa : glossa Greca, variantibus lee- 
tionibus, versionibus Latinis, commentariis & indicibus 
illustrata," 8vo. At the end of this volume he added pro- 
posals for printing by subscription, " Musaeus," in Greek 
and Latin, for half a guinea ; and " Rapin's Latin works," 
for a guinea, both in 4to : " Musa?us," to be comprised in 

* The aukwardness of this title has imperfection of those editions, without 

induced many collectors to dispose of being charged with the odium of claim- 

thehr first volume, as thinking it super- ing what has been pat out by editors 

seded by the second edition; but this much abler than himself; he therefore 

is by no means the case; the volume would acquaint the. public, that he 

of 1719 being no less necessary to com- had no hand in publishing the follow, 

plete tbe set' than that of 1733, which ing books, which in some newspapers 

is a revision of all the former volumes, have been advertised under his uame ; 

The whole work, when properly bound, viz. " Sophoclis Tragcadia?;" ** Ho- 

consists, ad libitum, either of five vo- meri Ilias ;" " Mu?arum Atigticana- 

lumes, or of nine, rum Analects;;" 4 * Livii His tori a;" 

f " As the editor of several classics, *' Plinii Epi?tol«B et Panejryricus 5 

some years ago printed in 12mo, at " Conciones & Orationes ex Historicis 

Mess. Tonson and Watt's press, thinks Latin is." M. M." 
it sufficient to be answerable for the 

17* M A I T T A I R ¥. 

twelve sheets, " lUpin" in fifty. Bat neither of these 
were ever committed to the press, from want probably of 
sufficient encouragement. In 1122, " Miscellanea Grce» 
corum aliquot Scriptoruqi Carmine, cum vprsione L?tina 
& Notis," 4to. In 1724, he compiled, at the request of 
Dr. John Freind (at whose expence it was printed) an in- 
dex to the works of Aret&us," to accompany the splendid 
folio edition of that author in 1723. In 172$ he published 
an exoellent edition of " Auacreon," in 4to, of which no 
more than 100 copies were printed, and the few errata in 
each copy corrected by his own hand, A second edition 
of the like number was printed in 1741, with six copies on 
fine writing paper. In 1726 he published, " Petri Petiti 
Medici Parisiensis in tres priores Aretei Cstppadocitiibro* 
Commentarii, nunc primqm editi," 4to. This learned 
Commentary was found among the papers of Graeviui. 

From 1728 to 1732 he was employed in publishing, 
u Marmorum Arundellianorum, Seldenianorum, aliorumque 
Academies Oxoniensi donatorum, una cum Commentariis 
& Indice, editio secunda," folio ; to which an " Appendix 19 
was printed in 1733. " Epistola D. Mich. Maittaire ad 
D. P. Des Maizeaux, in qua Indicia in Annates Typogra- 
phies methodus explicatur," &c, is printed in " The Pre- 
sent State of the Republic of Letters," in August 1733, 
p. 142. The life of Robert Stephens, in Latin, revised 
and corrected by the author, with a new and complete list 
of his works, is prefixed to the improved edition of R. 
Stephens's Thesaurus, 4 vols, in folio, in 1734. In 1736 
appeared, "Antiquae Inscriptiones dqse," folio; being a 
commentary on two large copper tables discovered near 
Heraclea, in the bay of Tarentum. In 1738 were printed 
at the Hague, " Graecre Linguae Dialecti in Scbolae Regis 
Westmonasteriensis usum recogniti opera Mich. Maittaire. 
Prafationem & Appendiceal ex Apollonii Discoli fragmento 
inedito addidit J. F. Reitzius." Maittaire prefixed a dedi- 
cation of this volume to the marquis of Granby, and the 
lords Robert and George Manners, his brothers ; and a 
new preface, dated 3 Cal. Octob. 1737. This was again 
printed at London in 1742. In 1739, he addressed to the 
empress of Russia a small Latin poem, under the title of 
" Carmen Epinicium Augustissimse Russorum Imperatrici 
sacrum." His, name not having been printed in the title- 
page, it is not so generally known that he was editor of 
Plutarch's "Apophthegmata," 1741, 4to. The last pub- 

M A I T T A I R E. 173 

ligation of Mr. Mflkuire was a volume of poems in 4to, 
1742, under the title of " Senilia, give Pogtica aliquot in 
arguments varii generis tentamioa." It may be worth 
mentioning, that Baxter's dedication to bis " Glossariam 
Antiquitatum Britannicarum," was much altered by Mait* 
taire ; who died August 7, 1747, aged seventy-nine. There 
is a good mezzotinto print of him by Faber, from a paint* 
ing by B. Dandridge, inscribed, ',' Michael Maittaire, A. M. 
Ataicorum jussu." His valuable library, which be had 
been collecting fifty years, was sold by auction, by Messrs. 
Ceck and Langford, at the close of the same year, and the 
beginning of the following, taking up in all forty-four 
nights. Mr. Cock, in his prefatory advertisement, tells 
tw, " In exhibiting thus to the public the entire library of 
1M*. Maittaire, I comply with the will of my deceased 
friend ; and in printing the catalogue from his own copy 
just as he left it (though, by so doing, it is the more vo- 
luminous), I bad an opportunity not only of doing the 
justice I owe to his memory, but also of gratifying the cu- 
rious *." Maittaire, it fiiay be added, was patronized by 
the first eart of Offfefd, both before and after that gentle* 
toan's elevation to the peerage, and continued a favourite 
with his son the second earl. He was also Latin tutor to 
Mr. Stanhope, the fcarl of Chesterfield's favourite son, and 
was esteemed by so many persons of eminence that we 
Cannot wonder at his portrait being engraven jusmi amico- 
t*um. He possessed many amiable qualities ; in religion 
was orthodox and zealous t ; in temper modest and unas- 

* Mr. Nichols has here taken so op*> whose works are promiscuously intro- 
port unity of observing, that " the pre- duced in tbe course of the sale. With 
sent mode of compiling catalogues of this improvement, Dr. Mead's Cttta* 
celebrdted libraries for sale, so moch togue, which at' present is confused 
more laconic than that which obtained and almost useless, would have been 
about forty years ago, except when as valuable, in proportion to its extent, 
Mr. Samuel Patersan exerts that talent as the ' Biblkrtheca Menckeniaiia,' 
•f cataloguing for which he is particu- ' Bultelliana,' or any other publica- 
larly distinguished, cannot possibly do tion of the same kind. The auctioneer 
equal justice with the ancient mode, would derive sufficient advantage from 
either in a literary or pecuniary view." such catalogues.'* 
This remark is quoted in the " Critical f There is a passage in one of his 
Review," with an additional observa- Letters to Dr. Charlett, dated 1718 
tion ; " that, as the catalogues of large (published in " Letters written by Emi- 
libraries sold by auction are generally nent Persons," 1813, in 3 vols. 8vo), 
preserved by men of learning, for the which implies that he had been under 
sake of ascertaining the dates or titles some restraint, on account of his priu- 
of books, they might be rendered infi- ciples. " The friendly turn," he says, 
nitely more useful, in saving expence, " which you gave to the leisure govern- 
by subjoining an alphabetical iadex, ment has granted me, cannot entirely 
containing the names of tbe authors reconcile me to the hardships the laws 


sunning; despising the pride of learning, ' yet fond of 
friendly intercourse. 

With respect to his talents, he may be characterized as 
a sound scholar, and a careful editor ; and, although his 
genius was confined, and his taste questionable, his la- 
bours have been truly useful, and entitle him to the grate- 
ful remembrance of the classical student. He has the 
glory, says Mr. Dibdin, of being the first who established 
in. this country, on a solid basis,, the study of bibliography. 1 

MAIUS, or MAY (John Henry), a Lutheran divine, 
was born Feb. 5, 1653, at Pfortzheim, in the marquisate 
of Baden-Dourlach. He was profoundly skilled in Hebrew 
literature, and taught the oriental languages in several 
universities, with great reputation. His last employments 
of this kind were at Giessen, where he was pastor, and 
where he died Sept. 3, 1719. He was well acquainted 
with antiquities, sacred and profane, but his works are less 
known in other parts of Europe than in Germany. The 
following are some of them : 1. " Historiaanimalium Scrip- 
turae sacrse," 8vo. 2. " Vita Johannis Reuchlini," 1 687, 
Svo. 3. " Examen histories criticoe Ricardi Simon is," 4to> 
4. " Synopsis Theologiae symbolicre," 4to. 5. " Synopsis 
Moralis," 4to. 6. " Synopsis Judaica," 4to. 7. " In- 
troductio ad studium Philologicum, criticum, et exegeti- 
cum," 4to. 8. " Paraph rasis Epistolae ad Hebrseos," 4to. 

9. " Tbeologia Evangelica," 1701, and 1719, 4 parts 4to. 

10. " Animadversiones et Supplementa ad Coccei Lexicon 
Hebrseum," 1703, fol. 11. " CEconomia temporum ve* 
teris et Novi Test. 4to. 12. " Synopsis Theologiae Chris- 
tiana," 4to. 13. " Theologia Lutheri," 4to. 14. " Theo- 
logia Prophetica," 4to. 1 5. " Harmonia Evangelica," 4to. 
16. " Historia Refoirmationis Lutheri," 4to. 17. M Disser- 
tationes philologies et exegeticse," Francfort, 171 1, 2 vols. 
4to, &c. He also published a very good edition of the He- 
brew Bible, 4to. His son, of the same'name, was eminent 
for his knowledge of Greek and the oriental languages. 1 

have put me to. I thank God, I want tongue or pen." To render this intel- 

no courage to go through, but courage ligibie, the reader must be told that 

does not exclude feeling. One thing I Mr. Maittaire, on the accession of 

can boast of, that the cruelty never George 1. turned non-juror, and was 

yet soured my looks, nor extorted any probably included in the disabilities to 

low i e vengeful expressions from my which Abat sect was exposed. 

1 Nichols's Bowyer — Dibdin's Classics and B blicmania. 
9 Nicer on, vol. XXIX. — Diet. Hist.— *axii Onomast. 


- MALAGRIDA (Gabriel), an Italian Jesuit, sent by his 
superiors as a missionary to Portugal, was a man of an ar- 
dent zeal, wkh that faoility of elocution which enthusiasm 
generally confers. He soon became the fashionable con-* 
fessor, and people of all ranks put themselves under his 
direction. He was regarded as a saint, and consulted as 
an oracle. When the duke d'Aveiro formed his conspiracy 
against the king of Portugal, be is said by the enemies of 
the Jesuits to have consulted with three of that order, one 
of whom was Malagrida. The king, when he thought 
proper to. banish the Jesuits from his kingdom, suffered 
Malagrida, Alexander, and Mathos, to remain there ; and 
these are the very three who are supposed to have assisted 
the conspiracy* by telling the conspirators that it was not 
even a venial sin to kill a monarch who persecuted the 
saints, L e. the Jesuits. Malagrida was some time after 
sent to the inquisition, for teaching heretical doctrines ; 
an accusation which is said to have been not altogether 
without foundation. He appears, however, to have been 
an enthusiast of so extravagant a kind, that no singulari- 
ties id his writings can be thought extraordinary. He con* 
ceived himself to possess the power of working miracles ; 
and declared to the inquisitors, that God himself bad ap- 
pointed him his ambassador, appstle, and prophet. This, 
and many other very wild declarations, would not, perhaps, 
hare occasioned his condemnation, had he not unfortu- 
nately pretended to have had the death of the king re- 
vealed to him. The marquis of Tancors, general of the 
province of. Estremadura, happening to die, the castle of 
Lisbon, and all the fortresses of the Tagus* discharged 
their cannon in honour of him. Malagrida, hearing this 
unusual sound in the night, concluded that the king was 
dead, and desired that the inquisitors would grant him an 
audience. When he came before them, he said, in order to 
establish the credit of his predictions, that the death of the 
king bad been revealed to him ; and that he also had a vision, 
which informed him what punishment that monarch was to 
undergo in the other world for having persecuted the Jesuits. 
This declaration hastened his condemnation. He was burnt 
alive on Sept. 21, 1761, at the age of 75, not as a conspi- 
rator, but as a false prophet. His true character, perhaps, 
was that of a lunatic. The works in which his heretical ex- 
travagancies are to be found, are entitled " Tractatus de 
vita et imperio Antichrist! -," and (written in the Portuguese 


language) " The Life of St. Anne, composed with the at* 
sistance of the blessed Virgin Mary and her most holy Son." ' 
MALAPERT (Chaeles), a poet and nsatheraaticiao, 
- but less known in the latter character, was bof n at Mont 
in Hainault, in 1681, and entered into Ithe otder of the 
Jesuits. He taught philosophy at Pont-a*Motsson, whence 
he went to Poland, where he was appointed professor of 
mathematics, and afterwards filled the sane office at 
Doway. His reputation induced Philip IV. to give him 
an invitation to Madrid, as professor of mathematics iii his 
newly-founded college, which he accepted, but died on 
has way to Vittoria, Nov. 5, 1630* His Latin patois were 
printed at Antwerp in 1634, and have been praised for pu- 
rity of style, and imagery. Of his mathematical wink* 
one is entitled " Oratio de Laudibus » Matbematick," in 
which he treats jof the phenomena of the newly •discovered 
Dutch telescope. The others are, " Institutions of Prac* 
tical Arithmetic ;'* the " Elements of Geometry ;" " A Pa- 
raphrase on the Dialectics of Aristotle ;" and u Commen- 
taries oti the first six Books of Euclid." 8 

MALDONAT (John), a very learned Spanish Jesuit, 
was born at Fuente del Maestro, a small village in the pro* 
vince of Estra'madura, in 1534. He studied under Domi- 
nious Asoto, a Dominican, and also under Francis Tolety a 
jesuit, who was afterwards a cardinal, and there was no better 
scholar in the university of Salamanca in his time* than 
Maldonat. He there taught philosophy, divinity, and 
the Greek language. He entered into the society of 
the Jesuits, but did not put on the habit 6f his order tiH 
1562, when he was at Rome. In 1563, he was sent by 
his superiors to Paris, to teach philosophy in the college 
which the Jesuits had just established in that city ;. where, 
as the historians of his society tell us, he was so crowded 
with hearers, that he was frequently obliged to read bis 
lectures in the court or the street, the hail not being suf- 
ficient to contain them. He was sent, with nine- other 
Jesuits, to Poictiers, in 1 570, where he read lectures in 
Latin, and preached in French. Afterwards he returned 
to Paris, where he was not only accused of heresy, but 
likewise of procuring a fraudulent will from the president 
de St. Andr£, by which the president was made te leave his 

1 Diet Hist de L'Avocat.— The Proceedings and Sentence of the Inquisition, 
Ice. against Gabriel Malagrida, 1761, 8vo»— -Gent, Mag. for that v*ar. 
* MorerJ.— Diet. Hilt. 


estate to the Jertrlt?. But the parliament declared him 
innocent of the forgery, and Gond?, bishop of Paris, entirely 
acquitted him of the charge of hetesy. He afterwards 
thought ptoper to retire to Bourges, * where the Jesuits had 
a college, and continued there about a year And a half. 
Then he went to Rome, by the order 4 of pope Gregory 
XlII. to superintend the publication of the " Septuagint : ,# 
and after finishing his " Commentary upon the Gospels," 
in 1582, he died there, in the beginning of 1583. 

He composed several wotks, which shew great parts and 
learning ; but published nothing in his life-lime. The fifrt 
of his performances which came abroad after his death, 
was his " Comment upon the Four Gospels ;" of which 
father Simon says : u Among all the commentators which 
tye hdve mentioned hitherto, there are few who have so. 
happily explained the literal sense of the Gospels as John 
ftaldon&t the Spanish Jesuit. After his death, whfch hap- 
pened at Rome before he had reached his fiftieth year, 
Claudius Aquaviva, to whom he presented his " Com- 
ntetit" while he vtfes dying, gave orders to the Jesuits of 
Pont a Mottfcson to cause it to hie printed frorti a copy 
which Was sent them. The Jesuits, in the preface to that 
work, declare that they had inserted something of their 
own, according to their manner ; and that they had been 
obliged to Correct the manuscript copy, which was defec- 
tive in some places, because they had no access to the 
original, which was at Rome. Besides, as the atfthor had 
neglected to mark, upon the margin* of his copy, the 
books and places from whence he had taken a great part of 
his quotations, they supplied that defect. It even ap- 
peared, that Maldonat had not read at first hand all that 
great number of writers which he quotes ; but that lie had 
made use of the labours of former writers. Thus he is not 
quite so exact, as if he had put the last hand to his Com- 
ment. Notwithstanding these imperfections, and softte 
others, which are easily corrected, it appears plainly, fbat 
this Jesuit had bestowed abundance of pains upon thaferf-* 
c'elleftt work. He does not allow one difficulty to pass 
without examining it to the bottom. When, a grear num- 
ber of literal interpretations present themselves upoh the 
sAme passage, he usually fixes upon the* Best, without 
playing too great a deference to the ancient commentators, 
or even to the majority, regarding nothing but truth alone, 
ttript of all authorities but her own. n Cardinal Perron 

Vol. XXL N 


said, that he "was a very great man, and a true divine;, 
that be had an excellent elocution as a speaker, understood 
the learned languages well, was deeply versed in scholas- 
tic divinity and theology, and that he had thoroughly 
read the fathers." His character has been as high among 
the Protestants, for an interpreter of Scripture, as it was 
among the Papists. Matthew Pole, in the preface to the 
fourth volume of his " Synopsis Criticorum,*' calls him a 
writer of great parts and learning. " He was/' says Dr. 
Jackson, " the most judicious expositor among the Jesuits. 
-His skill in expounding the Scriptures, save only where 
doting love unto their church had made him blind, none 
of theirs, few of our church, have surpassed." His "Com- 
mentaries upon Jeremiah, Baruch, Ezekiel, and Daniel,". 
were printed at Lyons in 1609, and at Cologne ip 1611. 
To these were added, his " Exposition of the cixth Psalm,'* 
and " A letter concerning a celebrated dispute which he 
had with above twenty Protestant ministers at Sedan." His 
treatise "Defide," was printed at Maienne in 1600; and 
that upon "Angels and Demons" at Paris, in 1605. In 
1677, they published at Paris some pieces which bad never 
appeared before ; namely, his treatise. "Of Grace," that 
upon " Original Sin," upon " Providence," upon €t Jus- 
tice," upon "Justification," and that upon "The Merit 
of Werks ;" besides " Prefaces, Harangues, an<j Letters*" 
one volume, folio. 

We will conclude our account of this celebrated Jesuit, % 
with mentioning an high eulogium of him, given by the im-. 
partial and excellent Thuanus; who, after observing, that 
he "joined a singular piety and purity of manners, and an 
exquisite judgment, to an exact knowledge of philosophy 
and divinity," adds, " that it was owing to him alone, that 
the parliament of Paris, when they had the Jesuits under 
their consideration, did not pronounce any sentence to 
their disadvantage, though they were become suspected 
by the wisest heads, and greatly hated by' the university." 
Nothing can set the importance of Maldonat in a stronger 
light, or better shew the high opinion that was had of his 
merit 1 

MALEBRANCHE (Nicolas), a French philosopher*; 
was born at Paris, Aug. 6, 1638, and was first placed under 
a domestic tutor, who taught hin» Greek and Latin. He 

Vfic& Dick— Jficerw, fpU2^J.-^©reri.~i)Bpin«^-S«aii0ii9ma*^ 


afterwards went through a course of philosophy at the col- 
lege of la Marche, and that of divinity in the Sorbonne; 
and was admitted into the congregation of the Oratory at 
Paris, in 1660. After he had spent some time there, he 
consulted father le Cointe, in what manner he should pur* 
sue his studies ; who advised him to apply himself to eccle- 
siastical history. Upon this be began to read Eusebius, 
Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret ; but soon grew weary 
of this study, and next applied himself to father Simon, 
who recommended Hebrew, Arabic, Syriac, rabbinical 
learning, and critical inquiries into the sense of the Scrip- 
tures. But this kind of study was not at all more suitable 
to his genius, than the former. At last, in 1664, he met 
with Des Cartes' s " Treatise upon Man," which he read 
over with great satisfaction, and devoted himself imme- 
diately to the study of his philosophy ; of which, in a few 
years, he became as perfect a master as Des Cartes him- 
self. In 1699, he was admitted an honorary member of 
the royal academy of sciences. He died Oct. 13, 1715, 
being then seventy-seven years of age. From the time 
that he began to read Des Cartes, he studied only to en- 
lighten his mind, and not to furhish his memory ; so that 
he knew a great deal, though he read but little. He 
avoided every thing that was mere erudition ; an insect 
pleased him much more than air the Greek and Roman 
history. He despised likewise that kind of learning, which 
consists only in knowing the opinions of different philoso- 
phers ; since it was his opinion that a person may easily 
know the history of other men's thoughts, withqut ever 
thinking at all himself. Such was his aversion to poetry, 
that he could never read ten verses together without dis- 
gust He meditated with his windows shut, in order to 
keep out the light, which he found to be a disturbance to 
him. His conversation turned upon the same subjects as 
his books, but was mixed with so much modesty and de- 
ference to the judgment of others, that it was much 
courted. Few foreigners, who were men of learning, neg- 
lected to visit him when they came to Paris : and it is said, 
that an English officer, who was taken prisoner during the 
war between William III. and the king of France, was 
content with his lot, when he was brought to Paris, be-, 
cause it gave him an opportunity to see Louis XIV. and 
father Malebranche. 

He wrote several works. The first and principal, as 

■ n i 


iifdeed' it gave rise to almost all that followed, was his 
V De la Recherche de la Verittf,". or his " Search after 
Truth," printed at Paris in 1674, and afterwards aug- 
mented in several successive editions. His design in this 
boo^ is to point out the errors into which we are daily led 
hy our senses, imagination, and passions ; and to prescribe 
4 method for discovering the truth, which he does, by 
starting the notion of seeing all things in God. Hence he 
is led to think and speak meanly of human knowledge, 
either as it lies in written books, or in the book of nature, 
compared with that light which displays itself from the 
ideal world ; and by attending to which, with pure and de- 
fecated minds, he supposes knowledge to be most easily 
had. These sentiments, recommended by various beau- 
ties of style, made many admire his genius who could not 
understand, or agree to his principles. Locke, in bia. 
" Examination of Malebranche's opinion of seeing all things, 
in God," styles him an <f acute and ingenious author ;" 
and tells us, that there are "a great many very fine 
thoughts, judicious reasonings, and uncommon reflections 
in his Recherche :" but in that piece, endeavours to re- 
fute the chief principles of his system. Brucker is of opi- 
nion that the doctrine of his- " Search after Troth,"' though 
in many respects original, is raised upon Cartesian prin- 
ciples, and is, in some particulars, Platonic. The author 
represents, in streng colours, the causes of error, arising 
from the disorders of the imagination and passions, the 
abuse .of liberty, and* an implicit confidence in the senses. 
He. explains the action of. the animal spirits, the nature of 
memory ; the connection of the brain with other parts of 
the body, and their influence upon the understanding and 
will. On the subject of intellect, he maintains, that 
thought alone is essential to mind, aud deduces the im- 
perfect state of science from the imperfection of the hu- 
man understanding, as well as from the inconstancy of the 
will ia inquiring after truth. Rejecting the ancient doc- 
trine of species sent forth from material objects, and deny- 
ing the power of the mind to produce ideas, he ascribes 
their production immediately to God ; and asserts, that 
the human mind immediately perceives God, and sees all 
things in him. As he derives 'the imperfection of the 
human mind from its dependence upon the body, so he 
places its perfection in union with God, by means of the 
knowledge of truth and the love of virtOe. 


Singular and paradoxical, Brucker adds, as the notion 
of " seeing all things in God/' and some other dogihas of 
this writer, miist have appeared, the work was written with 
such elegance and splendour of diction, and its tenfets were 
supported by such ingenious reasonings, that it obtained 
general applause, and procured the author a distinguished 
.name among philosophers, and a numerous train of fol- 
lowers. Its popularity might, perhaps, be in part owing to 
the appeal which the author makes to the authority of St 
.Augustine, from whom he professes to have borrowed his 
hypothesis concerning the origin of ideas. The immediate 
intercourse which this doctrine supposes, between the hu- 
man and the divine mind, has led some to remark a strong 
resemblance between the notions of Malebranche, and 
those of the sect called Quakers. 

Dr. Reid, on the other hand, does not allow, that either 
Plato or the latter Platonists, or St. Augustine, or the 
Mystics, thought, that wte perceive the cfbjects of sense in 
the divine ideas. This theory of our pereeiving the objects 
of sense in the ideas of the Deity, he considers as the in* 
vention of father Malebranche himself. Although St. Au- 

J'ustine speaks in a very high strain of God's being thfe 
igbt of our minds, of our being illuminated immediately by 
.the eternal light, and uses other similar expressions ; yet 
he seems to apply those expressions onty-to our ilhmtirta- 
tion in moral and divine things, and not to thfe pgrcfeptioh 
of objects by the senses. Mr. Bayle imagines that somfe 
traces of this opinion of Malebranche 'are to be fourid in 
Amelius the Platonist, and even in Democritus ; but his 
authorities seem, as Dr. Reid conceive*, to be strained. 
Malebranche, with a very penetrating genius, ehtered intb 
a more minute examination of the powers of the human 
jnind than. any one before hita; aftd h6 availed himself of 
the previous discoveries made by Des Cartes, without sef- 
yile attachment. He lays it down as a principle admitted 
by all philosophers, and in itself tinquestionable, that wfe 
do not perceive external objects immediately, but by means 
of images or ideas of them present to the mind. " The 
things which the soul perceives," says Malebranche, •' are 
df two kinds. They are either in the tfool, of without the 
adul: those that are in the soul are its owft thoughts, thatt 
is to say, all its different modifications. The soul has ho 
need of ideas for perceiving thestf things. Biit with regard 
to things withom the soul, we cannot perceive them but 


by means of ideas." He then proceeds to enumerate all 
the possible ways by which the ideas of sensible objects 
may be presented to the mind : either, 1st, they come from 
the bodies, which we perceive ; or, 2dly, the soul has the 
power of producing them in itself; or, 3dly, they are pro- 
duced by the Deity in our. creation, or occasionally as 
there is use for them ; or, 4thly, the soul has in itself vir- 
tually and eminently, as the schools speak, all the perfec- 
tions which it perceives in bodies: or, 5thly, the soul is 
united with a Being possessed of all perfection, who has 
in himself the ideas of all created things. The last mode 
is that which he adopts, and which he endeavours to con- 
firm by various arguments. The Deity, being always pre- 
sent to our minds in a more intimate manner than any 
other being, may, upon occasion of the impressions made 
on our bodies, discover to us, as far as he thinks proper, 
and according to fixed laws, his own ideas of the object ; 
and thus we see all things in God, or in the divine ideas. 

However visionary this system may appear on a super- 
ficial view, yet when we consider, says Dr. Reid, that .he 
agreed with the whole tribe of philosophers in conceiving 
ideas to be the immediate objects of perception, and, that 
he found insuperable difficulties, and even absurdities, in 
every other hypothesis concerning them, it- will not seem 
so wonderful that a man of very great genius should fall 
into this ; and probably it pleased so devout a man the 
more, that it sets in the most striking light our dependence 
upon God, and his continual presence with us. He dis- 
tinguished more accurately than any philosopher bad done 
before, the objects which we perceive from the sensations in 
our own minds, which, by the laws of nature, always accom- 
- pany the perception of the object : and in this respect, as 
well as in many others, he had great merit. For this, as 
Dr. Reid apprehends, is a key that opens the way to a 
right understanding, both of our external senses, and of 
other powers of the mind. 

The next piece which Malebranche published, was bis 
" Conversations Cbretiennes, dan* lesquelles sont justified 
la veritl de la religion & de la morale de J. C." Paris, 
1.676. He Was moved^ it is said, to write this piece, at 
the desire of the duke de Chevreuse, to shew the consis- 
tency and agreement between his philosophy and religion. 
His " Traite* de la nature & de la grace," 1680, was occa- 
sioned by a conference he had with M. Arnaud, about those 


peculiar notions of grace into which Malebranche's system 
had led that divine. This was followed by other pieces, 
which were all the result of the' philosophical and theolo- 
gical dispute our author had with M. Arnaud. In 1688, 
he published his"*' Entretien sur la metaphysique & la re- 
ligion :" in which work he collected what he hod written 
against M. Arnaod, hut disengaged it from that air of dis- 
pute which is not agreeable to every reader. In 1697, he 
published his " TraitS de Papaour de Dieu." When the 
doctrine of the new mystics began to be much talked of in 
France, father Lamy, a Benedictine, ii\ bis book " De la 
connoissance de soim6me," cited some passages out of 
this author's " Recherche de la verity," as favourable to that 
party ; upon this, Malebranche thought' proper to defend 
himself in this book, by shewing in what sense it may be 
said, without clashing with the authority of the church or 
reason, that the love of God is disinterested. In 1708, he 
published his " Entretiens d'un philosophe Chretien, & 
d'un philosophe Chinois sur Pexistence & la nature de 
Dieu :" or, " Dialogues between a Christian philosopher 
and a Chinese philosopher, upon the' existence and nature 
of God." The bishop of Rozalie having remarked some 
conformity between the opinions of the Chinese, and the 
notions laid down in the " Recherche de la Verit6," men- 
tioned k to the author, who on that account thought him- 
self obliged to write this tract. Malebranche wrote many 
other pieces besides what we have mentioned, all tending 
some way or other to conBrm his main system established 
in the u Recherche," and to clear it from the objections 
which were brought against it, or from the consequences 
which were deduced from it : and, if he has not attained 
what he aimed at in these several productions, he has cer- 
tainly shewn great ingenuity and abilities. 1 

MALELAS, orMALALAS (John), of Antioch, a so- 
phist f who was a teacher of rhetoric, and a member pf the 
church of Antioch, is supposed to have lived about the 
year 900, though some authors have been inclined to place 
him earlier. He is a writer of little value, and abounds in 
words of a barbarous Greek. He must not be confounded 
with John of Antioch, another historian of the same place, 
who was a monk. We have a chronicle written by Malehts, 

" l Geo. Diet— Niceroo, vol. IL— Brucker.— Reid's Essays,—- Keel's Cyclo- 
juedia. ' 

it* M A L E L A S. 

which expends from the creation to the reign of Justinian* 
but is imperfect. His history was published by Edward 
Chilmead at Oxford, in 1691, in 8vo» from a manuscript 
in the Bodleian library ; and republished among the By«- 
zantine historians, as a kind pf appendix, at Venice, 19 
1733. The Oxford edition contains an interpretation and 
notep by Cbiliqead, with three indexes, one of events, a 
second of authors, a third of barbarous words. Prefixed is 
a discourse concerning thfe author, by Humphrey Hody; 
and an epistle is subjoined from Benttey to jkfill, with an 
index of author? who are there amended. 1 

MALEbHERBES (Chkistian-Wiluam j>b Lahqjwi- 
KON), born a*. Paris, Dec. 16, 1721, was son of the tita*- 
cellor of France, William de Lamoignpn, a descendant of 
mi illustrious family. He received his early education, at 
the Jesuits' college, and having studied law and political 
economy, he was appointed a counsellor in {he parlia- 
ment of Paris, and in December 1750 be succeeded bid 
father as president of the "court of aids/' the duties of 
which w^re to regulate the public taxes. The soperkv 
tendance of the press bad been conferred upon Mftlesherbea 
J>y bis' father, at the same time that he received the presi- 
dentship of the court of aids; ai>d tt^is function be exer* 
cise4 with unusual lenity, promoting rather tb^u, cheeking 
those waitings to which the subsequent iqiseciet of hip 
ponntry have been attributed. His biographer clashes it 
MWfig bis great merits that " to his care. an4. befiewlent 
$xertion.s France is indebted for the Encyclopedia, the 
york? of Rousseau, and many other productions, which 
he sheltered from proscription ;". and both Vpl$aire and 
P'Alembeft acknowledged the obligation, and seem, in 
.their letters to hint that his partiality was entirely on their 
side In this view of the subject, Ma|qsherbea must he 
considered as in some degree instrumental in preparing 
the way for tha£ revolution which bus been the pregnant 
§ource of so many calamities. " • » 

In 1771, when the government had dissolved the whole 
legal constitution, and banished the parliaments, Males* 
herbes was banished to his country-seat by a; " Lettrq de 
cqpbet," and the duke de Richelieu, at tbe head of a# 
. armed force, abolished the court of aids. During his, re- 
tirement, Malesherbes's time was occupied with bis family 

1 Morerb— Gen. Diet— Saxii Ooonuurt. 


».■ 1 


and his books, and the cultivation of big grounds. His 
expenditure in public objects was large: he drained 
marshes, cut canals, constructed roads, built bridges, 
planted walks, and carried his attention to the comfort of 
the lower, classes so far as to raise sheds on the sides of the 
river for the shelter of the women at their domestic labours. 
He was thus benevolently and usefully employed when 
the accession of Lewis XVI* recalled him to a public sta- 
tion, and in 1774 Malesherbes received an order to resume 
the presidentship of the court of aids, on which occasion 
he pronounced a very affecting and patriotic harangue, 
£pd afterwards addressed the king in an eloquent speech of 
thanks. His majesty was so well pleased with him, and 
with the freedom of bis sentiments, that be appointed him 
painister of state in June 1775, an office which gave Males* 
herbes an opportunity of extending his sphere of useful- 
ness. One of his first concerto was to visit the prisons, 
apd restore to liberty the innocent victims of former tyran- 
ny, and his praises were carried throughout France by per- 
sons of all descriptions returning to the bosoms of their 
fsunilies from the gloom of dungeons. Although he failed 
in his attempt to abolish the arbitrary power of issuing 
lettres de cachet, he procured the appointment of a com*- 
tRJjssion* composed of upright and enlightened magistrates^ 
to which every application for such letters should be sub*- 
mitted, and whose unanimous decision should be requisite 
for their validity. Malesherbes was also a great encoura* 
ger of commerce and agriculture, in which he bad the car- 
dial co-operation of the illustrious Turgot, at that period 
the comptroller of the revenue^ but, owing to the rejection 
of some important measures which his zeal for the public 
good led him to propose, Malesherbes resigned in the 
monjth of May 1776. To obtain an accurate view of the 
manners and policy of other countries and foreign states* 
he set out on his travels* and visited Switzerland ind HoL» 
lap<}, and in the course of his journey he noted, down every 
. pcc^rrence worthy of observation, and that might, here* 
after* possibly be useful to himself, and promote the me» 
Jiioration of his country. On his return, at the end of a 
few years, he found his native country so much advanced 
in what he thought philosophical principles, that be was 
encouraged to present to the king two elaborate me* 
moirs, one on the condition of the protestants, the other 
ja %ot*r of the principles, of civil liberty, and tolera- 



tion in general. Difficulties, however, were now accu- 
mutating in the management of the government, and 
the king, in 1786, called Malesherbes to his councils, but 
without appointing him to any particular post in the ad- 
ministration. He soon found it impossible td act with the 
men already possessed of the powers of government, and 
expressed bis opinion in two energetic memoirs " On 
the Calamities of France, and the means of repairing 
them ;" but it does not appear that these ever reached 
his majesty, nor could Malesherbes obtain a private inter- 
view ; he therefore took his final leave of the court, and 
retreated to his country residence, determined to consult 
the best means of serving his country by agricultural pur- 
suits. In 1790 he published " An Essay on the means of 
accelerating the progress of Rural Economy in France,'* in 
which he proposed an establishment to facilitate the na- 
tional improvement in this important point. In this tran- 
quil state he was passing the evening of his days when the 
horrors of the* revolution brought him again to Paris. 
During the whole of its progress, he had his eyes con- 
stantly fixed on his unhappy sovereign; and, subduing his 
natural fondness for retirement, went regularly to court 
every Sunday, to give him proofs of his respect and attach* 
ment. He imposed it as a duty on himself to give the 
ministers regular information of the designs of the regicide 
. faction ; and when it was determined to bring the king to 
trial, he voluntarily offered to be the defender of his master, 
in his memorable letter of Dec. 11, 1792, that etefnal 
monument of his loyalty and affection. Three counsel 
had already been appointed, but one having from pruden- 
tial motives, declined the office, the king, »ho wept at 
this proof of attachment from his old servant, immediately 
■ominated Malesherbes in his stead. Their interview was 
extremely affecting, and his majesty, during the short in- 
terval before his death, shewed every mark of affection 
for, and confidence in, his generous advocate. Males- 
herbes was the person who announced to him his cruel 
doom, and was one of the last who took leave of him pre- 
viously to his execution. After that catastrophe he again 
withdrew to his retreat, and with a deeply- wounded heart, 
refused to hear any thing of what was acting among the 
blood-thirsty Parisians. As he was one morning working 
in his garden, be observed four savage-looking wretches 
directing their course to his house, and hastening home, 


be found tbem to be officers from the revolutionary tribu- 
nal come to arrest his daughter and her husband, who had 
formerly been president erf the parliament pf Paris. The 
separation of these persons from his family was deeply af- 
flicting to his heart, and it is probable that his own arrest 
shortly after was a relief to his feelings. He had long been 
esteemed as father of the village in which he lived, and 
the rustic inhabitants crowded round to take leave of their 
ancient benefactor with tears and benedictions. Four of 
the municipality accompanied him to Paris, that he might 
not be escorted by soldiers like a criminal. He was shut 
up in prison with bis unfortunate. family ; and in a few days 
the guillotine separated his son-in-law Lepelletier from his 
wife ; and the accusation of Malesherbes with his daughter 
and grand-daughter, " for a conspiracy against the liberties 
of the people," was followed, as a matter of course, by a. 
sentence of death. The real erime, as it was basely deno- 
minated, of this excellent man and worthy patriot, and 
which the convention never pardoned, was his defence of 
the king, an act in which he gloried to the latest hour of 
his existence. He probably thought it an honour to die 
by the same ruffian hands that had spilt the blood of his 
.master. The condemnation of the females almost over- 
came the manly fortitude which he displayed in every per- 
sonal suffering; bis courage, however, returned at the 
prison, and tbey prepared for the death which was the last 
and only important event that they had to encounter. His 
daughter had exhibited the noble spirit with which she was 
inspired, for upon taking leave of mademoiselle Sombreuii, 
who had saved her father's life on the second of Septem- 
ber, she said to her, u You have had the happiness to pre- 
serve your father, I shall have the consolation of dying 
with mine" On the fatal day Malesherbes left the prison 
with a serene countenance, and happening to stumble 
against a stone, he said with much pleasantry, " a Roman 
would have thought this an unlucky omen, and walked back 
again. 99 Thus perished the venerable Malesherbes in April 
1794, when he had attained to the age of seventy-two years 
four months and fifteen days. His character may be in 
part deduced from the. preceding narrative, but is more 
fully displayed in his life translated by Mr. Man gin. The 
subsequent government has since made some reparation for 
-the injustice done him, by ordering bis bust to be placed 

18* MALEZIEU. . 

among those of the great na£n who haVe reflected honour 
upon their country. * ■ ., 

MALEZIEU (Nicolas de), a French author, a man df 
extensive and almost universal learning, was born at Parts 
in 1650. By. Bossuet, and the duke of Montausier, who 
knew his merit, he was appointed preceptor to the duke of 
Maine ; and the public in general approved the choice. In 
1696 Malezieu was chosen to instruct the duke of Bur- 
gundy in mathematics. In 1699 he became a member of 
the academy of sciences, and in two years after of the 
French academy. The duke of Maine rewarded his cans 
of him by appointing bim the chief of his council, and 
chancellor of Dombes. Under the regency of the duke of 
Orleaus he was involved in the disgrace which fell upon 
the duke his pupil, and was imprisoned for two years* 
He had an excellent constitution, which, aided by regu- 
larity, conducted him nearly to the close of life without 
any indisposition. He died of an apoplexy on March 
4,1727, at the age of seventy-seven. Notwithstanding 
the vast extent of bis learning, and many occupations 
which required great attention, he bad an easy and un- 
embarrassed air ; his conversation was lively and agreeabW, 
and his ntanners polite and attentive. He published, t. 
" Elements of Geometry, for the duke of Burgundy/' 17 L5* 
8vo, being the substance of the instructions delivered by 
him to that prince. 2. Several pieces in verse, songs, &o. 
published at Trevoux about 1712. 3. There has also been 
attributed to him a farce in one act, entitled, " Policb*- 
nelle demandant une place a l'Academie." He had, among 
other talents, that of translating the Greek authors into 
French, particularly the tragic writers, in a style of har- 
mony and energy of verse, wbieh approached as nearly, 
perhaps, as any thing in his language could do* to the 
excellence of the originals. * 

MALHERBE (Francis de), a celebrated French poet, 
has always been considered by his countrymen as the father 
of their poetry; since, upon his appearance, all their 
former poets fell into disgrace. Bayle looks upon btifras 
one of the first and greatest masters, who formed the taste 
and judgment of that nation in matters relating to polite 
literature. Balzac says, that the French poetry before 

l Life translated by Mr. Mangin.— Gleig^s Supplement to the Encyctoo. Bfk. 
-*Reetb Cyclopedia; » Mdreri.— Diet. Hist. 

. *■ 


Malherbe was perfectly gothic; but Boilean, a better 
judge, ha» pronounced that be was the first in France who 
taught tbe muse harmonious numbers, a just cadence, 
purity of language, regularity of composition, and order ; 
in short, who laid down all those rules for writing which 
future poets were to follow, if they hoped to succeed. 
The poetical works of Malherbe, though divided into six 
books, yet make but a small volume. They consist of 
paraphrases upon the Psalms, odes, sonnets, and epigrams : 
and they were published in several forms, to 1666, when 
a very complete edition of them came out at Paris, with 
tbe notes and observation? of Menage. Malherbe was 
certainly the first who gave his countrymen any idea of a 
legitimate ode, though his own have hardly any thing but 
harmony to recommend them. He also translated some 
works of Seneca, and some books of Li vy ; and if be was 
not successful in translation, yet he had the happiness to 
be very well satisfied with his labour. His principal busi- 
ness was to criticize upon the French language ; in which 
be was so well skilled, that some of his friends desired him 
one day to make a grammar for the tongue. Malherbe 
•replied, u that there was no occasion for him to take that 
pains, for they might read bis translation of the thirty- 
third* book of Livy, and he would have them write after 
* that manner.'* 
' Malherbe was born at Caen, about 1555, of an ancient 
a«d illustrious family, who had formerly borne arms in 
England, under Robert duke of Normandy. He lived to 
be old ; and, about 1601, be became known to Henry the 
Great, firom a very advantageous mention of him to that- 
prince by cardinal du Perron. The king asked the car- 
dinal 2 one day, ""if he had made any more verses ?" To 
which the cardinal replied, that " he had totally laid aside 
ail such amusements since his majesty bad done him the 
honour to take him into his service ; and added, that every 
body must now throw away their pens for ever, since a 
gentleman of Normandy, named Malherbe, had carried 
the French poetry to such a height, as none could hope to 
. reach." About four years after, he was called to court, and 
enrolled among the pensioners of that monarch. After 
the death of Henry, queen Mary of Medicis became his 
patroness, and settled upon him a -very handsome pension. 
This he enjoyed to the time of his death, which happened 
at Paris in 1628. It was the misfortune of this poet, that 


be had no great share in the affection of cardinal Richelieu* 
It was discovered, that, instead of taking more than or- 
dinary pains/ as he shonld have done, to celebrate the 
glory of that great minister, he bad only patched together 
old soraps, which he bad found among his papers. This 
was not the way to please a person of so haughty a spirit ; 
and therefore be received this homage from Malfaerbe very 
coldly, and not without disgust " I learned from M, Ra- 
can," says Menage, " that Malberbe wrote those two 
stanzas above thirty years before Richelieu, to whom he 
addressed them, was made a cardinal ; and that be changed: 
only the four first verses of the first stanza, to accommo- 
date them to his subject. I learned also from the same 
Racan, that cardinal Richelieu knew that these verses had 
nqt been made for him." His apparent indolence upon such 
an occasion was probably owing to that extreme difficulty 
with which he always wrote. Ail writers speak of the time 
and labour it cost Malberbe to produce his poems* 

This poet was a man of a very singular humour ; and many 
anecdotes are related of his peculiarities, by Racan, his 
friend and the writer of his life. A gentleman of the law, 
and of some distinction, brought him one day some indif- 
ferent commendatory verses on a lady ; telling him at the 
same time, that some very particular considerations had in* 
duced him to compose them. Malberbe having run them over 
with a supercilious air, asked the gentleman bluntly, as 
his manner was, " whether he had been sentenced to be 
hanged, or to make those verses ?" His manner of punish- 
ing his servant was likewise characteristic, and partook 
not a little of the caprice of Swift. Besides twenty crowns 
a year, he allowed this servant ten-pence a day board 
wages, which in those times was very considerable ; when, 
therefore he had done any thing amiss, Malherbe would 
very gravely say : " My friend, an offence against your 
master is an offence against God, and must ■ be expiated 
by prayer, fasting, and giving of alms ; wherefore I shall 
i\ow retrench five-pence out of your allowance, and give 
them to the poor on your account." From other accounts, 
it may be inferred that his impiety was at least equal to bis 
wit. When the poor used to promise him that they would 
pray to God for him, he answered them, that " he did not 
believe they could have any great interest in heaven, since 
they were left in so bad a condition upon earth ; and that 
be should be better pleased if the duke de JLuyne, or some 


other favourite, had made him the same promise.' 9 He 
would often say, that " the religion of gentlemen was that 
of their prince.'* During his test sickness he was with 
great difficulty persuaded to confess to a priest ; for which 
he gave this reason, that " he never used to confess but at 
Easter." And some few moments before his death, when, 
he had been in a lethargy two hours, he awaked on a sud- 
den to reprove his landlady, who waited on him, for using 
a word that was not good French ; saying to his confessor, 
who reprimanded him for it, that " he could not help it, 
and that he would defend the purity of the French language 
to tbe last moment of his life." ' 

MALINGRE (Claude), Sieur of St. Lazaje, a French 
historian, more known for the number, than esteemed for 
the value of his books, was a native of Sens. In spite of 
every artifice to sell his histories, publishing the same un- 
der different titles, filling them with flatteries to the reign- 
ing princes, and other arts, it was with great difficulty 
that he could force any of them into circulation. It was 
not only that his style was low and flat, but that his repre- 
sentation of facts was equally incorrect. Latterly his name 
was sufficient to condemn a book, and he only put bis ini- 
tials, and those transposed. He died in lf>55. His best 
work is said to be, " Histoire des dignit6s honoraires de 
France," 8vo, on which some dependence is placed, be- 
cause there he cites his authorities. He wrote also, 2. 
" L'histoire generate des derniers troubles ;" comprising 
the times of Henry III. and Louis XIII. in 4to. 3. " His- 
toire d$ Louis XIII." 4to, a miserable collection of facts 
disguised by flattery, and . extending only from 1610 to 
1614. 4. " Histoire de la naissance et des progres de 
l'Heresie de oe siecle," 3 vols. 4to, the first of which is 
by father Richeomd. 5. " A Continuation of the Roman 
History, from Constantine to Ferdinand the Third," 2 vols, 
folio ; a compilation which ought to contain the substance 
of Gibbon's History, but offers little that is worthy of at- 
tention.- 6. " The Annals and Antiquities of Paris," 2 
vols, folio. . There is another work of this kind by a P. du « 
BreuU which is much more esteemed ; this, however, is 
consulted sometimes as a testimony of the state of Paris in 
the time of the author/ , 

1 Gteo. Diet. — Niceron, vol, VI L— Afore*?.— Bullart's Academie des Sciences, ' 
vol. II. 
» Niceroii, vol. XXJCJV^Moreri.-^Dict Hist. 

192 MALLET. 

MALLET (David), a poet and miscellaneous writer, it 
said to bare descended from the Macgregors, a clan wbicfer 
became in the early part of the last century, under the 
conduct of one Robin Roy, so formidable for violence and 
robbery, that the name was annulled by a legal prohibit 
tion ; and when they were all to denominate themselves* 
anew, the father, as is supposed, of our author called him- 
self Ma! loch. This father, James Mai loch, kept a public- 
house at Crieff, co. Perth, in Seotland, where David was 
born, probably about 1700. Of his early years we have 
but scanty and discordant memorials, some accounts placing 
him at first in a menial situation in the university of Edin- 
burgh; others informing us that he was educated at the 
university of Aberdeen. The latter seems most probable, 
as he wrote and even printed some lines on the repairfe of 
that university, in which he could not have been interested* 
had he not studied there for some time. That he after- 
wards went to Edinburgh is not improbable, and it is al- 
most certain that be had in some way distinguished himself 
at that university, for when the duke of Montrose applied 
to the professors for a tutor to educate his sons, they re- 
commended Malloch ; a mark of their high opinion of 
him ; and the office was of importance enongh to have ex- 
cited the wishes of many candidates, there being no surer 
step to future advancement. 

After making the usual tour of Europe with the duke's 
sons, be returned with them to London, and by the influ- 
ence of the family, in which he resided, easily gained ad* 
mission to many persons of the highest rank, to wits, 
nobles, and statesmen. '< By degrees, 99 says Dr. Johnson, 
" having cleared his tongue from his native pronunciation, 
so as to be no longer distinguished as a Scot, be seems in- 
clined to disencumber himself from all adherences of his 
original, and took upon him to change his name from 
Scotch Malloch to English Mallet, without any imaginable 
reason of preference which the eye or ear can discover: 
What other proofs he gave of disrespect to bis native" 
country, I know not; but it was remarked of bim that be 
was the only Scot whom Scotchmen did not commend." 
It seems unreasonable, however, to impute this change! of 
name to disrespect for his country ; with his countrymen 
many of his most intimate connections were formed, and 
his friendship for Thomson is one of the most agreeable 
parts of bis history ; and almost the last character he 

MALLET. 193 

sustained was that of an intrepid advocate for lord Bute, and 
what were then called the Scotch junto who ruled the king 
and kingdom. As to Scotchmen not commending him, he 
had at least one adherent in Smollet, who engaged him to 
write in the Critical Review, where all Mallet's works am 
highly praised, particularly his " Elvira." The late com* 
mentator, George Steevens, esq. bit upon the truth more 
exactly, when he wrote in a copy of Gascoigne's Works, 
purchased in 1766, at Mallet's sale, " that be was the only 
Scotchman who died, in his memory, unlamented by an 
individual of bis own nation." Steevens probably made 
this remark to Johnson, who forgot the precise terms. The 
first time we meet with the name of David Mallet is in 
1726, in a list of the subscribers to Savage's Miscellanies. 
Mallet's first production in England was the celebrated 
and affecting ballad of " William and Margaret," which 
was printed in. Aaron Hill's " Plain Dealer," No. 36, July 
14, 1724, and which in its original state was very different 
from what it is in the last editions of his works. Of this, 
says Dr. Johnson, he has been envied the reputation ; and 
plagiarism has been boldly charged, but never proved. 
In 1728 he published " The Excursion," a poem in two 
cantos, containing a desultory view of such scenes of na« 
ture as his fancy or his knowledge led him to describe, and 
which is not devoid of poetical spirit, and in respect to 
diction is a close imitation of Thomson, whose " Seasons*' 
were then in their full blossom of reputation. 

in 1731 his first tragedy,* called " Eurydice*" was per* 
forafed at Drury-lane, and very unfavourably received; 
nor. when revived thirty years after, and supported by Gar-* 
rick and Mrs. Cibber, could the town endure it with pa* 
tience. On ibis last occasion Davies informs us that the 
author would not take the blame upon himself; " he sat 
in the orchestra, and bestowed bis execrations plentifully 
upon the players, to whom he attributed the cold recep* 
turn of his tragedy." About this time we find him an in* 
mate in Mr. Knight's family at Gosfield, probably as tutor 
to Mn Newsham, Mrs. Knight's son by her first husband* 
Her third was the late earl Nugent. We shall soon have 
occasion to quote a very remarkable passage from a letter 
of Pope's to this lady, respecting Mallet 

Soon after the exhibition of " Eurydice," Mr. Mallet 
published his poem on " Verbal Criticism," a subject 
which he either did not understand, or willingly misrepre* 
Vol. XXI. O 

194 MALLET. 

sented *. "There is in this poem," says Dr. Johnson, " more 
pertness than wit, and more confidence than knowledge* 
The versification is tolerable, nor can criticism allow it » 
higher praise." It was written to pay court to Pope, who' 
soon after introduced him, we may add, " in an evil hour" 
to lord Bolingbroke. The ruin of Pope's reputation might 
have been dated from this hour, if the joint malignity of 
Bolingbroke and Mallet could have effected it. Mallet 
was now in the way to promotion. When the prince of 
Wales, at variance with his father, placed himself at the 
head of the opposition, and kept a separate court, he en- 
deavoured to increase his popularity by the patronage of 
literature; and Mallet being recommended to him, his royal 
highness appointed him his under-secretary, with a salary 
of 200/. a year. 

While in this employment, he published in 1739, " Mus* 
taphfe" a tragedy, dedicated to his royal patron. Thom- 
son's " Edward and Eleonora" had been excluded the 


stage, because the licenser discovered in it a formidable 
attack on the minister, yet Mallet's " Mustapha," which 
was thought, and was no doubt intended, to glance both 
at the king and sir Robert Walpole, in the characters of 
Solyman the Magnificent, and Rustan his visier, was al- 
lowed to be acted, and was acted with great applause. 
•The language of this tragedy is more easy and natural than 
that of " Eurydice," but its success was much owing to 
its political allusions. On the first night of its exhibition* 
, the heads of the opposition were all assembled, and many 
speeches were applied by the audience to the supposed 
grievances of the times, and to persons and characters. 
In the following year, Thomson and Mallet were com- 
manded by the prince of Wales to write the masque of 
V Alfred," in honour of the birth-day of lady Augusta, bis 
eldest daughter (the late duchess of Brunswick), which was 
twice acted in the gardens of Clifden by some of the Lon- 
don performers. After the death of Thomson in 1748, 
Mallet re-wrote the Masque of Alfred, under the influence 
and by the encouragement of, lord Bolingbroke; and with 

* Wart on says he wrote this poem names as the Scaligers, Salmasinses, 

to gratify Pope, by abusing Bentley, Heiiwiuses, Burmans, Gronoviuses* 

which, he adds, " is stuffed with i Hi be- Retskiuses, Marklands, Gesners, and 

rat cant about pedantry, and- collators Heynes."— Essay on Pope, vol* II. p. 

of manuscripts. Real scholars will 231, edit. 1806. 
always speak with due regard of such 

MALLET. 19* 

the assistance of music and gorgeous scenery, it was acted 
with some, but no great success. 

In 1747 Mallet published his "Hermit, or Amyntor 
and Theodora, 9 ' a poem in which Dr. Johnson allows that 
there is copiousness and elegance of language (which in- 
deed appear in most of Mallet's works), vigour of sentiment, 
and imagery well adapted to take possession of the fancy. 
It abounds also with many excellent moral precepts, which 
receive weight and energy from the sanction of religion, a 
foundation on which Mallet did not always build. Dr r 
Warton was much censured for saying in his " Essay on 
the Life and Writings of Pope," that " the nauseous affec- 
tation of expressing every thing pompously and poetically, 
is nowhere more visible than in a poem lately published, 
called Amyntor and Theodora;" but Warton was not a 
rash critic, and retained the sentence in the subsequent 
editions of his " Essay." 

Not long after this, Mallet was employed by lord Bo* 
lingbroke in an office which he executed with all the malig- 
nity that bis employer could wish. This was no other than 
to defame the character of Pope*— Pope, who by leaving 
the whole of his MSS to lord Bolingbroke, had made him 
in some respect the guardian of his character — Pope, on 
whose death -bed lord Bolingbroke looking earnestly down, 
repeated several times, interrupted with sobs, " O great 
God, what is man? I never knew a person that had so 
tender a heart for his particular friends, or a warmer be- 
nevolence for all mankind !" who certainly had idolized this 
nobleman throughout his whole life, and who adhered to 
his lordship's cause through all the vicissitudes of popular 
odium and exile. What could have induced Bolingbroke 
to the gpplice of degrading Pope's character, and the cow- 
ardice of employing a hireling to do it ? T|ie simple fact 
is, that after Pope's death it was thought to be discovered 
that be had privately printed 1500 copies of one of lord 
Bolingbroke's works, "The Patriot King," the perusal of 
which his lordship wished to be confined to a select few. 
This offence, which Mallet only could have traced to a bkd 
motive, if fairly examined, will probably seem dispropor- 
tioned to the rage and resentment of Bolingbroke. A very 
acute examiner of evidence (Mr. D' Israeli) has therefore 
imputed that to the preference with which Pope had dis- 
tinguished Warburton, and is of opinion that Warburton, 
much more than Pope, was the real object. Between 

o 2 

196 MALLET. 

Bolingbroke and Warburton there was, it is well known, 
a secret jealousy, which at length appeared in mutual and 
undisguised contempt But much of this narrative belongs 
rather to them than to Mallet, who could feel no resent- 
ment, could plead no provocation. On the contrary, he 
had every inducement to reflect with tenderness on the 
memory and friendship of Pope, who speaks of him, in a 
letter we have already alluded to, in the following terms : 
'< To prove to you how little essential to friendship I hold 
letter-writing — I have not yet written to Mr. Mallet, whom 
I love and esteem greatly, nay whom / knew to have as 
tender a heart) and tYnx feels a friendly remembrance as long 
as any man" Such was the man who gladly undertook 
what Bolingbroke was ashamed to perform, and in a pre* 
face to the " Patriot King" misrepresented the conduct of 
Pope in language the most malignant and contemptuous** 
That he had an eye to his own interest in all this, it 
would be a miserable affectation of liberality to doubt. No 
other motive can account for his conduct, and this conduct 
will be foi/nd to correspond with *his general character. 
Bolingbroke accordingly rewarded him by bequeathing to 
him all his writings published and unpublished, and Mallet 
immediately began to prepare them for the press. His 
conduct at the very outset of this business affords another 
illustration of bis character, franc kl in, the printer, to 
whom many of the political pieces written during the op- 
position to Walpole, had been given, as he supposed, in 
perpetuity, laid claim to some compensation for those. 
Mallet allowed his claim, and the question was referred to 
arbitrators, who were empowered to decide upon it, by 
an instrument signed by the parties ; but when they de- 
cided unfavourably to Mr. Mallet, he refused to yield to 
the decision, and the printer was thus deprived of the be- 
nefit of the award, by not having insisted upon bonds of 
arbitration, to which Mallet bad objected as degrading to 
a man of honour/ He then proceeded, with the help of 
Millar, the bookseller, to publish all be could find ; and 
so sanguine was he in his expectations, that he rejected 
the offer of 3000/. which Millar offered him for the copy* 
right, although he was at this time so distressed for money 
that he was forced to borrow some of Millar to pay the sta- 

■ ¥ 

* After all that has been said on this of the "Patriot King," as we shall 
subject, Ralph AUeu, and not Pope, have occasion to notice hereafter* 
Has the person who pirated the edition 

MALLET. 197 

tioner and printer. Tbe work at last appeared, in 5 vols. 
4to, and Mallet had soon reason to repent bis refusal of 
tbe bookseller's offer, as this edition was not sold off in 
twenty years. As these volumes contained many bold at- 
tacks on revealed religion, they brought much obloquy on 
the editor, and even a presentment was made of them by 
tbe grand-jury of Westminster. His memory, however, 
will be thought to suffer yet more by his next appearance 
in print ' When the nation was exasperated by the ill suc- 
cess of the war, and the ministry wished to divert public 
indignation from themselves, Mallet was employed to turn 
it upon admiral Byng< In this be entered as heartily as, 
into the defamation of Pope, and wrote a letter of accusa- 
tion under the character of a " Plain Man," a large sheet, 
which was circulated with great industry, and probably 
was found to answer its purpose. The price of blood, on 
this occasion, was a pensiou which he retained till his 

From this time (1757) until 1763, we hear nothing of 
Mr. Mallet, except a dedication of his poems to tbe late 
duke of Marlborough, in which he promises himself 
speedily tbe honour of dedicating to him the life of his 
illustrious predecessor. The cause of this promise is ano- 
ther of those charges which have been brought against 
Mallet, and which it will be difficult to repelL When the 
celebrated John duke of Marlborough died, it was deter* 
mined, that the history of his life should be transmitted to 
posterity, and the papers supposed to contain the neces- 
sary information were delivered to lord Molesworth, who 
had been his favourite in Flanders. When Molesworth 
died, the same papers were transferred with the same de- 
sign to sir Richard Steele, who in some of his exigences 
put them to pawn. They then remained with the old 
doofaessf who in her will assigned tbe task to Mr, Glover, 
the author of " Leonidas," and Mr. Mallet, with a reward 
of 1000/. and a curious prohibition against inserting any 
verses. There were other prohibitions and conditions, 
however, which induced Glover, a man of spirit and vir- 
tue, to decline the legacy. Mallet had no such scruples, 
and besides the legacy, bad a pension from the late duke 
of Marlborough to quicken his industry. He then began, 
and continued to talk much and often of the progress he 
had made, but on bis death, not a scrap could be disco- 
vered of the history. 

198 MALLET. 

In the political disputes which commenced at the be- 
ginning of the present reign, Mallet espoused the cause 
of his countryman lord Bute, and is said to have written 
his tragedy of " Elvira," with a view to serve his lordship. 
This play was performed at Drury-lane in 1763 ; its ob- 
ject was to recommend pacific sentiments, but the public 
was dissatisfied with the late peace, and " Elvira, 9 ' though 
well performed, was easily rendered unpopular by the op* 
ponents of the ministry. Dayies gives us an amusing 
anecdote of his tricking Garrick into the performance of 
this piece, by making him believe that he had introduced 
the mention of him in his life of Marlborough, a bait 
which Mallet's principles suggested, and which Garrick's 
vanity readily swallowed. Garrick got little by the play, 
but Mallet was rewarded with the office of keeping the 
book of entries for ships in the port of London. 

Towards the end of his life, Mallet went with his wife 
to France, but after a while finding his health declining, 
returned alone to'England, and died April 21, 1765. He 
was twice married. Of his first wife we find no mention, 
but by her he had several children. One daughter, who 
married an Italian of rank, named Cilesia, wrote a tragedy 
called " Almida," which was acted at Drury-lane. This 
lady died at Genoa in 1790. His second wife, whom he 
married in October 1742, was miss Lucy Elstob, daughter 
to lord Carlisle's steward. She had a fortune of 10,000/. 
all of which she took care to settle upon herself; but she 
was equally careful that Mallet should appear like a gen* 
tleman of distinction, and from her great kindness, always 
chose herself to purchase every thing that be wore, and to 
let her friends know that she did so. This lady's senti- 
ments were congenial to those of her husband, who was 
a professed free-thinker. Tbey kept a good table (at 
which Gibbon appears to have been frequently a guest), 
and the lady, proud of her opinions, would often, we are 
told, in the warmth of argument, say, " Sir, wc deists" . 

Mr. Mallet's stature, says Dr. Johnson, " was diminutive, 
but he was regularly formed. His appearance, till he 
grew corpulent, was agreeable, and he suffered it to want 
no recommendation that dress could give it„ His conver- 
sation was elegant, and easy." Of his character in other 
respects, it would be unnecessary to add any thing to the 
preceding facts. As- a writer he cannot be placed in any 
high class, nor is there any species of composition in whicj} 

MALLET. 19§ 

lie is eminent ; yet his poetry surely entitles him to a place 
in every collection of English bards. In his poems as well 
as his prose compositions, elegance of style predominates, 
and he appears to have written with ease. His " Life of 
Lord Bacon/' prefixed to an edition of that illustrious phi- 
losopher's works in 1740, has been censured as touching 
too little on the philosophical part of the character. The 
writing it, however, was probably a matter of necessity 
rather than choice, and while be could not afford to refuse 
the employment, he was too conscious of bis inability to 
attempt any other than what he has accomplished, an ele- 
gant narrative of the events of lord Bacon's life. Of Mal- 
let's works, prose and verse, aa edition was published in 
1769, 3 vols, small 8vo.* 

MALLET (Edmund), was one of the writers iu the 
French Encyclopedie, and one of those whose articles are 
the most valuable in that work. They are chiefly on the 
subjects of divinity and belles lettres, and if only men as 
sound and judicious as the abb6 Mallet had been employed, 
that publication would have proved as useful as it has been 
found pernicious. He was born at Melun in 1713, and 
educated at the college of the Barnabites' at Montargis. 
He was afterwards engaged as tutor in the family of a far- 
mer general. In 1742 he was admitted into the faculty of 
theology at Paris, and was employed on a cure near his 
native town till 1751, when he was invited to be professor 
of divinity in the college of Navarre. The more he was 
known, the more his merits were perceived; and the charge 
of Jansenism, which had been circulated against him, was 
gradually cleared away. Boyer, then bishop of Mirepoix, 
as a testimony of his regard, presented him to a canonry 
of Verdun. He died at Paris in 1755. Besides his share 
in the Encyclopedic, he wrote several works on the prin- 
ciples of poetry and eloquence. His style is neat, easy, 
and unaffected ; and he has great skill in developing the 
merits of good writers, and illustrating his precepts by the 
most apposite examples from their works. He published 
also a history of the civil wars of France, under the reigns 

1 Johnson's Poets. — Davies's Life of Garrick, vol. II. p. 27 — 60, 280.— 
Bowles's edition of Pope.— Ruffhead's Life of Pope, 4to edit. p. 414. — Swift's' 
Works, rol. XIX.— Boswell's Tour and Life of Johnson. — Sheffield's Life of 
Gibson, vol. I. p. 111. 422. — D'Israeli's Quarrels of Authors, vol. I.-— Genlle- 
saafi's Magazine ; see Index. 


of Fnuigois II. Charles IX. &c. translated from the Italian 
of D'Avila, and published at Amsterdam in 3 vols. 4to. 1 

MALLET (James). See DU PAN. 

MALLET (Paul Henry), a learned historian and anti- 
quary, first professor of history in his native city, was born 
at Geneva in 1730, became afterwards professor royal of 
the belies lettres at Copenhagen, a member of the acade- 
mies of Upsal, Lyons, Cassel, and of the Celtique aca- 
demy of Paris. Of his life no account has yet appeared. 
He joined an extensive acquaintance with history and ge- 
neral literature to great natural talents. The amenity of 
his disposition caused his company to be much sought, 
while his solid qualities procured him friends who deeply 
regretted his loss. The troubles of Geneva during the first 
revolutionary war deprived him of the greatest part of his 
fortune; and he was indebted, for the moderate compe- 
tence he retained, to pensions from the duke of Brunswick 
and the landgrave of Hesse ; but the events of the late war 
deprived him of both those pennons. The French govern* 
ment is said to have designed him a recompense, but this 
was prevented by his death, at Geneva, Feb. 8, 1807. His 
works were: 1. " Histoire de Danemarck," to the eigh- 
teenth century, the best edition of which is that of 1787. 
2. A translation of Coxe's " Travels," with remarks and 
addition*, and a relation of bis own Travels in Sweden, 2 
vols. 4 to. 3. Translation of the Acta and form of the 
Swedish government, 12mo. 4. "Histoire de Hesse/' to 
the seventeenth century, 3 vols. 8vo. 5. " Histoire de la 
maisoti de Brunswick," to its accession to the throne of 
Great Britain, 3 vols. 8vo. 6. " Histoire des Suisses," 
from the earliest times to the commencement of the late 
revolution, Geneva, 1803, 4 vols. 8vo. 7. " Histoire de la 
Ligne Anseatique," from its origin to its decline, 1 305, 2 
vols. 8vo. He had discovered at Rome the chronological 
series of Icelandic bishops, which bad been lost in Den- 
mark. It is published in the third volume of Langebeck's 
collection of Danish writers. The late Dr. Percy, bishop 
of Dromore, has made us acquainted with professor Mal- 
let's merit as an antiquary by his excellent translation en- 
titled " Northern Antiquities; or a Description of the 
manners, customs, religion, aud laws, of the ancient 
Danes, and other northern nations ; including those of our 


-i Moreri,— -Diet Hist.— Preface to the Sixth Vol. of the Eftcyclopedie. 



own Saxon ancestors. With a translation of the Edda, or 
system of Runic mythology, and other pieces from the 
ancient Islandic Tongue. Translated from M. Mallet's 
Introduction k l'Histoire de Danemarck," &c. 1770, 2 vols. 
$vo. To this Dr. Percy has added many valuable and cu- 
rious notes, and Goranson's Latin version of the " Edda." 
It was very justly said, at the time, by the Monthly Re- 
viewer, that Or. Percy bad, in this instance, given a trans* 
latioa more valuable than the original. 1 

MALLINKROTT (Bernard), dean of the cathedral of 
Munster, and celebrated for his inquiries into typographi- 
cal antiquities, was certainly a learned man, but very tur- 
bulent and ambitious. Hence it happened that he was 
named to two bishoprics without taking possession of either, 
and that he died in prison for his opposition to another 
prelate. The emperor Ferdinand I. appointed him to the 
bishopric of Ratzebourg, and he was, a few days after, 
elected to the see of Minden. But his ambition was to be 
bishop of Munster, and not succeeding, in 1650, he in- 
trigued and raised seditions against the bishop who had 
succeeded, till in 1655, he was degraded from his dignity 
of dean. Nor yet warned, he continued his machinations, 
and in 1657, the bishop bad bim arrested and confined in 
the castle of Otteinzheim. Here he continued till his 
death, which happened suddenly, March 7, 1664. He 
wrote in Latin, 1. "De nAtura et nsu Literarum," Mun- 
ster, 1638, 4to, 2. " De ortu et progressu artis Typogra- 
phies," Cologne, 1639, 4to, and since reprinted in Wolfs 
collection of " Monumenta Typographical' vol. I. 1740. 
3. " De Archicancellariis S. R. imperii," Munster, 1640, 
4to. 4. " Paralipomenon de Historicis Gracis," Cologne, 
1656, 4to.« 

MALMSBURY (William of), an ancient English his- 
torian, who flourished in the twelfth century, was born in 
Somersetshire, and, on that account, as Bale and Pits in-* 
.form us, was called Somersetanus. When a child, he him- 
self says, he discovered a fondness for learning, which was 
encouraged by his parents, and increased with his years. 
Some have supposed Oxford to have been the place of his 
ediication* He became, however, a monk of Malmsbury, 
and it reflects no small honour on his fraternity, that they 

» Diet Hwt— AthtMeum, vol. II. 

* Niceron, roi. XXX— Lif« by Stnmat, prafiied to kit editioa of the " Dt 
Arohicancellariif, &c." 

f 02 M A L M S B U R Y. 

elected him their librarian. He had studied several 
sciences, as they could then be acquired, logic, physic, 
and ethics, but history appears to have been his favourite 
pursuit. After studying that of countries abroad, he be- 
gan to inquire into the memorable transactions of his own 
nation ; but not finding any satisfactory history already 
written, he resolved, as he says, to write one, not to dis- 
play his learning, " which is no great matter, but to bring 
to light things that are covered with the rubbish of anti- 
quity." This resolution produced his valuable work " De 
regibus Anglorum," a general history of England in five 
books, from the arrival of the Saxons, in the year 449 to 
the 26 Henry I. in 1126; and a modern history, in two 
books, from that year to the escape of the empress Maud 
out of Oxford in 1143; with a church history of England 
iu four books, published in sir H. Savile's collection, 1596. 
His merits as a historian have been justly displayed and 
recommended by lord Lyttelton in his " History of Henry 
II." In all his works (the Latin style of which is more 
pure than that of any of his contemporaries), he discovers 
great diligence, much good sense, and a sacred regard to 
truth, accompanied with uncommon modesty. He says 
that he can scarcely expect the applause of his contempo- 
raries, but he hopes that when both favour and malevo- 
lence are dead, he shall obtain from posterity the charac- 
ter of an industrious, though not of an eloquent historian. 
Besides what we have mentioned, Gale has printed his 
" Antiquities of Glastonbury, 9 * aud Wharton his " Life of 
St Adhelm." But his abilities were not confined to prose. 
He wrote many pieces of Latin poetry ; and it is remark- 
able, says Warton, that almost all the professed prose 
writers of this age made experiments in verse. William of 
Malmsbufy died in that abbey in 1143. 1 

MA LONE (Edmond), a gentleman of great literary 
research, and one of the ablest commentators on Shaks- 
peare, was descended from an Irish family of the highest 
antiquity, an account of which may be found in the se- 
venth volume of ArcbdalPs Peerage of Ireland, which, it 
is believed, was drawn up by Mr. Malone himself. All his 
immediate predecessors were distinguished men. His 
grandfather) while only a student at the Temple, was en- 

i Nicolson's Enelish Hist. Library.— Henry's Hist of Gr. Britain, vol. VI. p. 
136 .— Leland. — Bale, and Pits.— Wharton's Aoglia Sacra.— Warton' s History 
of Poetry. 



v * 

trusted with a negotiation in Holland ; and so successfully 
acquitted himself, that be was honoured and rewarded by 
king William for his services. Having been called to the 
Irish bar about 1 700, he became one of the most Eminent 
barristers that have ever appeared in that country. His 
professional fame has only been eclipsed by that of his 
eldest son, the still more celebrated Anthony Malone, who 
as a lawyer, an orator, and an able and upright statesman, 
was confessedly one of the most illustrious men that his 
country has produced. Edmond, the second son of Richard, 
and the father of the late Mr. Malone, was born on the 
16th of April, 170*. He was called to the English bar in 
1730, where he continued for ten years to practise; and, 
in 1740, removed to the Irish bar. After having sat in 
several parliaments, and gone through the usual gradation* 
of professional rank, he was raised, in 1766, to the dig- 
nity of one of the judges of the court of common pleas in 
Ireland, an office which he filled till his death in 1774. 
He married, in 1736, Catherine, only daughter and heir 
of Benjamin Collier, esq. of Ruckholts, in the county of 
Essex, by whom he had four sons, Richard, now lord Sun* 
derlin ; Edmond, the subject of our present memoir ; An- 
thony and Benjamin, who died in their infancy ; and two 
daughters, Henrietta and Catherine. 

Edmond Malone was born at his father's house in Dub- 
lin, on the 4th of October, 1741. He was educated at 
the school of Dr. Ford, in Molesworth-street ; and went 
from thence, in 1756, to the university of Dublin, where 
he took the degree of batchelor of arts. Here his talents 
very early displayed themselves ; and he was distinguished 
by a successful competition for academical honours with 
several young men, who afterwards became the ornaments 
of the Irish senate and bar. It appears that at his outset 
he had laid down to himself those rules of study to which 
he ever afterwards steadily adhered. When sitting down 
to the perusal of any work, either ancient or modern, his 
attention was drawn to its chronology, the history and cha- 
racter of its author, the feelings and prejudices of the times 
in which he lived ; and any other collateral information 
which might tend to illustrate his writings, or acquaint us 
with his probable views, and cast of thinking. In later 
years he was more particularly engrossed by the literature 
of his own country ; but the knowledge he had acquired in 
(lis youth had been too assiduously Collected, and to* 


firmly fixed in his mind, not to retain possession of his 
memory, and preserve that purity and elegance of taste 
which is rarely to be met with but in those who have early 
derived it from the models of classical antiquity. He ap- 
pears frequently at this period, in common with some of 
his accomplished contemporaries, to hate amused himself 
with slight poetical compositions ; and on the marriage of 
their present majesties contributed an ode to the collection 
of congratulatory verses which issued on that event from 
the university of Dublin. In 1763 he became a student in 
the Inner Temple ; and in 1767 was called to the Irish bar, 
and, at his first appearance in the courts, he gave every 
promise of future eminence. But an independent fortune 
having soon after devolved upon him, he felt himself at 
liberty to retire from the bar, and devote his whole atten- 
tion in future to literary pursuits, for which purpose be 
soon after settled in London, and resided there with very 
little intermission for the remainder of his life. Among 
the many eminent men with whom he became early ac- 
quainted, he was naturally drawn by the enthusiastic ad- 
miration which he felt for Shakspeare, and the attention 
which he bad already paid to the elucidation of his works, 
into a particularly intimate intercourse with Mr. Steevenst 
The just views which he himself had formed led him to 
recognize in the system of criticism and illustration which 
that gentleman then adopted, the only means by which a 
correct exhibition of our great poet could be obtained. 
Mr. Steevens was gratified to find {hat one so well ac- 
quainted with the subject entertained that high estimation 
of his labours which Mr. Malone expressed; and very soon 
discovered the advantage he might derive from the com* 
munications of a mind so richly stored. Mr. Malone was 
ready and liberal in imparting his knowledge, which, on 
the other part, was most gratefully received. 

Mr. Steevens having published a second edition' of bis 
Shakspeare, in 177S, Mr. Malone, in 1780, added two 
supplementary volumes, which contained some addi- 
tional notes, Shakspeare's poems, and seven plays which 
have been ascribed to him. There appears up to this 
time to have been no interruption to their friendship ; but* 
on the contrary, Mr. Steevens, having formed a design of 
relinquishing all future editorial labours, most liberally 
made a present to Mr. Malone of bis valuable collection of 
old plays, declaring that he himself was now become " a- 

M A L O N E. 20S 

dowager commentator." It is painful to think that this 
harmony should ever have been disturbed, or that any thing 
should have created any variance between two such men, 
who were so well qualified to co-operate for the benefit of 
the literary world. Mr. Malone,, having continued his re- 
searches into all the topics which might serve to illustrate 
our great dramatist, discovered, that although much had 
been done, yet that much still remained for critical indus- 
try ; and that a still more accurate collation of the early 
copies than had hitherto taken place was necessary towards 
a correct and faithful exhibition of the author's text. His 
materials accumulated so fast, that he determined to ap- 
pear before the world as an editor in form. From that mo- 
ment he seepis to have been regarded with jealousy by the 
elder commentator, who appears to have sought an oppor- 
tunity for a rupture, which be soon afterwards found, or 
rather created. But it is necessary to go back for a mo- 
ment, to point out another of Mr. Malone* s productions. 
There are few events in literary history more extraordinary 
in all its circumstances than the publication of the poems 
attributed to Rowley. Mr. Malone was firmly convinced 
that the whole was a fabrication by Cbatterton ; and, to 
support his opinion, published one of the earliest pam- 
phlets which appeared in the course of this singular con- 
troversy. By exhibiting a series of specimens from early 
English writers, both prior and posterior to the period in 
which this .supposed poet was represented to have lived, he 
proved that his style bore no resemblance to genuine an- 
tiquity; and by stripping Rowley of his antique garb, 
which was easily done by the substitution of modern syno- 
nymous .words in the places of those obsolete expressions 
which are sprinkled throughout these compositions, and al 
the same time intermingling some archaeological phrases in 
the acknowledged productions of Cbatterton, he clearly 
showed that they were all of the same character, and 
equally bore evident marks of modern versification, and a 
modern structure of language. He was followed by Mr. 
Warton and Mr. Tyrwhitt, in his second Appendix ; and 
the controversy was soon at an end. While Mn Malone 
was engaged in his Shakspeare, he received from Mr. 
Steevens a request of a most extraordinary nature* In a 
third edition of Johnson and Steevena's Shakspeare, which 
had been published under, the superintendance of Mr. 
Reed, in 1785, Mr. Malone had contributed some notes 


in which Mr. Steevens' s opinions were occasionally con* 
troverted. These he was now desired to retain in his new 
.edition, exactly as they stood before, in order that Mr. S, 
might answer them. Mr. Malone replied, that he could 
make no such promise ; thatbe must feel himself at liberty 
to correct his observations, where they were erroneous ; 
to enlarge them, where they were defective ; and even to 
expunge them altogether, where, upon further considera- 
tion, he was convinced they were wrong ; in short, he was 
bound to present his work to the public as perfect a& he 
could make it. But he added, that he was willing to trans- 
mit every note of that description in its last state to Mr. 
Steevens, before it went to press ; that he might auswer it 
if he pleased; and that Mr. Malone would even preclude 
himself from the privilege of replying. Mr. Steevens per- 
sisted in requiring that they should appear with all their im- 
perfections on their head ; and on this being refused, de- 
clared that all communication on the subject of Shakspeare 
was at an end between them*. In 1790, Mr. Malone' s 
edition at last appeared ; and was sought after and read 
with the greatest avidity. It is unnecessary to point out 
its merits ; the public opinion upon it has been long pro- 
nounced. It cannot indeed be strictly said that it met 
with universal approbation. Mr. Ritson appeared against 
it in an angry and scurrilous pamphlet, replete with mis- 
representations so gross, and so easy of detection, though 
calculated to mislead a careless reader, that Mr. Malone 
thought it worth his while to point them out in, a letter 
which he published, addressed to his friend Dr. Farmer. 
Poor Ritson, however, has not been the only one who has 
attempted to persuade the world that they have been mis- 
taken in Mr. Malone's character as a critic. Mr. Home 
Tooke in particular, who, whatever were his talents as a 
grammarian, or his knowledge as an Anglo-Saxon, had by 
no means an extensive acquaintance with the literature of 
Shakspeare's age, has mentioned Mr. Malone and Dr. 
Johnson with equal contempt, and immediately after pro- 
ceeds to sneer at Mr. Tyrwhitt. It may readily be sup- 
pqsed that Mr. Malone would not feel very acutely the 
satire which associated hjm with such companions. But, 
to counterbalance these puny hostilities, his work gained 

* These particulars are collected from the correspondence which pissed 
between them, which Mr. Malone preserved. 

M A L O N E. 20? 


the highest testimonies of applause from all who were besl 
qualified to judge upon the subject, and from men whose 
approbation any one would be proud to obtain. Dr. J. 
Warton, in a most friendly letter, which accompanied a cu- 
rious volume of old English poetry which had belonged to 
his brother Thomas, and which he presented to Mr. Ma- 
lone as the person for whom its former possessor felt the 
highest esteem and the most cordial regard, observes to 
him that his edition is by far, very far, the best that had 
ever appeared. Professor Porson, who, as every one who 
knew him can testify, was by no means in the habit of be- 
stowing hasty or thoughtless praise, declared to Mr. Ma* 
lone's biographer, that he considered the Essay on the 
three parts of Henry the Sixth as one of the most convin- 
cing pieces of criticism that he bad ever read ; nor was 
Mr. Burke less liberal in his praises. 

Having concluded his laborious work, Mr. Malone paid 
a visit to his friends in Ireland ; but soon after returned to 
his usual occupations in London. Amidst his own numer- 
ous and pressing avocations be was not inattentive to the 
calls of friendship. In 1791 appeared Mr. BoswelPs Life 
of Dr. Johnson, a work in which Mr. Malone felt at all 
times a very lively interest, and gave every assistance to 
its author during its progress which it was in his power to 
bestow. . His acquaintance with this gentleman commenced 
in 17,85, when, happening accidentally at Mr. Baldwin's 
printing-house to be shewn a sheet of the Tour to the He- 
brides, which contained Johnson's character, he was so 
much struck with the spirit and fidelity of the portrait, 
that, he requested to be introduced to its writer. From 
this period a friendship took place between them, which 
ripened into the strictest and most cordial intimacy, and 
lasted without interruption as long as Mr. Boswell lived. 
After his death, in 1795, Mr. Malone continued to -show 
every mark of affectionate attention towards his family ; 
and in every successive edition of Johnson's Life took 
the most unwearied pains to render it as much as possible 
correct and perfect. He illustrated it with many notes 
of his own, and procured many valuable communica- 
tions from his friends, among whom its readers will readily 
distinguish Mr. Bindley. Any account of Mr. Malone 
would be imperfect which omitted to mention his long in- 
timacy with that gentleman, who. is not so remarkable as 
the possessor of one of the most valuable libraries in this 


country, as he is for the accurate and extensive informa- 
tion which enables him to use it, and the benevolent po- 
liteness with which be is always willing to impart his know- 
ledge to others. There was no one whom Mr. Malone 
more cordially loved. 

In 1795 he was again called forth to display his zeal in 
defence of Shakspeare, against the contemptible fabrica- 
tions with which the Irelands endeavoured to delude the 
public. Although this imposture, unlike the Rowleian 
poems, which were performances of extraordinary genius, 
exhibited about the same proportion of talent as it did of 
honesty, yet some persons of no small name were hastily 
led into a belief of its authenticity. Mr. Malone saw ' 
through the falsehood of the whole from its commence- 
ment; and laid bare the fraud, in a pamphlet, which was 
written in the form of a letter to his friend lord Cbarle- 
inont, a nobleman with whom he lived on the most intimate 
footing, and maintained a constant correspondence. It 
has been thought by some that the labour which he be* 
stowed upon this performance was more than commensurate 
with the importance of the subject ; and it is true that a 
slighter effort would have been sufficient to have over-* 
thrown this wretched fabrication; but we have reason to 
rejoice that Mr. Malone was led into a fuller discussion 
than was bis intention at the outset ; we owe to it a work 
which, for acute ness of reasoning, and the curious and in* 
teresting view which it presents of English literature, will 
retain its value long after the trash which it was designed 
to expose shall have been consigned to oblivion. Mr. Ma- 
lone, in 1792, had the misfortune to lose his admirable 
friend sir Joshua Reynolds, and bis executors, of whom 
Mr. Malone had the honour to be one, having determined 
in 1797 to give the world a complete collection of his 
works, he superintended the publication, and prefixed to 
ip a very pleasing biographical sketch of their author. Al- 
though his attention was still principally directed to Shak- 
speare, and be was gradually accumulating a most valuable 
mass of materials for a new edition of that poet, he found 
time to do justice to another. He drew together, from 
various sources, the prose works of Pryden, which, as 
they had lain scattered about, and some of thorn appended 
to works which were little known, had never impressed 
the general reader with that opinion of their excellence 
which they deserved; and published them in 1800. The 

MALONE. 20* 

narrative which he prefixed is a most important accession 
to biography. By active inquiry, and industrious and 
acute research, he ascertained many particulars of his life 
and character that had been supposed to be irrecoverably 
lost, and detected the falsehood of many a traditionary tale 
that bad been carelessly repeated by former writers. In 
1808 he prepared for the press a few productions of his 
friend, the celebrated William Gerard Hamilton, with 
which he had been entrusted by his executors ; and pre- 
fixed to this also a brief but elegant sketch of his life. In 
1811 his country was deprived of Mr. Windham. Mr. 
Malone, who equally admired and loved him, drew up a 
short memorial of his amiable and illustrious friend, which 
originally appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine; and 
was afterwards, in an enlarged <and corrected state, printed 
in a small pamphlet, and privately distributed. But the 
kind biographer was too soon to want " the generous tear 
he paid." A gradual decay appears to have undermined 
his constitution ; and when he was just on the point of 
going to the press with his new edition of Shakspeare, he 
was interrupted by an illness, which proved fatal ; and, to 
the irreparable loss of all who knew him, he died on the 
25th of May, 1812, in the 70th year of his age. In his 
last illness he was soothed by the tender and unremitting 
attentions of his brother, lord Sunderiin, and his youngest 
sister ; the eldest, from her own weak state of health, was 
debarred from this melancholy consolation. He left no 
directions about his funeral; but his brother, who was 
anxious, with affectionate solicitude, to execute every wish 
he had formed, having inferred from something that dropt 
from him, that it was his desire to be buried among his 
ancestors in Ireland, his remains were conveyed to that 
country, and interred at the family seat of Baronston, in 
the county of Wiestmeath. 

Mr. Malone, in his person, was rather under the middle 
size. The urbanity of his temper, and the kindness of his 
disposition, were depictured in his mild and placid coun- 
tenance. His manners were peculiarly engaging. Accus- 
tomed from his earliest years to the society of those who 
were distinguished for their rank or talent, he was at all 
times and in all companies easy, unembarrassed, and un- 
assuming. It was impossible to meet him, even in the 
most casual intercourse, without recognizing the genuine 

Vol. XXL. P 

210 M A L O N E. 

and unaffected politeness of the gentleman born and bred* 
His conversation was in a high degree entertaining and in- 
structive; his knowledge was various and accurate* and 
his mode of displaying it void of all vanity or pretension. 
Though he had little relish. for noisy convivial merriment, 
his habits were social, and his cheerfulness uniform and 
unclouded. As a scholar, he was liberally communicative. 
Attached, from principle and conviction, to the constitu- 
tion of his country in church and state, which his intimate 
acquaintance with its history taught him how to value, he 
was a loyal subject, a sincere Christian, and a true son of 
the Church of England. His heart was warm, and his 
benevolence active. His charity was prompt, but judicious 
and discriminating ; not carried away by every idle or fic- 
titious tale of distress, but anxious to ascertain the nature 
and source of real calamity, and indefatigable in his efforts 
to relieve it. His purse and his time were at all times 
ready to remove the sufferings, and promote the welfare of 
others, and as a friend he was warm and steady in his at- 
tachments. l 

MALOUIN (Paul James), an eminent French chemist 
and physician, was born at Caen in 1701, and was the son 
of a counsellor, who sent him, when of a proper age, to 
study law at Paris. Young Malouin, however, as soon as 
he arrived there, without ever informing bis father, began 
the study of medicine, and pursued it with such success 
as well as secrecy, that on his return home in 1730, his 
father, whom he had always satisfied in every respect as 
to moral conduct, expenses, &c. and who expected to see 
him return as a licentiate in law, was astonished to find 
him a doctor of medicine, but was obliged at the. same 
time to yield to a choice which indicated so much zeal 
and decision. Nor was this a new profession in the family, 
his uncle and grandfather having both been physicians,. 
After remaining at home about three years, he went again 
to Paris, and assisted Geoffroi in his chemical lectures, 
and would probably have succeeded him had he been on 
the spot when he died; but it was not until 1767 that he 
was appointed in the room of Astruc, who was the imme- 

1 From a " Biographical Memoir of the late Edmond M alone, esq." written 
by James Boswelf, esq, of ihe Middle Temple, originally for the Gentleman'* 
Magazine, but afterwards enlarged and reprinted for private distribution among 
the friends of Mr. Malone. To Mr. Boswell we acknowledge our obligations 
for a copy of this last edition of a vtry interesting and affectionate biographical 
tribute, - - ' 


M A L O U I N. 


diate successor of Geoffiroi. At Paris, where be got into 
practice, it lay much among literary men, whom he found 
generally very incredulous in the virtues of medicine. 
Malouin, who was a perfect enthusiast in his art, had 
many contests with them on this account. When a certain 
great philosopher had been cured by taking Malouin's pre- 
scriptions for a considerable time, and came to acknow- 
ledge the obligation, Malouin embraced him and ex-* 
claimed, " you deserve to be sick." (Vous etes digne d'etre 
maladej. He could not, however, bear those who, after 
being cured, indulged their pleasantries at the expence of 
the faculty, and he broke off his acquaintance with an 
eminent writer, who had been his patient, on this account. 
On another occasion, when one of these wits with whom 
he had had a warm dispute about his favourite art, and 
had quarrelled, fell ill, Malouin sought hinf out, and 
his first address was, " I know you are ill, and, that your 
case has been improperly treated ; I am now come to visit 
you, although I hate you ; but I Will cure you, and after 
that never see your face more,'* and he kept his word in aUL 
these points. This was, however, in him pure enthusiasm, 
without any mixture of quackery. His liberal conduct and 
talents were universally acknowledged, and he filled with 
great reputation the honourable offices of professor of me- 
dicine in the college of Paris, and physician in ordinary to 
the queen. He was also a member of the academy of 
sciences, and of our royal society. His love of medicine 
did not binder him from paying equal attention to preven- 
tatives, and he was distinguished for a habit of strict tem- 
perance, which preserved his health and spirits to the ad- 
vanced age of seventy-seven, without any of its infirmities. 
His death was at last occasioned by a stroke of apoplexy, 
which happened Dec. 31, 1777. He left a legacy to the 
faculty on condition of their assembling once a year, and 
giving an account of their labours and discoveries. His 
principal works were, 1. "Traite* de Chimie," 1734, 12mo. 
2. " Chimie medicinale," 1755, 2 vols. 12 mo, a work in 
a very elegant style, and including many valuable obser- . 
vations. He wrote also several articles in the dictionary 
" Des arts et metiers," published by the academy of 
sciences, and the chemical part of the u Encyclopedic" [ 

1 Eloges d«s Academiciens, ro\* II.— Diet. Hist. 

P 2 


MALPIGHI (Marcellus), an Italian physician and 
anatomist, was born March 10, 162$, at Crevalcuore, near 
Bologna, in Italy, where he was taught Latin and studied 
philosophy. In 1649, losing his parents, and being obliged 
to choose his own method of life, he determined to apply 
himself to physic. The university of Bologna was then 
supplied with very learned professors in that science, par- 
ticularly Bartholomew Massari, and Andrew Mariano, under 
whose instructions Malpighi in a short time made great 
progress in physic and anatomy. 'After he had finished 
the usual course, he wasadmitted doctor of physic, April 6, 
1653. In 1655 Massari died, a loss which Malpighi 
severely felt, as independent of his esteem for him as a 
master, he had become more nearly related to him by mar- 
rying his sifter. In 1656, the senate of Bologna gave him 
a professorship, which he did not long hold ; for the same 
year the grand duke of Tuscany invited him to Pisa, to be 
professor of physic there. Here he contracted a strict 
friendship with Borelli, whom he subsequently owned for 
his master in philosophy, and to whom he ascribed all the 
discoveries which he afterwards made. They dissected 
animals together, and it was in this employment that ha 
found the heart to consist of spiral fibres; a discovery, 
which has been ascribed to Borelli in his posthumous works. 
The air of Pisa not agreeing with Malpighi, he continued 
there but three years: and, in 1659, returned to Bologna 
to resume his former posts, notwithstanding the advan- 
tageous offers which were made him to stay at Pisa. In 
1662 he was sent for to Messina, in order to succeed Peter 
Castello, first professor of physic, who was just dead. It 
was with reluctance that he went thither, though the sti- 
pend was great ; and although he was prevailed on at last 
by his friend Borelli, to accept it; yet in 1666 he returned 
to Bologna. In 1669 he was elected a member of the 
royal society of London, with which he ever after kept a 
correspondence by letters, and communicated his disco- 
veries in anatomy. Cardinal Pignatelli, who had known 
him while he was legate at Bologna, being chosen pope in 
1691, under the name of Innocent XII. immediately sent 
for him to Rome, and appointed him his physician. In 
1694 he was admitted into the academy of the Arcadians 
3t Rome. July the 25th, of the same year, he had a fit, which 
struck half his body with a paralysis ; and, November the 
29th following, he had another, of which he died the same 


M A L P I G H I. 21S 

day, iu bis 67 th y$*r« His remains were embalmed, and 
conveyed to Bologna, where they were interred with great 
funeral honours in the church of St. Gregory, and a statuq 
was erected to bis memory. Malpighi is described as a 
man of a serious au4 melancholy temperament, which is 
confirmed by his portrait in the meeting-room of the royal 
society at Somerset-hovise. He was indefatigable in the 
pursuit of knowledge, on the sure ground of experience 
and observation, ever candid in his acknowledgments tp 
those who bad given him any information, and devoid of. 
all ostentation or pretension on the score of his own merits. 
He ranks very high amoqg the philosophers of the physio- 
logical age in which he lived, when nature began to be 
studied instead of books, and the dreams of the schools. 
Hence arose the discoveries of the circulation of the blood, 
the absorbent system of the animal body, and the true 
theory of generation. To spch improvements the investi- 
gations of Malpighi, relative to the anatomy and trans- 
formation of insects, particularly the silk- worm, and the 
developetnent of the chick in the egg, lent no small aid. 
From these inquiries he wps led to the anatomy and physio- 
logy of plants, in which he is altogether an original, as 
well as a very profound, observer* His line of study was 
the sarpe as that of Grew, but these philosophers laboured 
independent of each other, and their frequent coincidence 
evinces the accuracy of both. 

The first work which he published in 1661, and which 
was afterwards frequently reprinted, comprised his micro- 
scopical observations relative to the intimate structure of 
the lungs, and was entitled " Observations Anatomicae de 
Pulmooibus," fol. He published separate tracts concerning 
the brain, the tongue, the external organ of touch, the 
omentum, throat, and the adipose ducts, between the years 
1661 and 1665 ; and subsequently, other tracts, respecting 
the structure of the viscera, the kidneys, spleen, liver, 
membranes of the brain, &c. 

In 1669, when he became a fellow of our royal society, 
his essay " de formatione pulli in ovo" was first printed, in 
London, in quarto, as well as his remarks on the " Bombyx" 
or silk-worm, and " De Glandulis conglobatis," forming his 
three " Dissertationes Epistolicae." His " Anatome Plan- 
terum," addressed to the royal society, accompanied by 
observations on the incubation of the egg, was published 
by that learned body in folio, with »any plates, in 1675 

tU M A L P I G H I. 

and 1 679. His works were republished at London in 1 686, 
making two folio volumes; and more correctly at Amster- 
dam, in 1687, 4to, and a posthumous volume appeared 
here, accompanied with an account of his life, in 1697, of 
which a re-impression was given at Venice, and another at 
Leyden, the ensuing year. Some other dissertations are 
to be found in the " Bibliotheca Anatomica," published by 
Le Clerc and Manget at Geneva in 1685; especially M De 
Cornuum Vegetatione," " DeUtero et Viviparorum Avis;" 
and " Epistol© quaedam circa illam de ovo dissertatio- 
nem." His only medical work, " Consultationum Medi- 
cinalium Centuria prima," was edited by Gaspari, in 
1713, 4to, Patau. He is not, indeed, distinguished as a 
practitioner, but he deserves praise for pointing out the 
mischiefs of blood-letting, in the malignant epidemics 
prevalent in Italy in his time. Aft edition of the whole of 
his works was printed at Venice, in 1733, in folio, by 
Gavinelli. l 

1VJALUS (Stephen Louis), a distinguished mathema- 
tician, philosopher, and military engineer, was born at 
Paris July 23, 1775. His first education was principally 
directed to classical and polite literature, pnd at seventeen 
years of age he composed a tragedy in five acts, called 
" The Death of Cato." These pursuits, however, did not 
prevent him from a study apparently not very compatible, 
that of the mathematics ; for at the above age he passed an 
examination which gained him admittance into the school 
of engineers. After having distinguished himself there by 
his genius for analysis, he was about to leave it in quality 
of officer of military engineers, but was rejected on politi- 
cal grounds, and as this repulse deprived him of all hope 
of promotion there, he repaired to the army in the north, 
where he was incorporated in the 1 5th battalion of Paris, 
and was employed as a common soldier in the fortifications 
of Dunkirk. The officer of engineers, who superintended 
those works, perceiving that Mai us was deserving of a 
better station, represented his merits to the government, 
and he was recalled and sent to the Polytechnic school, 
where he was soon appointed to the analytic course in the 
absence of M. Monge. Being now re-established in his 

1 Life prefixed to his "Opera Postharoa," Lond. 1 697.— Reel's Cyclopaedia, 
t— Fabroni Vitae Italorura, vol. III. — Niceron, vol. IV. — Ward's Gresham Pro- 
fessor*, p. 320.— Thomson's Hist of the Royal Society.— Eloy, Diet. Hist, de fa 


M A L U S, 215 

former rank at the date of his first nomination, he suc- 
ceeded almost immediately to that of captain, and was em- 
ployed at the school at Metz as professor of mathematics. 

It was at this period (1797), that his military career 
commenced, and in the army of the Sambre and Meuse 
be was present at the passage of the Rhine. The same 
year he formed an attachment to the lady who afterwards 
became his wife. She was the daughter of the chancellor 
of the university of Giessen ; but honour and duty pre- 
vented him from then realising bis wishes. He was ob- 
liged to embark for Egypt, and assisted at the battles of 
Chebreis, and of the Pyramid?. He was chosen member 
of the Institute of Cairo, but his life was too active and 
busy to allow him to indulge his taste for , the sciences. 
One only occasion presented itself, of which be knew how 
to take advantage. In a reconnoitre on which he was or- 
dered along, with M. Lef£vre, engineer of bridges and 
causeways, he had the satisfaction to discover £ branch of 
the Nile, hitherto unknown to travellers, and to draw a 
description and map of a country wh/ere no Frenchman had 
penetrated since the crusades; and the memoir which he 
wrote on this subject forms part of the first volume of " La, 
Decade Egyptienne." But it was as a military engineer 
that he principally distinguished himself during this me? 
morable expedition, particularly during the dangers of all 
kinds which attended him in Syria, and at the siege of 
Ei-Harisch, and Jaffa, where he filled the office of en- 
gineer* After the capture of this town, he received or- 
ders to repair the fortifications, and to establish military 
hospitals- Here he was attacked by the plague, of which 
he had the good fortune to cure himself without any fo- 
reign assistance. Scarcely recovered, he hastened to Da- 
mietta on business, and from thence marched against the 
Turks who had landed at Lisbech ; and was present at the 
battle of Heliopolis and Coraim, and at the siege of Cairo. 
After other movements, which will be found in the history 
of that expedition, he embarked at Aboukir, and arrived 
in France in Oct. 1801. 

; Although exhausted by so many fatigues, and by the 
dreadftj diseases which had undermined his constitution, 
he did not neglect his promise to his mistress, but married 
her soon after his arrival, and their union, though short, 
was happy. About the time of his marriage, Mai us gained 
new celebrity by a work in which he treated all the opti-i 

216 M A L U S. 

cal questions which depend on geometry, and in which he 
expounded and calculated all the phenomena of reflection 
and refraction, and followed the ray of light through all its 
various courses. This production called the attention of 
the learned to the phenomenon of double refraction^ which 
had occupied Huygens and Newton ; atod hopes were en- 
tertained of obtaining an explanation of a fact which had 
defied the penetration of the greatest geniuses. The In- 
stitute of France made it the subject of a prize, which 
Malus gained, and shewed that to the analytical knowledge 
of which he bad given proofs in his first work, he coukl 
unite the patience, the skill, and the sagacity, which con-* 
stitute a great philosopher* By very nice experiments he 
discovered a remarkable and totally unknown property of 
light, that is, the resemblance between the loadstone and 
a particle of light, the latter of which he found to acquire 
polarity and a determined direction. This success opened 
the doors of the Institute to him, where be supplied the 
place of a philosopher whose name had been immortalized 
by a brilliant discovery (Montgolfier). 

Malus was a member of the legion of honour, and under 
director of the fortifications at Antwerp in 1 804 ; under- 
director of the barracks in the department of the 'Seine, in 
1809 ; member of the committee of fortifications, and ma- 
jor of engineers, in 1810. In 1811 he was second in com- 
mand, director of the studies of the Polytechnic school, in 
which he performed for several years, to the satisfaction of 
the directors and pupils, the arduous duties of examiner. 
These various occupations did not prevent him from conti- 
nuing the ingenious experiments on which his fame was to 
be chiefly founded, and which procured him the Copley 
medal from our royal society. 

The activity of Malus was equal to so many different 
pursuits. Though he carried in his habit the seeds of that 
severe illness which was so soon to terminate his life, 
scarcely a week elapsed without his submitting to the Insti- 
tute new fruits of his researches -, and his name being at- 
tached to the phenomenon of polarised light, which he 
discovered, all future discoveries of this kind must recall 
the remembrance of the philosopher who first opened this 
hew road, and who, if he had lived, would have probably 
completed the theory of light. He died February 24th, 
1812, in the thirty-seventh year of his age, a loss which 
cannot be sufficiently deplored, as his learning, his genius, 


and indefatigable industry, afforded every hope that 
length of years would have added to his discoveries, and 
extended the boundaries of science. His discovery of the 
polarisation of light by oblique reflection is perhaps the 
most important that optics has received since the discovery 
of the achromatic telescope. 1 

MALVENDA (Thomas), a learned Dominican, born 
hi 1566, at Xativa, taught philosophy and divinity with 
great reputation in his order. Baronius, hearing of his 
abilities, persuaded his general to send for him to Rome, 
that he might have the benefit of his advice. Malvenda 
accordingly gbve Baronius great assistance, and was em- 
ployed, at the same time, to correct all the ecclesiastical 
books of his order, which he did with much accuracy. He 
died May 7, 1628, at Valencia in Spain, aged sixty-three. 
His most esteemed works are, a treatise " De Anti-Christo," 
the best edition of which is that of Valencia, 1621, folio ; 
*' A new Version of the Hebrew Text of the Bible, with 
Notes," Lyons, 1650, 5 vols, folio; "Annales Ordinis 
Praedicatorum," Naples, 1627, folio.* 

MALVEZZI (Virgil), commonly called the marquis 
Malvezzi, an Italian writer of eminence, was bom of a 
noble family at Bologna, in 1599. After having finished 
his classical and philosophical studies, he applied to the 
law, and became a doctor in that faculty in 1616, although 
not quite seventeen years of age. After this he cultivated 
other sciences, and spent some time and pains upon phy- 
sic, mathematics, and divinity. He even did not neglect 
astrology ; in favour of which he always entertained high 
prejudices, although he affected- outwardly to despise it. 
Music and painting were also among the arts in which he 
exercised himself for his amusement. He afterwards be- 
came a soldier, and served under the duke Feria, governor 
of the Milanese. Philip the Fourth of Spain employed 
him in several affairs, and admitted him into his council 
of war. Letters, however, occupied a good part of his 
time, -and he was membqjr of the academy of the G^lati at 
Bologna. He was the author of several works in Spanish 
and Italian : among the latter were, i6 Discourses upon 
the first book of Tacitus's Annals," which he composed at 
the age of twenty-three, and dedicated to Ferdinand II. 

1 Notice historique par M. le Chevalier Delambre, read at the Institute of 
France, Jan. 3, 1814 ', and obligingly communicated by Dr. Kelly of Fiusbury- 
Square. 2 Dupiu.— -Moreri. 



* &r*~ 

M A N A R A. M\ 

as presents to his friends ; but in poetry be reached the 
highest degree of merit, and seemed to have well availed 
himself of those favourable circumstances which the spirit 
of the age had introduced. The abb£ Frugoni was then 
ene of the most conspicuous leaders of the new poetical 
band ; and having fixed his residence at Parma, he natu- 
rally became, in that small metropolis, the head of a school, 
in which, by exploding the' frequent antitheses, the infla- 
tion of style, the wantonness of conceits, and the gigantic 
strains of imagination, he introduced an easy, regular, 
descriptive, vsentimental, and elegant poesy, and what was 
more remarkable, gave to blank verse a strength and har- 
mony till then unknown. Mr. Manara, although a pro- 
fessed admirer of Frugoni and his disciples, did not choose 
to be of their number as far as regarded their enthusiasm, 
imagery, rapidity of thoughts, and luxury of versification. 
He was conscious that his own poetical fire was like his 
temper, endowed with gentleness and sensibility ; and with 
this spirit wrote those elegant eclogues, which soon proved 
rivals to the pastoral songs of the celebrated Pompei ; and 
in the opinion of the best judges, united the flowing style 
of Virgil with the graces of Anacrfcon. His sonnets, too, 
though not numerous, might be put in competition with 
those of Petrarch. 

During his retreat also, he wrote his very excellent trans- 
lation of the Bucolics of Virgil, which was thought to dis- 
play taste, elocution, harmony, and such an happy sub- 
stitution of the Italian for the Latin graces, as to give it 
the double appearance of a faithful translation and an ori- 
ginal composition. It rapidly went through several editions, 
and raised the name of the author to the firtt rank among 
his contemporaries in the art of poetry. 

In 1749, and the thirty- fifth year of his age, Manara 
was called to town by his sovereign, and the place to which 
he was appointed, the first he bad filled at court, was ad- 
mirably adapted to his temper. No sooner had the high- 
Spirited Infant Don Philip become the pacific possessor of 
that principality, than he thought of reviving the languid 
progress of scientific and literary pursuits ; and instituted 
that famous academy of arts, which,, except those of Rome 
and Bologna, was soofi accounted the best in Italy. He 
bitaself was appointed academician and counsellor, invested 
with a vote; and he greatly distinguished himself, as might 
be expected, in the sessions -of the society, and in the 

S29 M A N A R A« 

annual speeches on the solemn distribution of its premiums 
The first minister of state, marquis of Felin, a man of 
great discernment and sagacity, was not long in perceiving 
that Manara, by his uncommon abilities, was entitled to 
higher honours and employments at court. Accordingly, 
in 1760 be appointed him a chamberlain of the royal house, 
and soon after, superintendant of the newly-projected high 
road, through that lofty branch of the Apennines which 
connects the Ligurian with the Parmesan dominions ; and 
from that time be was gradually promoted to more con- 
spicuous and important places. He succeeded the abb6 
de Condillac in the education of the young Infant (bis late 
royal highness) Ferdinand, and acquitted himself of this 
task to the complete satisfaction of his friends and coun- 
trymen. The amiable prince himself was so duly sensible 
of his services in this respect that he rewarded him with 
ah extraordinary pension for life, and with the eminent 
dignity of first chamberlain of his royal family. 

From 1767 to 1781 his farther advancements were so 
rapid, that, we can only slightly glance at them. The ce- 
lebrated Theatin Paciaudi being directed to new model the 
university of Parma, he established it on the same plan as 
that of Turin : he invested a committee of secular clergy* 
men with the power of directing all moral and religious 
concerns in it, and another committee of lay noblemen, 
under the name of magistracy of reform, with that of su- 
perintending all its temporal and economical transactions. 
Manara was appointed one of these magistrates, with the 
additional prerogative of being the exclusive director of 
that branch of the establishment which was called the 
royal college of noblemen, and in this double capacity he 
answered the most sanguine expectations. In 1771 he 
was appointed counsellor of state to his royal highness, 
and in 1773 was sent ambassador to the court of Turin, for 
the purpose of felicitating his late Sardinian majesty on 
his accession to the crown. 

It reflects no small honour on him, that during these 
numerous occupations in the court and in the state, from 
1749 to 1773, he wrote his masterly translation of the 
Georgics of his favourite Latin poet. The great success 
of bis former essays on the Bucolics, inspired him with the 
design of some farther similar exertions of his powers ; but 
he had no sooner written the first two books, than he was 
trusted with a charge utterly incompatible with his literary 

M A N A R A. MS 

avocations, as it deprived him of any tolerable degree of 
leisure; being in 1779 appointed tutor to the infant here- 
ditary prince, don Luigi, the late king of Etruria. He 
was not, however, suffered to remain long in this employ* 
meat, being before the expiration of three years, appointed 
minister of state, to which he acceded with great reluc- 
tance, and at length bis age being too much advanced to 
suffer him to continue, he solicited, and obtained from bis 
sovereign permission to retire. His retreat was attended 
by the warmest mark of good- will from the court, by all 
the honours suitable to his station, and by an additional 

Soon after his retreat from the ministry, v though he had 
already reached the sixty-ninth year of his age, he thought 
of bestowing his now uninterrupted leisure on the transla- 
tion of the other two books of the Georgics, a performance 
for which, owing to his past occupations, no hopes perhaps 
were entertained by the public. This task he actually 
performed with so much care, attention, and zeal, that 
these last two books were decidedly better translated than 
the two former ; a truth of which the respectable writer 
himself was so convinced, that he carefully, revised, and 
almost totally altered the preceding part of his work. This 
uncommon zeal, however, was attended by a fatal conse- 
quence; for being determined to copy, as he did, the 
whole manuscript with his own hand, he fell into a giddi- 
ness which prevented him from any literary labour during 
the last days of his life, and scarcely left him the power of 
perusing historical books and periodical works for the sake 
.of amusement. 

Although Manara never wrote any large work in prose, 
his letters to his friends and relatives were considered as a 
model of epistolary style. He must have kept up indeed 
a large correspondence with his poetical contemporaries of 
Italy, as it was his custom to shew his compositions previous 
to publication, to the most intelligent persons, and to 
listen with docility to their respective opinions. Canonici, 
Mazza, Pagnini, and many others were of the number. 
To the last mentioned poet, already celebrated as the 
translator of Theocritus and Anacreon, he was indebted 
for some valuable hints when about to publish his transla- 
tion of the Georgics. The marquis Prosper Manara died 
Oct. 13, 1800. All his poetical works, with his life by 
Mr. Cerati, (from which the preceding account is abridged) 

12* MANBY. 

were published in the following year* 1801, in 4 elegant 
little volumes, by the celebrated Bodoni. 1 
. MANBY (Peter), a Roman catholic writer, was the son 
of lieutenant-colonel Manby, and after being educated at 
the university of Dublin, became chaplain to Dr. Michael 
Boyle, archbishop of Dublin, and at length dean of Derry. 
During the reign of James II. in 1686, being disappointed 
of a bishopric, which he had hopes of obtaining by means 
of the lord primate, he attempted to rise by popish interest, 
and publicly embraced that religion, in vindication of 
which he wrote several books. But the revolution pre- 
venting the accomplishment of his wishes, he removed to 
France, and thence to England, and died at London in 
1697. He wrote " A Letter to a Nonconformist minister," 
Lond. 1677, 4to. 2. " A brief and practical Discourse on 
Abstinence in Lent," Dublin, 1682, 4to. 3. " Of Con- 
fession to a lawful Priest/' &c. Lond. 1686, 4to. 4. "The 
Considerations which obliged Peter Manby, Dean of Derry, 
to embrace the Catholic religion. Dedicated to the Lord 
Primate of Ireland," Dublin, 1687. This was ably an- 
swered by Mr. William King, afterwards archbishop of 
Dublin, and by. Dr. Clagett in England. Manby replied 
to Mr. King, in "A reformed Catechism in two Dialogues," 
the first only of which appeared in 1687, and was answered 
Jby King.* 

MANCINELLI (Antonio), an Italian grammarian, poet, 
and orator, was born atVelitri, in 1452. He taught clas- 
sical learning in different parts of Italy with considerable 
( success. He published in 1492 a poem ^entitled " Silva 
vitae suae," or an account of his own life, which Meusche- 
nius reprinted, in 1735, in the first volume of his collection, 
entitled " Vitae summorum dignitate et eruditione viro- 
rum." He was distinguished also by some other poems, 
as "de Floribus, de Figuris, de Poetica virtute." 2. " Epi- 
grams," published at Venice in 1 500, in 4to. 3. Notes upon 
some of the classic authors. He died some time after 
1506 ; but the story of his having his hands cut off, and 
his tongue cut out, by order of the pope Alexander VI. 
for having made -an insolent speech to him, and which was 
related by Flaccius Illyricus, appears to be without foun- 
dation. 3 

1 Baldwin's Literary Journal, vol. II. * Harris's, edition of Ware. 

3 Moreri.— Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vol. XXXVLH. 


MANDEVILE (Sir John), a celebrated English tra* 
veller, was born at St. A 1 ban's, in the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, of a family whose ancestor is said to 
have come into England with William the Conqueror* 
Leland, who calls this knight Magdovillanusy affirms that 
he was a proficient in theology, natural philosophy, and 
physic, before he left England, in 1322, to visit foreign 
countries. He returned, after having been long reputed 
dead, at the end of thirty-four years, when very few 
people knew him ; and went afterwards to Liege, where 
it seems he passed under the name of Joannes de Barbant, 
and where he died, according to Vossius, who has recorded 
the inscription on his tomb, Nov. 17, 1372. His design 
seems to have been to commit to writing whatever he had 
read, or heard, Or knew, concerning the places which he saw, 
or has mentioned in his book. Agreeably to this plan, he 
has described monsters from Pliny, copied miracles from le- 
gends, and related, without quotation, stories from authors 
who are now ranked among writers of romances and apo- 
cryphal history, so that many or most of the falsehoods in 
his work properly belong to antecedent relators, but who 
were certainly considered as creditable authors at the time 
he wrote. 

Sir John Mandevile visited Tartary about half a century 
after Marco Polo, who was there in 1272. In this interval 
a true or fabulous account of that country, collected by a 
cordelier, one Oderic D'Udin, who set out in 1318, and 
returned in 1330, was published in Italian, by Guillaume 
de Salanga, in the second volume of Ramusio, and in 
Latin and English by Hakluyt. It is suspected that sir 
John made too much use of this traveller's papers ; and it 
is certain that the compilers of the " Histoire Generate 
des Voyages" did not think our English knight's book so 
original, or so worthy of credit, as to give any account of 
it in their excellent collection. Sir John indeed honestly 
acknowledges that his book was made partly of hearsay, 
and partly of his own knowledge ; and he prefaces his most 
improbable relations with some such words as these, thei 
seyne, or men seyn 9 but I have not sene it. His book, how- 
ever, was submitted to the examination of the pope's 
council, and it was published after that examination, with 
the approbation of the pope, as Leland thinks, of Urban V, 
Leland also affirms that sir John Mandevile had the repu- 
tation of being a conscientious man, and that he had 

Vol. XXI. Q 

526 MAK BE V ILE. 

religiously declined an honourable alliance to the Sol dan of 
Egypt, whose daughter he might have espoused, if he 
would have abjured Christianity, It is likewise very cer* 
tain that many things in his book, which were looked upon 
ds fabulous for a long time, have been since verified be-* 
yond all doubt. We give up his m$n of 6 fry feet high, 
but his hens that bore wool are at this day very well known, 
under the name of Japan and silky fowls, &c. Upon the 
whole, there does not appear to be any very good reason 
why sir John Mandevile should not be believed in any 
thing that he relates on his own observation. He was* as 
may be easily credited, an extraordinary linguist, and 
wrote his book in Latin, from which he translated it into 
French, and from French into English, and into Italian ; 
and Vossius says that he knows it to be in Belgic and Ger- 
man. The English edition has the title of " The Voiyage 
and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, knight, which treateth 
4>f the. way to Hierusalem, and marvayles of-Iude," &c 
Lond. 1569, 4to, reprinted in 1684, same form, and again iu 
1727, 8vo« AH these are in the British Museum, together 
with, copies of the French, Spanish, Latin, and Italian. 
Of the last there are two editions, printed at Venice in 
1537 and 1567, both in 8vo. The original English MS, 
is in the Cotton library. The English editions are the 
most valuable to us, as written in the very language used 
by our countrymen three hqndred years ago, at a time 
when the orthography of the English language was so little 
fixed, that it seems to have been the fashionable affecta- 
tion of writers, to shew their wit and scholarship by spelling 
the same words in the greatest variety of ways imaginable. 
The reader will be amused by Addison's pretended disco- 
very of sir John Mandevile's MSS. and the pleasant fiction 

vof" the freezing and thawing of several short speeches 
which sir John made in the territories of Nova. Zembla." 
This occurs in the Tatler, No. 254, the note upon which 

, has principally furnished us with the above account 1 

MANDEVILLE (Bernard de), an author of temporary 

. celebrity ia : the last century for his writings, was born 
about 1670, in Holland, where be studied physic, and 
took the degree of doctor in that faculty. He .afterwards 

. came over into . England, and wrote several books, not 

i Tatter, with Annotations, vol. IV. edit, 1806.— Vossius de Hilt, I*U«- 
. Leland.— Bale.— Tanner. 


Without ingenuity, but some of them were justly con- 
sidered as likely to produce a bad effect upon society. In 
1709 he published his " Virgin Unmasked, or A dialogue 
. between an old maiden aunt and her niece, upon love, 
marriage, 1 ' &c. a piece not very likely to increase virtue 
and innocence among his female readers. In 1711 came 
out his " Treatise of the hypocondriac and hysteric pas- 
sions, vulgarly called the hyppo in men, and the vapours 
in women." This work, which is divided into three dia- 
logues, may be read with amusement at least, and contains 
some shrewd remarks on- the art of physic and the modern 
practice of physicians and apothecaries, among whom he 
probably did not enjoy much reputation. In 17 14 he pub- 
lished a poem entitled " The grumbling hive, or knaves 
turned honest;" on which he afterwards wrote remarks, 
and enlarged the whole into bis celebrated publication, 
which was printed at London in 1723, under the title of 
" The Fable of the Bees, or private vices made public be- 
nefits ; with an Essay on charity and charity-schools, and 
a search into the nature of society. 91 In the preface to 
this book he observes, that since the first publication of 
his poem he had met with several, who, either wilfully or 
ignorantly mistaking the design, affirmed that the scope of 
it was a satire upon virtue and morality, and the whole 
written for the encouragement of vice. This made him 
resolve, whenever it should be reprinted, some way. or 
other to inform the reader of the real intent with, which 
that little poem was written. In this, however, be was so 
unfortunate,* that the book was presented by the grand 
jury of Middlesex in July the same year, and severely 
animadverted upon in " A Letter to the Right Honourable 
Lord C." printed in the London Journal of July the 27th, 
1723. The author wrote a vindication of his book from 
the imputations cast upon it in that Letter, and in the pre- 
sentment of the f grand jury, which he published in the 
" London Journal" of August the 10th, 1723. It was at- 
tacked, however, by various writers, to whom Mandeville 
made no reply until 1728, when he published, in another 
8vo volume, a second part of " The Fable of the Bees," in 
order to illustrate the scheme and design of the first. In 
1720, he published " Free thoughts on Religion," built 
upon the system called rational; an arrogant epithet, which 
geperaUy excludes from. the province of reason a belief 
in the truths of revelation. In 1732 he' published " An 

q 2 


inquiry into the origin of honour, and usefulness of 
Christianity in war;" a work which abounds in paradoxi- 
cal ppinions. 

Mandeville died Jan. 21, 1733, in his sixty-third year. 
He is said to have been patronized by the first earl of Mac- 
clesfield, at whose table he was a frequent guest, and had 
an unlimited licence to indulge his wit as w^Jil as his appetite. 
He lived in obscure lodgings, in London, and never had 
much practice as a physician. Besides the writings already 
enumerated, which came spontaneously from his pen, we are 
told by sir John Hawkins that he sometimes employed his 
talents for hire, and in particular wrote letters in the 
" London Journal" in favour of spirituous liquors, for which 
he was paid. by the distillers. Sir John adds, that " he was 
said to be coarse and overbearing in his manners, where 
he durst be so, yet a great flatterer of some vulgar Dutch 
merchants, who allowed him a pension." The principles 
indeed, inculcated in some of his works, although there 
are many ingenious and many just remarks in them, forbid 
us to entertain any very high opinion of his morals ; and 
among all his faults, we do not bear that he ever acted the 
hypocrite, or was ashamed of what he had written. 

The " Fable of the Bees," as we have observed, was 
attacked by Several writers ; particularly by Dr. Fiddes, in 
the preface to his " General treatise of morality formed 
upon the principles of natural religion only," printed in 
1724 ; by Mr. John Dennis, in a piece entitled «" Vice 
and luxury public mischiefs," in 1724; by Mr. William 
Law, in a book entitled " Remarks upon the Fable of the 
Bees," in 1724; by Mr. Bluet, in his " Enquiry, whether 
the general practice of virtue tends to the wealth or po- 
verty, benefit or disadvantage, of a people ? In which the 
pleas offered by the author of The Fable of the Bees, for 
the usefulness of vice and roguery, are considered ; with 
some thoughts concerning a toleration of public stews," in 
1725; by Mr. Hutcheson, author of the " Inquiry into 
the original of our ideas of beauty and virtue, in several 
papers published at Dublin, and reprinted in the first vo- 
lume of Hibernicus's Letters ;" and lastly, by Mr. Archi- 
bald Campbell, in his " Apdntoyto," fi f8t published by Alex- 
ander Innis, D. D. in his own name, but claimed afterwards 
by the true author. Mandeville's notions were likewii 
animadverted upon by Berkeley, bishop of Cloy ne in ~ 


land, in his " Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher/ 9 
printed in 1732; in answer to which Mandeville published , 
the same year, " A Letter to Dion, occasioned by his 
book called Alciphron. 9 ' In this year also a pamphlet ap- 
peared, entitled " Some remarks on the Minute Philoso- 
pher, in a letter from a country clergyman to his friend in 
London ;" the anopymous author of which, supposed to 
have been John lord Harvey, interferes in the controversy 
betweeu Mandeville and Berkeley with an apparent im- 
partiality. It would be very unnecessary now, however, 
to enter minutely into tue merits of a work no longer read. 
The prevailing error in the " Fable of the Bees" appears 
to us to be, that the author did not sufficiently distinguish 
between what existed, and what ought to be ; that while 
he could incontestibly prove " private vices" to be in some 
degree " public benefits," that is, useful to the grandeur 
and financial prosperity of a state, he did not distinguish 
between vices properly so called, and superfluities, or ar- 
ticles of luxury, which are the accompaniments, and the 
useful accompaniments too, of certain ranks of life. As 
to his tracing good actions to bad motives, and the general 
disposition he has to dwell on the unfavourable side of 
appearances in human nature and conduct, no apology can 
be offered, and none can be wanted for the contempt into 
which his writings have fallen. 1 

MANES, MANI, or MANICHMEUS, the founder of a 
remarkable sect of heretics, flourished towards the conclu- 
sion of the third century, and began about the year 267 
to propagate bis doctrines, which he bad taken from the 
books of one Scythianus. Scythianus was an Arabian, 
educated upon the borders of Palestine, and extremely 
well skilled in all the learning of the Greeks. Afterwards 
he went to Alexandria, where he studied philosophy, and 
acquainted himself also with the leaf ning of the Egyptians. 
Here he espoused the opinion of Empedocles, concerning 
two co-eternal principles, one good and the other bad ; 
the former of which he called God and light, the latter 
matter and darkness ; to which he joined many dogmas of 
the Pythagorean school. These he formed into a system, 
comprised in four books ; one of which was called " Evan- 
gelium," another " Capita," a third " Mysteria," and a, 

* Gen. Diet.— Life by Dr. Birth — Biog. Brit. Supplement, vol. VII.— Haw-- 
kias's Life of Johnson.— Lounger's Common-place Book, vol. II. 

230 MANES. 

fourth " Thesauri." After this he went to Jerusaletrt, 
where he disputed with the Jews, and taught openly his 
opinions. Upon the death of Scythianus, his books and 
effects devolved by will to Terebinthus his disciple, who, 
however, soon quitted Palestine, and fled into Persia, 
where, to avoid the persecutions to which his doctrines 
exposed him, he took up his abode with a certain rich 
widow. Here he died, by a sudden and violent death, as 
it is commonly related. When, according to his usual 
way, he had ascended to the top of the house, in order to 
invoke the demons of the air, which custom the Manichees 
afterwards practised in their ceremonies, he was in a mo- 
ment struck with a blow from heaven, which threw him 
headlong down and fractured his skull. St. Epiphanius 
says, that Scythianus had also met with the same fate be* 
fore him. Here, however, it was that Manes became ac« 
quain ted with the writings of Scythianus ; for, having a hand- 
some person and a ready wit, this widow, who had bought 
him, adopted him for her son, and took care to have him 
instructed by the magi in the discipline and philosophy of 
the Persians, in which he made so considerable a progress 
that he acquired the reputation of a very subtile and learned 
philosopher. When this lady died, the writings of Tere-, 
binthus, to whom she had been heir, or rather of Scythianus, 
from whom Terebinthus had received them, fell of CQurse 
into the hands of Manes. 

Manes now began to think of founding his system. He 
made what use he could of the writings of Scythianus ; he 
selected from the heathen philosophy whatever was for his 
purpose, and he wrought it all up together with some in- 
stitutes of Christianity ; which made Socrates call his he- 
resy a motley mixture of Christianity and Paganism. Al- 
though Manes wrote a great many pieces himself, we have 
nothing remaining, except a few fragments preserved in 
the writings of Epiphanius. Manes became famous all 
over Persia, engaged the attention of the court, and as he 
pretended to the gift of working miracles, he was called 
by king Sapor to cure his son, who was dangerously ill, 
This he undertook at the hazard of his life, and the under- 
taking in the end proved fatal to him. This bold impostor 
was no sooner called than he dismissed all the physicians 
who were about the young prince; and promised the king 
that he would recover him presently by the help of a fety 
medicines, accompanied with his prayers : but the chiU 

MANES. 231 : 

4ying in his arms, the king, enraged to .the last degree, -. 
caused him to be thrown into prison ; whence by the force z 
of bribes he made his escape, and fled into Mesopotamia. - 
There he was taken again by persons sent in quest of him, ) 
and carried to Sapor, who caused him to be flead alive, ^ 
and after that his body to be given to the dogs, and bis * 
skin to be stuffed with chaff, and hung before the city 
gates, where, Epiphanius tells us, it was remaining torf 
his time. His death is supposed to have happened about 4 
the year 2 7 8. „ 

Manicheism, as we have seen, is a great deal older than.; 
Manes. The Gnostics, the Cordonians, the Marcionites, f 
and several other sectaries, who introduced this doctrine > 
into Christianity before Manes occasioned any contest: f 
about it, were by no means its inventors, but found it iris 
the books of the heathen philosophers. In truth, th$i 
Manicheau doctrine was a system of philosophy rather thatvf 
of religion. They made use of amulets, in imitation <rft 
the Basilidians ; and are said to have made profession q£ t 
astronomy^and astrology. They denied that Jesus Christy 
who was only God, assumed a true human body, and mairvr^ 
tained it was only imaginary ; and, therefore, they denied!) 
his incarnation, death, &c. They pretended that the law-> 
of Moses did not come from God, or the good principle,^ 
but from the evil one ; and that for this reason it was abro^, 
gated, They rejected almost all the sacred books, if*, 
which Christians look for the sublime truths of their hojjh 
religion. They affirmed that the Old Testament was not* 
the work of God, but of the prince of darkness, who was* 
substituted by the Jews in the place of the. true God. ThpyT 
abstained entirely from eating the flesh of any anima)j< 
following herein the doctrine of the ancient Pythagoreans,^ 
they also condemned marriage. The rest of their error*; 
may be seen in St. Epiphanius and St. Augustin; which* 
last, having been of their sect, may be presumed, to h^ye; 
been thoroughly acquainted with them. 

Though the Manichees professed to receive the books, of ^ 
the New Testament, yet, in effect, they only took so mqchj 
of them as suited with their own opinions. They first, 
formed to themselves a certain idea or scheme of Chris- 
t&ruty* and to this adjusted the writings of the apostles y 
pretending that whatever was inconsistent with this, badt 
been foisted into the New Testament by later writers, who 
were half Jews. On the other hand, they made fables and 

23* MANES. 

apocryphal bobks pass for apostolical writings ; and even 
are Suspected to have forged several others, the better to 
maintain their errors. St. Epiphanius gives a catalogue 
of several pieces published by Manes, and adds extracts out 
of some of them. These are the Mysteries, Chapters, Gos- 
pel, and Treasury. 

The rule of life andtnanners which Manes prescribed to 
his followers, was most extravagantly rigorous and severe. 
However, he divided his disciples into two classes; one of 
which comprehended the perfect Christians, under the 
name of the elect ; and the other, the imperfect and feeble, 
under the title of auditors or hearers. The elect- were 
obliged to a rigorous and entire abstinence from flesh, eggs, 
milk, fish, wine, all intoxicating drink, wedlock, and all 
amorous gratifications ; and to live in a state of the severest 
penury, nourishing their emaciated bodies with bread, 
herbs, pulse, and melons, and depriving themselves of &1I 
the comforts that arise from the moderate indulgence of 
natural passions, and also from a variety of innocent and 
agreeable pursuits. The auditors were allowed to possess 
-Rouses, lands, and wealth, to feed on flesh, to enter into 
the bonds of conjugal tenderness ; but this liberty was 
granted thdm with many limitations, and under the strictest 
conditions of moderation and temperance. The general 
assembly of the Manicheans was headed by a president, 
who represented Jesus Christ. There was joined to him 
twelve rulers or masters, who were designed to represent 
the twelve apostles, and these were followed by seventy- 
two bishops, the images of the seventy-two disciples of our 
Lord. These bishops had presbyters or deacons under 
them, and all the members of these religious orders were 
chosen out of the class of the elect. Their worship 
was simple and plain ; and consisted of prayers, reading 
the scriptures, and hearing public discourses, at which 
both the auditors and elect were allowed to be present. 
They also observed the Christian appointments of baptism 
of infants and the eucharist, communicating frequently in 
both kinds. They kept the Lord's day, observing it as a 
fast ; and they likewise kept Easter and Pentecost. \ 

MANETHOS was an ancient Egyptian historian, who 
pretends to take all his accounts from the sacred inscrip* 
tions on the pillars of Hermes Trismegistus, to whom the 

i Geo. Diet.— Cave. — D'Herbelot^-Ltidner. — Motheim. 


Egyptians ascribed tbe 6rst invention of their learning, and 
all excellent arts, and from whom they derived their his- 
tory. Manethos, as Eusebius tells us, translated the whole 
Egyptian history into Greek, beginning from their gods, 
and continuing his history down to near the time of Darius 
Codomannus, whom Alexander conquered ; for in Euse* 
bius's " Chronica,' 9 mention is made of Manethos' s history, 
ending in the sixteenth year of Artaxerxe9 Ochus, which, 
says Vossius, was in the second year of the third olympiad* 
Manethos, called from his country Sebennyta, was high-* 
priest of Heliopolis in tbe time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
at whose request he wrote his history, and digested it into 
three tomes ; the first containing the eleven dynasties of 
tbe >*ods and heroes, the second eight dynasties, tbe third 
twelve, and altogether, aecording to his fabulous compu- 
tation, the sum of .53,535 years. These dynasties are yet 
preserved, being first epitomized by Julius African us, from 
him transcribed by Eusebius, and inserted iu his " Chro- 
nica ;" from Eusebius by Georgius Syncellus, out of whom 
they are produced by Joseph Scaliger, and may be seen 
both in his Eusebius and his " Canones Isagogici." Ma* 
nethos, as appears by Eusebius, vouches this as the priti* 
cipal testimony of the credibility of his history, that he 
took bis relations " from some pillars in the land of Seriad, 
on which they were inscribed in the sacred dialect by the 
first Mercury Thotb, and after the flood were translated out 
of the sacred dialect into the Greek tongue in hieroglyphic 
characters, and are laid up in books among the reveries 
of the Egyptian temples by Agathodemon, the second 
Mercury, die father of Tat" " Certainly," says bishop 
Stillingfleet, in his " Origines Sacra," " this fabulous au- 
thor could not in fewer words have more manifested his 
own impostures, or blasted bis own credit, than he hath 
4ene in these." i 

MANETTI (Giannozzo, or Janutibb), a very learned 
scholar, was born at Florence, June 5, 1396, of an illus- 
trious family that had fallen into decay. After a course of 
philosophical, theological and mathematical studies, he 
became, in the Greek language, the pupil of Camaldoli, 
who then taught that lariguage at Florence, and not of 
Chrysoloras, as Vossius, and Hody, if we mistake not, 
have reported. Manetti then lectured on philosophy in 

* Vossius Hist. Graec— StilliDgfleet't Origines Saorst , book I. o. II. §• 2.-« 
Moreri.— ' Saxii Ooomast, 

M4 MA N E T T I. 

that city to a numerous auditory. He was afterwards em* 
ployed by the state in various negociations ; and became 
successively governor of Pescia, Pistoria, and Scarperia, 
and commissary of the army along with Bernardetto de 
Medicis. He filled also several offices in the government 
of Florence, and rendered his own country many im- 
portant services. When at Rome in 1452, at the corona- 
tion of the emperor Frederick, pope Nicholas V. bestowed 
on him the honour of knighthood. His talents and services, 
however, excited the envy of some of the families of Flo- 
rence, and even the favour he acquired with the princes 
at whose courts he had been employed as ambassador, was 
considered as a crime ; and a heavy fine being imposed on 
him, he found it necessary to leave his country, and take 
refuge in Rotae, where pope Nicholas V. made him one of 
his secretaries, with a handsome salary, besides the per- 
quisites of his place. He remained in the same office 
under the succeeding popes Calixtus HI. and Pius II. 
which last made him librarian of the Vatican. Manetti at 
length left Rome to reside with Alphonsus, king of Naples, 
who had a great esteem for him, and gave him an annuity 
4>f. 900 golden crowns. He did not, however, enjoy this 
-situation long,; dying Oct. 26, 1459, in his sixty- third year. 
He was an excellent scholar in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, 
which at that time was little known in Italy, and employed 
twenty- two years on those languages. He kept three 
domestics, two of whom were Greeks, and the third a 
Syrian, who knew Hebrew, and whom he ordered : always 
to. speak to him in their respective languages. He was the 
.author of a great many works, most of which remain in 
.manuscript in the Laurentian Library. Those published 
were, 1. " De dignitate et exceilentia hominis," Basle, 
1532, 8vo. 2. " Vita Petrarch®." This life of Petrarch 
is inserted in Tomtiiasini's " Petrarcha redivivus." 3w 
" Oratio ad regem Alphonsum in nuptiis filii sui." This, 
which was spoken in 1445, was printed by Marquard Freher, 
in 1611, 4to, along with three other orations, addressed to 
Alphonsus on the peace, to the emperor Frederic on his 
coronation, and to pope Nicholas V. Other ujorks have 
been attributed to him, as a " History of Pistoria," and 
the lives of Dante, Boccacio, and .Nicholas V.; but we find 
no particular account of them. ' 

> Cfraufepie,— £Iiceron, vol. XXXVI.—Tiraboschv > 

M A N F R E D I. 235 

MANFREDI (Eustachio), a celebrated astronomer and* 
mathematician, was born at Bologna in 1674, and soon 
displayed a genius above his age. He wrote ingenious 
verses while he was but a child, and while very young 
formed in his father's house an academy of youth of his 
own age, which in time became the Academy of Sciences, 
or the Institute, there. He was appointed professor of ma- 
thematics at Bologna in 1693, and superintendant of the 
waters there in 1704. The same year he was placed at the 
head of the college of Montaho, founded at Bologna for 
young men intended for the church. In 171 1 he obtained 
the office of astronomer to the institute of Bologna. He 
became member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris in 
1726, arid of the Royal Society of London in 1729; and 
died on the 15th of February 1739. His works are: 
1. "Ephemerides Motuum Coelestium ab anno 1715 ad 
annum 1750;" 4 vols. 4to. The first volume is an excel- 
lent introduction to astronomy ; and the other three con- 
tain numerous calculations. His two sisters were greatly 
assisting to him in composing this work. 2. " De Transitu 
Mercurii per Solem, anno 1723," Bologna, 1724, 4to. 
S. "Deannuk Inerrantium Stellarum aberrationibus," Bo* 
logna, 1729, in 4to; besides a number of papers in the 
Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences, and in other places, 
which are enumerated by Fabroni. The best edition of his 
Poems, which are still in repute, is that by Bodoni, in 1793, 
8vo, with a life of the author. l 

MANFREDI (Gabriel), brother to the preceding, was 
born at Bologna, March 25, 1681, and having devoted 
himself to mathematical studies acquired the reputation of 
the best algebraist in Italy. At the age of twenty he com* 
posed a work on the equations of the first degree, which 
obtained the praises of the learned world. In. 1708, the 
senate of Bologna appointed him one of their secretaries ; 
and in 1720 he was made professor of mathematics in the 
university of that city, of which, in 1726, he became 
chancellor. He was much employed in hydrostatic* la- 
bours, and with great success : nor did he shew less skill 
in the science of geography. He died in 176 1. He pub- 
lished " De oonstructione aequationum differentfialium pri- 
ori gradus," Bonon. 1 707. This procured him a letter of 
congratulation from the celebrated Leibnitz. His other 

1 Fabroni Vit« Italorum, vol, V.— • Moreri.— Hutton'f Diet. 


works are principally among the memoirs of the institute of 
Bologna. * 

MANGEART {Thomas), called, like other Benedic- 
tines, Dom Thomas, did considerable honour to his order 
by the extent of his learning, which obtained him the placet 
of antiquary, librarian, and counsellor to Charles duke of 
Lorraine. He died in 1763, when he was preparing a 
work, which was published in the course of the same year, 
by the abb6 Jacquin. The title is, " Introduction i la 
science des Medailles pour servir a la connoissance des 
Dieux, et de la Religion, des Sciences, des Arts, et do 
tout ce qui appartient a PHistoire ancienne, avec lea 
preuves tir£s des Medailles,' 1 folio. Mangeart is here said 
to hare comprised, in a single volume, the elementary 
knowledge of medals which had before been treated but 
too slightly ; and the most valuable information which is 
scattered through many prolix dissertations on particular 
parts of the subject. Mr. Pinkerton, however, pronounces 
it to be a dry compilation concerning antiquities found on 
medals, in which the author shews no knowledge of the 
medals themselves. It is a kind of supplement to Mont* 
faucdn's antiquities, Mangeart published also, 2. Eight 
sermons, with a treatise on Purgatory, at Nancy, 1739, in 
2 vols. 12 mo. * 

MAN GET (John-James), a learned physician and la- 
borious historian of that science, was born June 19, 1652, 
at Geneva, where his father was an eminent merchant. His 
father's brother, author of a work 6n fevers, was physician 
to the king of Poland. Manget, having finished his clas- 
sical studies at the age of fourteen, bestowed two years on 
philosophy, and then studied theology for five years, when, 
changing his destination, he entered on a course of medi- 
cal reading (for he says he had no teacher but bis books), 
and made such proficiency, that in 1678, he received his 
doctor's degree at Valence, along with the celebrated 
Hartman. On his return home he entered upon practice, 
to which he joined the laborious perusal of many medical 
works, which served as the foundation of his own publi- 
cations. In 1699, the elector of Brandenburgh appointed 
him, by letters patent, his first physician, and the kings 
of Prussia continued this title to him during his life. He 
was dean of the faculty at Geneva at the time of his death, 

» Fabroni, Vol. V. 

* Diet. Hilt— Piokerton's Essay oa Medals, Pref. p.ix. 

MAN«ET. 23T 

Aug. 15, 1742, in the ninetieth year of bis age. His works 
are: l."Messii,Medico-8pagyrica, &c." Geneva, 1683, folio, 
which contains a most abundant collection of pharmaceu- 
tical preparations, arranged in a very complex order. 2. In 
the same year he edited, " Pauli Barbetti Opera omnia 
Medica et Chirurgica," with additional cases and illustra- 
tions. 3. " Bibliotbeca Anatoroica," 1685, two vols, folio ; 
a work which was executed in conjunction with Daniel le 
Clerc. He afterwards edited, 4. The " Compendium 
Medicinse Practicum," of J. And. Schmitz. 5. The 
" Phprmcopeia Schrodero-Hoffmanniana." 6. The "Trac- 
tates de Febribus," of Franc. Pieus ; and, 7. The " Se- 
phlchretum" of Bonetus, to which be added several re- 
marks and histories* 8. In 1695, he published his " Bib* 
liotheca Medico-Practica," four vqls- folio; a vast col- 
lection of practical matter relative to all the diseases -of the 
human body, arranged in alphabetical order. 9. " Bib- 
liotbeca Chemica curiosa," 1702, two vols, folio. 10. Bib- 
liotbeca Pharmaceutico-Medica," 1703, two vols, folio; 
and, 11. n Bibliotheca Chirurgica," 1721, four vols,, in 
two, folio. 19. " Theatrmn Anatomicum, cum Eustachii 
Tabulis Anatomicis," 1716, two vols, folio, a description 
of all the parts of the body, abridged from various authors. 
On the appearance of the plague at Marseilles, he pub- 
lished a collection of facts and opinions on that disease, 
under the title of " Trait6 de la Peste recueilli des meil- 
leurs Auteurs," 1731, two vols. 12mo; and in the follow- 
ing year, 14. " Nouvelles Reflexions sur l'Origine, la 
Cause, la Propagation, les Preservatifs, et la Cure de la 
Peste," 12 mo. 15. His " Observations sur la Maladie qui 
a coirtmencl depuis quelques amines a attaquer le gros 
Betail," was a collection of the opinions of the Genevese 
physicians concerning the distemper of horned cattle. The 
last work of Man get was his " Bibliotheca Scriptorum Me- 
dicorum veterum et recentiorum," at which he laboured 
when at least eighty years of age, and published it in 1731, 
in four vols, folio. It is the most important of his pro- 
ductions, being an useful collection of medical lives, and 
catalogues of writings. It has not been so much thought 
of since the appearance of Haller's Bibliotheca, and par- 
ticularly of Eloy's ; but the plans are different, and Man- 
get's, as welt as the rest of his voluminous compilations, 
may be yet consulted with advantage. Although he was so 

. \ 

53$ MARGE T. 

intent on accumulating information, and reprinting scarce 
works and tracts, that he did not employ- his judgment al- 
ways, either in selection or arrangement, yet those, who, 
like himself, wish to trace the progress of medical know- 
ledge, will find his works of great use. They contain, in- 
deed, the substance of many libraries, and a variety of 
treatises which it would not be easy to procure in. their se- 
parate form. ' 

MANGEY (Thomas), a learned English divine, was 
born at Leeds in 1684, and was educated at St. JohnVcot- 
Jege, Cambridge, where be was admitted to his degree, 
that of B. A. in 1 707, M. A. 1711, LL.D. 1719, and D.D. 
1725. He was also a fellow of the society of antiquaries, 
and rector of St. Mildred, Bread-street, London. He was 
early distinguished by his " Practical Discourses upon the 
, Lord's Prayer, preached before the Honourable Society of 
Lincoln's Inn ; published by the special order of the Bench," 
1716, 8vo. These discourses were again printed in 1717, 
and in 1721; and in 1718 he published " Remarks upon 
Nazarenns; wherein the falsity of Mr. Toland'* Mahome- 
tan Gospel, and his misrepresentations of. Mahometan 
sentiments in respect of Christianity, are set forth; the 
history of the old Nazaraeans cleared up, and the whole 
conduct of the first Christians, in respect to the Jewish 
laws, explained and described." The author then stiled 
himself " Rector of St. Nicholas's in Guilford," to which, 
be was instituted in 1717, and resigned in 1719*20. la 
January 1719, he published "Plain Notions of our Lord's 
Divinity," a sermon preached on Christmas«day ; in June 
1719, "The eternal Existence of our Lord Jesus Christ," 
a Visitation-sermon ; iitt'October that year, " The Holiness 
of Christian-churches," a sermon preached at Sunderland, 
on' consecrating a new church there; aud in 1720, "The 
providential Sufferings of good men," a 30th 4)f January 
sermon before the House of Commons, In 1 7 1 9, Dr. Man- 
gey wrote "A Defence of the Bishop of London's Letter,** 
8vo; and, besides the sermons already mentioned, pub- 
lished five single ones, in 1716, 1726, 1729, 1731, and 
1733. On May 11, 1721, he was presented to a prebend, 
the fifth stall in the cathedral church of Durham, being at 
that time chaplain to Dr. Robinson bishop of London, and 
vicar of Yealing, or Ealing, in the county of Middlesex* 


1 Life by himself in his Bibl. Script. Med.— Moreri. — Efoy Diet de Medicine, 


MANGEY, i 239 

He was advanced to the first stall of Durham, Dec. 22, 
1722; and, when treasurer of the chapter, greatly ad* 
vanced the fines upon the tenants, and improved the rents 
of his prebendal lands nearly a hundred pounds a year* 
He was one of the seven doctors in divinity created July 6, 
172$, when Dr. fientley delivered the famous oration pre-, 
fixed to his Terence ^ and at the end of 1726 he circulated 
proposals for an edition of " Philo Judseus," which he com- 
pleted in 1742, under the title of " Philonis Judsei Opera 
omnia quae reperiri potuerunt," 2 vols, folio. He died 
March 6, 1755, and was interred in the cathedr&l of Dur- 
ham, where is an elegant Latin inscription to his memory, 
composed by Dr. Sharp, then a prebendary and archdeacon 
of Northumberland. His manuscript remarks on the New 
Testament came into the possession of Mr. Bowyer, who 
extracted from them many short notes, which are printed 
in his " Conjectures." A very elegant inscription to Dr. 
Mangey by Dr. Taylor is prefixed to " Lysiae Fragmenta." 

Dr. Mangey married Dorothy, daughter of archbishop 
Sharp, by whom he had one son, John, vicar of Dunmow 
in Essex, and a prebendary of St. Paul's. He died in 1782. 
Mrs. Mangey, widow of the doctor, died in 17 SO. l 


MAN1LIUS (Marcus), was a Latin poet, who lay bu- 
ried in the German libraries, and never was beard of in 
the modern world, till Poggius published him from some, 
old manuscripts found there about two centuries ago. He 
is mentioned by no ancient writer, and the moderns are so 
little able to fix the time when he lived, that while some 
place him as high as the age of Augustus, others bring, 
him dowh to the reign of Theodo. ; us the Great. Indeed, 
the only account to be had of him must be drawn from his 
poem ; and from this, his translator Creech thinks that he 
was born a Roman, and lived in Rome, when Rome was 
in her glory, as he says appears from several passages ia 
the poem. In the beginning of it he invokes the emperor; 
who from the description must be Augustus Caesar. Creech 
•likewise infers that he was of illustrious extraction, and a 
branch of that noble family the Manilii, who so often filled 
the consul's chair, and supplied the greatest offices in the 
commonwealth. Some, indeed, have thought that he was 

1 Nichols's Bowyer, —Manning's Surrey, vol. I. — Hutchinson 7 * Durham, 
tol. XL p. 173. 

«0 MANItlUB. 

a Tyrian slave,- and that being made free, he took, ac- 
eording to custom, the name of his patron. But this seems 
very improbable ; and he almost, says Creech, expressly 
declares the contrary in the fortieth verse of his fourth 
book, where he shews a concern for the interest of the Ro* 
man commonwealth, as far back as the age of Hannibal : 

" Speratum Hannibalem nostris cecidbse catenis : 
fiannibal then destined to our chains :" 

Which he could not have done with propriety, had bis re* 
lation to that state commenced so lately, or had his ances- 
tors had no interest in the losses and victories of Rome in 
that age. But this verse, as well as the 776th line of the 
tame book, Bentley proves to be spurious, and overthrows 
the whole of Creech's conjectures. It may, however, still 
be allowed that he was conversant at court, and acquainted 
with the modish Battery of the palace, and that he made 
his compliments in the same phrase that w?ls used by the 
most finished courtiers of his time, which renders it not 
improbable that he was of a good family. 

The " Astronomicon" of Maniljus contains a system of 
the ancient astronomy and astrology, together with the 
philosophy of the Stoics. It consists of five books, and he 
also wrote a sixth, which has not been recovered. That 
he was young when he composed this work, his translator 
thinks demonstrable from almost every page of it ; and had 
he lived to revise the whole composition, as he seems 
to have done the first book, we should perhaps have 
had a more correct performance. He had a genius equal 
to his undertaking; his fancy was bold and daring; his 
skill in mathematics great enough for his design ; and bis 
knowledge of the history and mythology of* the ancients 
general. As he is now, some critics have placed him 
among the judicious and elegant writers ; and all allow him 
to be useful, instructive, and entertaining. He hints at 
some opinions, in which later ages have been ready t9 
glory as their own discoveries. Thus he defends fcbe 
fluidity of the heavens against the hypothesis of Aristotle; 
he asserts that the fixed stars are not all in the same conr 
cave superficies of the heavens, and equally distant from 
the centre of the world : he maintains, that they are aU of 
the same nature and substance with the sun, and that each 
of them hath a particular vortex of its own ; and lastly, he 
says that the milky way is only the undistinguished lustre 

M A N I L I U 8. 241 

off a great many stnall stars, which the modems now see to 
be such, through their telescopes. So that perhaps, upon 
the whole, ana notwithstanding all bis defects, one may 
▼emtdfe to say that he is one of the most discerning philo- 
sophers antiquity can shew. The first edition of Manilius, 
with ar date, is that of Bologna, by Rugerius arid Bertho- 
cns> 1474. The best editions since, are thfet of Joseph 
ScaJiger, printed at Leyden, 1 600, 4to ; that of Bentley, 
at London, 1738, 4to ; that of Edmund Burton, esq. "cum 
nods Variorum," London, 1783, 8vo; and that of Stceber, 
publish*! ait Sttftftburg, in 1767, 8vo. 1 

MAN LEY (De la Riviere), an English lady, authoress 
of ai rioted piece of scandal called " The Atalantis," was 
born in Guernsey, or one of those small islands, of which 
her father, sir Roger Manley, was governor. He was the 
secortd sttfl of an ancient family, and had been a great suf- 
ferer for his loyalty in the reign of Charles I. without re* 
ccrttirig either preferment or recompense in that of Charles 
II. Re waii a man of considerable literary talents, which 
appeared in several publications, particularly his Latin 
cotm&efttariee ori the rebellion, under the title of " Com- 
m«ntafte de Rebellione Anglicana, abanno 1640 ad annum 
16^85^ Lond: 1086, 8v6, and of which an English trans- 
lation wiff published in 1691 ; and his " History of the late 
wars of Dtenmark," 1670. He is also said to have been 
the author Of the s first volume of the " Turkish Spy," which 
Waa found Among his papers, ancl continued to its present 
n timber of voltimes by Dr. Midgley, a physician, who had 
thr Cafe Of his papers ; but this has been justly doubted 
(See MaRA^A). fits daughter, the subject of this article, 
jrWfeived ah education suitable to her birth, and gave indi- 
cations of genius above her years, arid, as her biographer 
sAyft, #r rhUth superior to What is usually to be found 
amongst bfer sex/ 9 The loss of her parents before she 
wto settled in life, stems' to have been peculiarly unfortu- 
nate, far her father confided the care of her to his nephew, 
a iflfcrried rriafc, who first pretended that his wife was dead, 
then by a series of seductive manoeuvres cheated her into 
»' marriage. When he could no longer conceal his infamy, 
be deserted her, and the world turned its back upon her. 
in this situation, she accidentally acquired thfefpa- 

* Greectt'* Pfrefiute ta hi* Tfeufcfetton, bat especially Beotiey>s |Mfftee,. 
SazQ Onomaftt— Huttoa'* Dictionary. 

Vol. XXL & 


tronage of the duchess of Cleveland! one of Charles ILV* 
mistresses, having been introduced to her by an acquaint- 
ance to whom she was paying a visit ; but the duchess, a • 
woman of a very fickle temper, grew tired of Mrs. Manley 
in six months, and discharged her upon, a pretence that • 

she intrigued with hef son. When this lady was thus dis- 
missed, she was solicited by general Tidcomb to pass 
some time with him at his country-seat'; but she excused 
herself by saying, " that her love of solitude was improved 
by her disgust of the world ; and since it was impossible 
for her to be in public with reputation, she was resolved 
to remain concealed." In this solitude she wrote her first 
tragedy, called " The Royal Mischief," which was acted 
at the theatre in Lincoln's-inn-fields, in 1696. This play 
succeeded, and she received such unbounded incense from 
admirers, that her apartment was crowded with men. of wit 
and gaiety,, which proved in the end very fatal to, her 
virtue, and she afterwards engaged in various intrigues. 
In her retired hours she wrote h§r four volumes of the 
" Memoirs of the New Atalantis," in whic^ she was y**ry 
free with her own sex, in her wanton description of love- 
adventures, and with the characters of many high and dis- 
tinguished personages. Her father had always b^en at- 
tached to the cause of Charles I. and she herself having a 
confirmed aversion to the Whig ministry, took this method 
of satirising those who had brought about the revolution. . 
Upon this a warrant was granted from the secretary of state's* . 
office, to seize the printer and publisher of those volumes* 
Mrs. Manley had too much generosity to let innocent per* 
sons suffer on her account ; and therefor^ voluntarily pre- 
sented herself before the court of King's4)encb, as. the 
author of the " Atalantis." When she was examined be- 
fore lord Sunderland, then the secretary, he was curious 
to know from whom she got information of some particulars 
which they imagined to be above her own intelligence. 
She p}eaded that her only design in writing was her own » 
amusement and diversion in the country, without intending 
particular reflections and characters; and assured them ~ 
that nobody was concerned with her. When this was not 
believed, and the contrary urged against her by several 
circumstances, she said, " then it must be hy inspiration, 
becaiise, knowing her own innocence, she could account 
for it no 6ther way." The secretary replied, that " inspi- 
ration used to be upon a good account ; but that her writings: 

M A N L E T. r 24S 

were stark naught," . 8he acknowledged, that u his lord- 
ship's observation might be true $ but, as there were evil 
apgefs as well as good, that what she had wrote ipight still 
be by inspiration. 9 ' . The consequence of this examination 
was, that Mrs. Manley was close shut up hi a messenger's 
house, without being allowed pen, ink, and paper. Her 
counsel, however, sued out her habeas' corpus at the 
- King's-bench bar, and she was admitted to bail. Whether 
those in power were ashamed to bring a woman to a trial ' 
for this book, or whether the laws could not reach her, 
because she had disguised her satire under romantic names, • 
and a feigned jgene of action, she. was discharged, after 
several tiipes exposing herself in person, to oppose the - 
court before the bench of judges, with her three attend-* 
ants, the printer, and two publishers. Not long after, a 
total change of the ministry ensued, when she lived in high 
reputation* and gaiety, and amused herself in writing poems 
and letters, and conversing with wits. To her dramatic 
pieces she now added " Lucius," the first Christian king 
of Britain, a tragedy, acted in Drury-lane, in 1717. She 
dedicated it to sir Richard Steele, whom she had abused 
in her " New Atalantis," but was now upon such friendly 
terms. with. him, that he wrote the prologue to this play, 
as Mr. Prior did the epilogue. This was followed by her 
comedy called the " Lost Lover, or the Jealous Husband," 
acted. in 1696. She wasfelso employed in writing for queen 
Anne's ministry, certainly with the consent and privity, if 
not under the direction, of Dr. Swift,- and was the author 
of " The Vindication of the Duke of Marlborough/' and 
other pamphfets, some of which would not disgrace the best 
pen then engaged in. the defence of government. After 
dean Swift relinqqished " The Examiner," she continued 
it with great spirit for a considerable time, and frequently 
finished pieces begun by that excellent writer, who also 
oftetj used to furnish her with bints for those of her own 
composition* At this season she formed a connection with 
Mr. John Barber, alderman of London, with whom she 
lived in a state of concubinage, as is supposed, aifd at whose 
hoqse she died July 1 1, 1724. 

. The superior accomplishments of her sex in our days 
must now place her yery low in the scale of female authors; 
and she seems to have owed her fame in a great measure 
ta-hfer turn .for intrigue and for recording intrigues. This 
will probably be the opinion of those whp will take the 


244 MA II LEY. 

trouble to peruse any. of the works Already mentioned, 6f 
the following : 1. "Letters, one from a supposed n mi in 
Portugal/' Lond. 1696, 8vo. 2. " Memoirs of Europe 
towards the close of the eighth century/' 1710, 2 vols. 
8vo. 3. " Court Intrigues/' 17 U, fcvo, 4. "Adven- 
tures of Rivelle," 1714, 8vo. 5. "The Power of Love, 
in seven novels," 1120, 8vo. 6. " A Stage-coach Journey 
to Exeter," 1725, 8v* 7. " Bath Intrigues," 1725, 8 vo. 
7. " Secret History of Queen Zarah," 1745, 8vo. The 
two last, from the dates, must be postburitous, or second 
editions. 1 

MANNERS (John),- marquis of Gmnby, was son of 
John duke of Rutland, and grandson of John the first duke, 
and was born in January 1721. He wad bred to the army, 
and in the rebellion of 1745 raised a regiment of foot at 
his own expence, for the defence of the country agfeinsf 
the rebels. In 1755 he was advanced Co the ifenk of rtiajor-' 
general, and in 1758 was appointed lieutenant-general and 
colonel of the bines; With this fank he went into Ger- 
many with the British forces, which were sent to serve 
under prince Ferdinand of Brunswick; and in 1759 was 
promoted to the general command of the British troop*, 
an appointment which gave much satisfaction, arid for 
which he appears to have been well qualified. If he had 
not the great abilities requisite to a commander in chief, 
he had all the qualifications for an admirable second irt com- 
mand. With a competent share of military skill, he pbfr*' 
sessed that pereonal valour and ardour in the service, Which 
inspired his soldiers with confidence; and that htiitoane* 
and generous attention to their comfort and welfare* joined 
with affability and open-hearted cheerfulness, which 
strongly attached them to his person. In 1760 be justified 
the high opinion which prince Ferdinand had etrpresaed of 
him after the battle of Minden, by his gbdd conduct at' 
Warburg, where the British cavalry Were particularly sig- 
nalized. In the beginning of the ensttthy caifepfcigri} be 
commanded under the hereditary prince, in his attack on 
the frontier towns of Hesse ; and at the battle of Kirk- 
Denkern, bore the first and most violent onset of the ene- 
my, and by the firmness of his troops contributed much to 
that vietory .« He maintained the same character at Graebc- 

» Cibbei^s Lires of tfae Poeti— NoU* to Taller sad Sasidias, edit lSOeW 
NfchoU'i Poems, vol. VII. 

M A N N E ft 3. 245 


iteein and Homburgb, in 1763. tie died at Scarborough, 
Qftu 19, 1770. He had been made a member of the privy- 
council in 17*0, qpd resigning the office of lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance, was in May 1763" constituted 
ma»t*r«genarel of that department. In Feb. 1764, be was 
• declared lord-lieutenant and custos totulorura of Derby- 
shire. In 1766 he was constituted commander iji chief of 
bis majesty's land forces in Great Britain ; which he re* 
signed a little before bis death. He married Sept. 3, 
1750, lady Frances Seymour, eldest daughter of Charles 
4ukeof Somerset, by whom, among other issue, he had 
Cbarlet, the late duke of Rutland, who died lord«-lieute- 
aant of Ireland* in 17*7; and lord Robert Manners, a gal- 
lant officer of the navy, who died Jan. £3, 17&2, of the 
wounds be received in an engagement, Sept. 1, 1781, 
in the West Indies, - on board tys majesty's ship the 
Resolution, of which he was captain, A monument in ho- 
jfconr of his memory was ordered at the national expence 
for him, capt Blair, and capt Bayne, which ia now in St. 
Paul's cathedral. 1 

M ANNI (Dominic Mama), an eminent Italian writer, 
was born at Florence, April 8, 1690. He was early dis- 
tinguished by great powers of retention, and a strong 

% passion for research into facts, two attributes for which he 
was celebrated during the whole of his life. He was regu- 
larly instituted in every class of literature, but his par- 
ticular bias was to history, in which be began his career 
by inquiries into the modern history of his native city. 
Tins produced in 1722 his " Series of Florentine Sena- 
tors,' 9 2 vols. fol. a work which, under the modest garb of 
-a collection of notices on private individuals, exhibited the 
naost original, authentic, and curious information respect- 

' ing the public law and government of Tuscany, from the 
extinction of the line of the marquises, to the creation of 
the gftand dukes in 1332. In 1731 he published a work of 
yet greater interest, " De Florentinis inventis Commen- 
tarium," in which he gave the most satisfactory account 
of the manufactures which either originated or were im- 
proved in Florence ; he showed how the art of banking 
was there, first invented ; how, in the subsequent times, 
.the art of engraving also originated there, fcc. Among 
the discoveries made at Florence in the middle ages, there. 

* CwJi^ffi ?•«*&, by Sir B. Brydgrs.— Sjnollett'* IJist. of England. 

24« K A N N I. 

. was one so highly beneficial as to demand a methodical 
disquisition for itself alone ; this was the invention of spec- 
tacles, which in 1738 Manni illustrated by his " Historical 
Treatise on Spectacles." In this, after a careful exami* 
nation of evidence, be is inclined to attribute the invention 
to ftalvino Armati. 

In 1742 he published " Historical Illustrations of the 
Decamerone of Boccaccio, 1 ' 4to, in which he proves that 
the greatest part of Boccaccio's tales were real facts, which 
occurred in his life. A work of this kind could nor fail to 
-be amusing, nor in that country, instructing ; and indeed 
this has been thought one of the best of Manni's publica- 
tions. His more elaborate work, connected with the hist* 
tory of Florence and Tuscany, is his " Historical Obser- 
vations on the Seals of the lower age." " Osservazioni 
istoriche sopra isigilli antichi de' secoli bassi," published * 
in 1749, and originally consisting of 18 vols. 4to, but after- 
. wards extended to thirty. It exhibits the most valuable 
records of all the illustrious persons who acted a conspicu- 
ous part in the vicissitudes of Florence and other great 
cities of Tuscany. It also elucidates the origin and pro- 
gress of all the mints of those cities. In 1755 he published 
his " Method of studying the History of Florence," which 
is an account of all the authorities and sources of Floren J # 
tine history, both printed and manuscript, in whioh he 
affirms that the best limited .history of Florence is that yet 
unpublished of the .chevalier Francis Settimanni, who wrote 
on jthe period which intervened between the accession of 
th& house of Medici, in 1532, and its extinction,. in E737. 
The only other works he published respecting Florence 
and its antiquities, were, his " Historical notices con- 
cerning the amphitheatre at Florence," published in 1746; 
and his " Inquiries into the ancient Thermae of Florence," 
published hi 1751. 

Of the historical works of Manni relative to other places, 
and more general subjects, we shall only mention his 
" History of the Jubilees," published in I75<\in which 
be did justice to his subject in a philosophical and political 
light, by shewing who were the most distinguished persons 
who had ever visited Rome on those occasions, and how 
far, on thei( return to their native countries, they grafted 
on those countries the manner* and practices of Italy. He 
also illustrated every particular by curious anecdotes, . 
medals, fa c- similes, Ice. In biography, Manni wrote a 

M A N N I. 247 

¥ • * * 

singular work, but perhaps of local interest, entitled " Le 
Veglie Piacevoli," &c. or " Agreeable Evenings," being 
the lives of the roost jocose and eccentric Tuscans. This 
was published in 1757, in 4 vols. 4 to., He wrote also tbe 
" Life of the well-deserving prelate, Nicholas Steno, of 
Denmark," published in 1775. Manni's publications, not 
of the historical or biographical kind, were few, and none 
of them added much to x his fame, except his " Lectures on 
Italian Eloquence," 1758, 2 vols. 4to. 
- He died at Florence, Nov. 30, 1788, in his ninety-ninth 
year. He left behind him the fame not only of one of the- 
most laborious and deserving writers of his time, but of a 
most exemplary moral character. He was particularly dis- 
tinguished for his zeal and kindness in assisting with his 
superior knowledge, younger writers who wished, to treat 
on any subject connected with his inquiries. A catalogue 
of all his works, amounting to 104, was published in 1789, 
by his friend count Tomitaho, a patrician of Feltri. 1 

MANNING (Owen), an excellent antiquary and topo- 
grapher, the son of Mr. Owen Manning, of Orlingbury, 
co. Northampton, was born there Aug. 11, 1721. He was 
* admitted of Queen's-college, Cambridge, where he pro- 
ceeded B. A. in 1740; and about this time met with two 
extraordinary instances of preservation from untimely death. 
Having been seized with the small pox, be was attended 
by Dr. Heberden, who thinking he could not survive, de- 
sired that his father might be sent for. On his arrival he 
found the young man to all appearance dying, and next 
day he was supposed to have expired, and was laid out, 
as a corpse, in the usual manner. An undertaker was sent 
for, and every preparation made for his funeral. His 
father, however, who had not left the house, could not 
help frequently viewing the seemingly lifeless body ; and' 
in one of his visits, without seeing any cause for hope, 
said, " 1 will give my poor boy another chance," and at 
the same time raised him up, which almost immediately 
produced signs of life. Dr. Heberden was then sent for, 
and by the use of proper means, the young man recovered. 
As it was customary for the scholars of every college to 
make verses on the death of any one of their own college, 
which are pinned to the pall at the funeral, like so many 
escutcheons, this tribute or respect was prepared for Mr. 

1 Atbeiitttiinj ▼•!. IV.— Diet. Hi»t 



Maiming, who was muchbelovedbybis fellow students; anclit 
is said that the verses were presented to hifn,aftejpiprds»aqd 
that he kept them for many years as memoranda ,<*f hi? 
youthful friendships. Scarcely bad be met with this nar- 
row escape, when, his disorder having made him fors0me 
time subject to epileptic fits, he was seized with one of 
these while walking by the rivet, intojwhich befell, AOfI 
remained so long that be was thought to .fye drowned, an£ 
laid out on the grass, until lie could be conveyed to the 
college, where Dr. Heberden being again called in, the 
.proper means of recovery weife used with success. 

In 1741 he was elected to a fellowship of hit college, in 
right of which he had the living of St. Botolph, in Cam* 
bridge, which he held until his marriage, in 1755. He 
took the degree of M. A* in 1744, and that of B. D. in 
1753. In 1760, Dr. Thomas, bishop of Lincoln, to. whom 
he was chaplain, gave him the prebend of Milton Ecclesia, 
in the church of Lincoln, consisting of the impropriation 
and advowson of the parish of Milton, co. Oxford. In 
1763 he was presented by Dr. Greene, dean of Salisbury, 
to the vicarage of Godalming, in Surrey, and was insti- 
tuted Dec. 22, he preferring the situation to that of St. 
Nicholas in Guildford (though a better lhftng) which w*s 
offered to him by jthe same patron. Here he constantly 
resided till the time of his de^tb, beloved and jre^pected 
by his parishioners, and discharging his professional duty 
in the most punctual and conscientious manner. In 1769 
he was presented to the rectory of Pe,pperharrc^v, an ad- 
joining parish, by viscount Middleton. He was elected 
F. R. S. in 1767, and F. S.A. in 1770. To the sincexe 
regret of his parishioners, and of all who knew him, Mr. 
Manning died Sept. 9, 1801, after a short attack of pleu- 
risy, having entered his eighty-first year. By Catherine, 
his wife, daughter of Mr. Reade Peacock, a quaker, met- 
cer, of Huntingdon, he had tl^ree sons and five daughters, 
all of whom survived him, except his eldest son, -George 
Owen, and one of the daughters. 

To the literary world Mr. Manning performed a most 
;acceptable service in taking up, and by unwearied appli- 
cation completing! the Saxon Dictionary begun by his 
friend the rev. Edward Lye (see Lye), a work which for 
copiousness and authorities will stand the test of the strictest 
examination. Mr. Lye had the patronage of a very band- 
some subscription, and left that, and the completion of bis 


work, to his friend $**• Maaaing, iwhwe/jfeliti^ he well 
knew. After four yqgjrs ,?f close application, be printed it 
jo 177$ f .in 2 vc*s. folio, in an elegant maimer, at tbepovs 
.Of ,tb* Jate Mr. ,Mlen, of Bolt-foui*, Fle*t-#r*et« Be- 
mid^s.tbe 4W%ce jand the grammar, he wad* large Addi- 
tions to tUe sbepts before composed, and io ao ajppendi** 
^subjoined Augments «f UpbiWs version pf the jEpiatlqs 
.to the sRppn^s j sundry §axon+Cjbarter# ; 4 Sermon j*n 
4i*ti- Christ; * fragment of the $***n Chronicle, and 
father instruments. Mr. Manning also published illustra- 
tions of tkiog Alfred'* Will. His only other publications 
were two occasional Sermons. 

From his fir^t settlement in Purvey, ,be had employed him- 
self in collecting materials for a history and antiquities of 
.that opopty ; aadby the rapport of men of the 'first talents, 
possessed himself of a mass of information whioh fells to 
the lot of few ^persons engaged in jftch pursuits. His com- 
prehensive mind and exquisite penmanship had brought 
jhem to a perfection which justly made every lover of our 
national antiquities deeply regret that his modesty ,couid 
paver be persuaded to think 4bepi sufficiently complete for 
publication, although he had more than once printed spe- 
cimens of his intended work, and solicited assistance. At 
length, a total loss of sight rendered it impossible for him 
to execute his intention ; but Jaia previous labours we*e not 
doomed to perish. His papers being confided to the care 
of William Bray, esq. the present worthy treasurer of the 
society of antiquaries, he produced the first .volume of 
" The HUtpry and Antiquities erf Surrey," in 1804, a large 
and aplepdid folio, which he has since completed in two 
-.more volumes. Of the whole, it may be sufficient to say, 
upon no slight examination of this elaborate and valuable 
addition to the topographical history of our country, that 
Mr. Bray has in every jreapect removed -the regret which 
he and, other* ielt op Mr. Manning's being disabled front 
completing his nwn undertaking. 1 

MANNOZZI (JoHN),(cailed Giovanni da san Giovanni, 
t frpik a village near Florence, where be was born, was a 
^lfthflsced painter of the Florentine school, where he shone 
Jbya natural superiority of genius. He perfectly under- 
#lOPd jthe poetical part of his art, and excelled, therefore, 

• Life of Mr. Manning prefixed to vol. I. of the History of Surrey. —Nichols*! 
$9wyer, vol. IX,— Coles MS Athens, ia Brit. Mus, 

250 II AN NO Z Z I. 


in the ingenuity of those designs by which he at once of« 
namented the' palace, and illastrated the beneficence and 
taste of Lorenzo de Medicis. He was particularly suc- 
cessful in painting in fiasco, and his colours remain unin- 
jured to the present day : m the imitation fctf bas-relief be 
•was so. skilful, that the touch only could distinguish his 
paintings t>f that kind from sculpture. He had profound 
skill also in ^perspective end optics. With all thelfe excel- 
lencies in his art, he was capricious, envious, and male- 
volent, and consequently raised himself enemies who were 
not a little inveterate. He died aft the age of forty-six, in 
1636. 1 . * • * " 


MANSARD (Francis), a very celebrated French archi- ' 
, tect, was born in 1598, and died in 1660. The magni- 
wficent edifices raised by him at Paris and elsewhere, are so 
many monuments of his genius arid skill *in his art. His 
ideas of general design were esteemed noble, and his taste 
in ornamenting the 'inferior parts delicate. The principal 
buildings of which he was the author, are the gate of the 
church of the Feu i Hans, in the street St. Honor6 ; the 
• church' of les filles St. Marie, in the street of S. Antoine; 
the gate of the Minims in the Place Royale ; a part of the 
Hdtel de Conti ; the H6tels de Bouillon, Toulouse, and 
Jars; besides several buildings in the provinces, whteh were 
formed on his designs. Much as he was approved by the 
public, he was not ' equally able to satisfy himself. CoK 
bert having inspected his plans for th$ facades of the 
Louvre, was so pleased with them, that he wished to en- 
gage him in a promise not to make any subsequent altera- 
tions. Mansard refused to undertake the work on those 
conditions,, being determined, *s he said, to preserve the 
right of doing better than he bad undertaken to do. . Hfe 
nephew, Jules- Hardouin Mansard, had the office of fifst 
architect, and conductor of the royal buildings, and was 
the designer also of many very celebrated structures.* 

MANfH (John Dominique), a very learned Italian pre* 

late, and voluminous editor, was born at Lucca, Feb* 1 6, 

1 692. At school and college he made rapid progress in 

evqpy branch of study, but became particularly attached 

to ecclesiastical history and biogsapby. He was for some 


. * Pilkington, by Fuiel!» when a somewhat different character if gifcn.— 
Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 

? Arfenville.^-Perrault Lei Hommei IUustres.*— Diet Hist. 


' * 

to A N 8 I. > ' 25t 


years professor of theology at Naples ; but the greater part 
of bis life w*s spent in reading, and carefully exploring 
the contents of the Italian libraries, particularly the manu- 
scripts, frtat all which lie amassed a fund v ef information 
en subjects connected with ecclesiastical, history, of vast 
extent and importance. Hie first station in the church was 
that of a clerk- regular in the; congregation of the Mother 
of God; and from tfcis, in t765,~ at the age. of seventy-two, 
he wap promoted to the archbishopric of Lucca, by pope 
Clement X1H. who had a high esteem for him. He died 
Sepfc j27 9 1*69. Hia life, in our authority, it little more 
than an account of his works, which, indeed must hare oc- 
cupied the whole of his time. His 6rst publication was 
» entitled "Tractatus* de casibu% et. excommtuitcationibua 
-episcopis reserved?, eonfeetus aa nofmam tabeHs»i»ucanst," 
Lucca, 1724, He then published a translation into Lath* 
ef Calmet f s " Dictionary of the Bible,'* with additions ; an 
edition of Thomasini " De^veteri et nova ecclet is* disc* 
plina," 3 vols, folio; a Latin translation <|f Calrtiet's "Com- 
mentaries on the Bible," 17*31, &c.,7 vols, i an edition of 
Baron ius's annals, with great additions, in 30 vols, folio ; 
a new edition of the Councila, including Labbe, Cossart, 
&c. 1759, &c. 30 vols, folio; a new edition of uEneas Syl- 
vius (pope Pius II.) orations, with many hitherta unpub- 
lished, 1755, 2 Vols. 4to. He was the editor of some other 
ecclesiastical collections and theological pieces of inferior 
.note; but we must not omit the. work by which he is per- 
haps best known in this country, his excellent edition of 
Fabrjcius's "Bibliotheca Latina mediae et infinite aetatis} 11 
6 vols. 4to, generally bound in three, printed at Padua, in 
1754. This alone is sufficient to place him in the first 
tank of literary antiquaries^. 

MANSTEIN (Christqpher Herman de), a celebrated 
Russian officer and wrtfer, was born et Petersburgh in 
1711. He was first a lieutenant in the Prussian service, 
-and afterwards a captain of genadiers in the Russian regi- 
ment of Petersburgh. At die death of the czarina Anne, 
he was employed to arrest the fiirons, who were then the 
regents and the tyrants of the young prince I wan III. whft 
Rewarded his services by the rank of colonel, and sone 
estates im Ingria. But when the throne of that prince was 
Seized by the czarina Elizabeth, Manstein lost at once his 

1 £«broni Vita hatorm. . 


mgwutiit ftnd bis lands. Sane tupe after, ha entered again 
into the Prussian senace, where be acted as a volunteer in 
1 745 ; and baring sufficiently signalized his abilities and 
courage, was appointed major-general *rt infantry in 1754. 
In the war of 1766, he fell the very eecond year by a shot ; 
leaving ,two .sons and four daughter*. Hi* '* Memoirs of 
Russia," printed at Lyons in 1772, in 2 vols. 8vo, ace at 
once historical, political, and military. They contain the 
priqcipaL revolutions of that empire, and the wars, pi the 
Russians against the Turks and. Tartars ; besides a short 
sketch of we military and marine establishments, and also 
of the commence of. bis country. These memoirs com- 
iBoence in 1727, with the reign of Peter II. and close with 
the first year of the empress Elizabeth. They are consi- 
dered as deserving of much reliance from the truth of the 
facts, and the sincerity of the author. 1 
. MANTEGNA (Ajtdrea), an eminent Italian painter, 
-was bom in 143 1, at Padua or in its district. His parents 
•were poor, but Squarcione, whose pupil he became, was 
•so deeply stnjck with his talents, that be adopted him for 
;his son, and repented of it when Andrea married a daugh~ 
ter of Jacopo Bellini, his eompetitor. But the censure 
which now took place of the praise he bad before lavished 
on jbis pupil, only added to bis improvement. Certain 
basso-relievos of the ancient Greek style, possessed by the 
academy in which Andrea studied, captivated his taste by 
-the correctness of their outline, the simplicity of the forms, 
the parallelism of <the attitudes, and strictness of the dra- 
'flery .: .the dry servility with which he .copied these* suf- 
fered him not to pqrtetve-that he had lost the great preixn 
•garive of die originals, the soul that animates them. The 
sarcasms of Squarcione on his picture of S. Jacopo, made 
ihim seusible of the necessity of expression and character ; 
the gave more life- to the figures in the story of S. Cristo- 
phoro ; and in the face of St. Marc, in the church of S. 
Giusttna, united the attention of a philosopher .with the 
enthusiasm of a prophet. While the criticisms of Square 
cione improved Mantegna in expression, the friendly ad- 
Vice of the Bellini directed his method, and -fixed bis prin- 
ciples of oqIout. During his short stay at Venice, he made 
himself master of every advantage of that school; and ki 
some of his pictures there are tones and tints in flesh and 

i Diet Hist. 

MANTE6 N A. 25? 

laridscape, of a richiie** and zest equal to'thd best Vene- 
tians of his day. Wbetber he taught Bellini perspective is 
uncertain ; Lomazzo affirms * that Mantegna was the first - 
who opened the eyes of artists in that branch." 

The chief abode and the school of Mantegna were at 
Mantua, where under the auspices of Marchess Lodovico 
Gonzaga, he established himself with his family, but be 
continued to work in other places, and particularly at Ropae, 
where the chapel which he had painted for Innocenzio 
VIII. in the. Vatican existed, though injured by age, at 
the accession of Pius VI. The style of those frescoes 
proved that he continued steady in his attachment to the 
antique, but that from a copyist he was become an imitator. 
Of his wor^s in oil Mantua possesses several; but the prin- 
cipal one, the master-piece of the artist, and the assem- 
blage of his powers, the picture 4ella Vittoria, afterwards 
in the Oratorio de Padri di S. Filippo, is now at Paris. It 
is a votive picture dedicated, for a victory obtained, to die 
Madonna seated on her throne with the infant standing on 
her lap, and giving benediction to the kneeling marquis in 
arms before her. At one side of the throne stands the 
archangel Michael, holding the mantle of the Madonna; at 
the other are S. George, S. Maurice, John the Baptist, 
and S. Elizabeth on her knees. The socle of the throne is 
ornamented with figures relitive to the fall of Adam-: the 
scene is a leafy bower peopled by birds, and here and 
there open to a lucid sky. No known work of Mantegna 
equals in design the style of this picture : they generally 
shew him dry and emaciated, here he appears in all the 
beaaty of select forms : the two infants and St. Elizabeth 
are figures of dignity, so the archangel who seems to have 
been, by the conceit of his attitude and the care bestowed 
on him, the painter's favourite object. The head has thjt 
beauty and the blootn of youth, the round fleshy neck and 
tbte breast, to where it confines with the armour, are treated 
with great art, the expression is to a high degree spirited, 
and as characteristic. The countenance of the Madonna is 
mild and benign, that of Christ humane. The future pro- 
phet is announced in the uplifted area of St. John. The 
guardian angel kindly contemplates the suppliant, who 
prays with devout simplicity: The whole has art air of life. 
-All the draperies, especially that of St. Elizabeth, are 
elegant, and correctly folded; with more mass and less 
intersection of surfaces, they would be perfect* Tba 



extreme finish of execution, as it has net here tfcat dryness ' 
which disfigures most other works of this master, does not 
impair the brilliancy of colour. The head of the Ma- " 
donna, of the infant, of St Michael, have a genial bloom 
of tints* The lights are everywhere true, the shades alone 
are sometimes too grey or too impure. The general scale 
of light has more serenity than splendour, more the air<>f 
nature than of art, but the reflexes are often cut off too 
glaringly from the opaque parts. The whole of the picture 
has preserved its tone to this day, is little damaged, and 
in no place retouched. 

Of the remainder of Mautegna's works, besides some 
frescoes of considerable merit, but much injured, in a sa- > 
loon of the castle of Mantua, and the well known triumph 
of Caesar in various compartments at Hampton court, little 
now remains. His name is more frequent in galleries and 
collections, than his hand ; lanknesp of form, rectilinear 
folds, yellow landscape, and qpinute polished pebbles, are 
less genuine signs of originals than correctness of design . 
and delicacy of pencil* It is not probable that a man so 
occupied by large works, and so much engraving, should 
have had time to finish many cabinet-pictures : the series . 
of his plates consist of upwards of fifty pieces, executed 
by his own hand ; tod though he was not the inventdr of 
the art, he was certainly the first engraver of bis time. 

Andrea had great influence on the style of his age, nor 
was the imitation of bis style confined to his own school ; 
Frantesco, and another of bis sons, finished some, of the 
frescoes which he had begun in the castle, and added the 
beautiful ceiling which shews that. the science of fore* 
shortening, and what the Italians call " del sotto in su," 
though Melozio be its reputed author,, was carried much 
farther by MantegM and his followers. Mantegna died in 
1505. Besides his talents for painting, Mantegna was one 
of the earliest engravers on metal, some, indeed, say the 
very first, but this does not appear to have been the case. 
Strutt, who gives a list of his principal engravings, has . 
also exhibited a specimen in his Dictionary. 1 

^M ANTON (Thomas), one of the .most learned and emi- 
nent nonconformists of the seventeenth century, was bora 
at Lawrence Lydiard, ift Somersetshire, in 1620. Hia 


i By Puseli in tbe last edition of Pilkington. Mr* P. has bestowed more thaa 
usual pains on this article.— See also ^ullait's Acadeaieties Sciences.— Roscoe'fc ' 
Lsjcaso and Leo.— Strutt. * 

MANTQN. 355 

father and grandfather were both clergymen, byt of them 
we have no account, except that his father was settled at 
Whimpole in Devonshire, and sent has sou. to th£ free* 
school at Tiverton: . Here his progress was such that; he 
wa? thought qualified to begin his academical studies a( 
the age of fourteen, and about a year after, in 1635, he 
was entered of Wadham college, Oxford. From thence, 
in 1639, he removed to Hart-hall, where he took his 
bachelor's degree in arts. Wood says, he was accounted 
in his college, " a hot-beaded person,"— a character very • 
remote fronj .that which he sustained throughout .life,- apd 
when all eyes, were upon bioi. After studying divinity, be 
was admitted to deacon's orders by the celebrated Dr. Hall, 
bishop of Exeter, and although this. wa% sooner than Mr. 
Man ton approved upon maturer thought, bishop Hall ap- 
pears to. have thought him duly qualified, and predicted 
that " he would prove an extraordinary person. 91 As he 
Came into public life when principles of disaffection to the 
church were generally prevalent, it appears that he en- 
tered so far into the spirit of the times, as to be content 
with deacon's orders, and to deny the necessity of those 
of the priest - 

His ministerial functions were exercised in various 
places* first at Sowton near Exeter, and then at Colyton 
ill Devonshire, where he. was much respected. Removing, 
to London, he became more admired for his talents in the 
pulpit, and about 1643 was presented to the living of Stoke 
Newington, by colonel Popham, and here preached those 
lectures on the. epistles of St. James and St. Jude, which be 
afterwards published in 1651 and 1662, 4to. During his 
residence at Newington, he often pieachad in London, 
a,nd is said to have preached the second sermon before .the 
sons of the clergy, an institution then set on foot, chiefly 
through the influence o£ Dr. Hall, son to the bishop, who 
pleached the first. He was also, one of, those who were, 
called occasionally to preach before the parliament, but 
being a decided enemy to the m$rd£r of the king, he gave 
great ofienot by a sermon in which he touched on that 
subject. In 1651 he shewed equal contempt for the ty- 
*ai\ny of the. usurpers, by preaching a funeral sermon for 
Mr. Love (see Christopher Lose), and in neither case 
allowed the fears of his friends to prevent what be thought 
bis duty. . , 

.«* M ANT ON. 

In 1656 Ke removed frdm Stoke-Newington> oif beings 
presented to the living of Covent garden by the earl, after- 
wards duke of Bedford, wbo bad a high respect for bin*. 
At this church he bed a numerous auditory. Arafcbtsbop 
Usher, who was one of his hearers, used to say that he 
was one of the best preachers in England, and had the grt 
of reducing the substance of whole volumes into a narrbtr 
oonipass, and representing it to great' advantage. Although 
He bad already, by the two sermons above noticed, shewn 
that he was far from courting the favours of government, 
Cromwell, wbo well knew how to avail himself of religions 
influence ahd popular talents, sent for him in 1953, when 
he assumed the protectorate j and desired- him tb pray at 
Whitehall on the morning of bis installation ; and aboot 
the same time made hkti one of bis chaplains* He was 
dominated also by parliament one of a committee of divines 
to draw tip a scheme of fundamental doctrines. In the 
same year he was 1 appointed one' of tbe committee for the*' 
trial and approbation of ministers, and appears to have 
acted in this troublesome office with considerable' modera- 
tion. What influence he had with Cromwell, he employed 
for the benefit of others, and particularly solicited him to 
spare the life of Dr. Hewit, a loyalist, whom Cromwtell 
executed for being concerned in a plot to restore^Cbariefc II. 
In 1 660, when the days of usurpation were over, Mr. Maim 

, fon co-operated openly in the restoration of Charles, was 
one of tbe ministers appointed to wait upon bis majesty af 

' Breda, and was afterwards sworn dad of his majesty's chap* 
lains. In tbe v same year he wasj by mandamus^ ' created* 
doctor of divinity at Oxford. 

He was then one of the ministers who waited upoti the? 
king after his arrival, to beg his majesty's interposition for" 
reconciling the differences in the church ; and afterwards 
joined several of bis brethren, in~a conference with the' 
episcopal clergy, at the lord chancellor's bouse ; prepara- 
tory to the declaration of his majesty, vrbo waft likewise 
present. Being satisfied with this declaration, Dr. Matiton 
continued in his living of Covent-gardeny and received 
episcopal institution from Dn Sheldon, bishop of London, 
Jan. 16, 1 66 1, after having first subscribed tbe doctrinal 
articles aniyt>f the church of England, arid taken the oaths 
of allegiance and supremacy, and of canonical obedience 
in all Slings lawful and honest. He also allowed that tbe 
common-prayer should be read in his church. Soon after. 

M A N T N. **7 

be w*$ &tf#ted the deanery pf Rochester, which be "might 
have held until 1662, and enriched himself by letting 
leases * but, either dissatisfied with the advances he bad 
Already made towards conformity, or foreseeing that greater 
would soon be expected, be honourably refused to enrioh 
hi&aelf by accepting a dignity, the very existence of which 
be and bis brethren were prepared to oppose. In 1 66 i he 
was one of the commissioners at the* Savoy conference, 
and continued preaching until St. Bartholomew's day in 
J6GJ2, when he was obliged to resign bis livings After 
this he preached occasionally, either in private or public* 
a* be found it convenient, particularly during the indul- 
gence granted to the nonconformists from 1668 to .1670; 
but was imprisoned for continuing the practice when it be- 
came illegal. From this time bis history is too generally 
involved with that of his brethren to admit of being sepa- 
rated. He preserved, amidst all. vicissitudes* the friends- 
ship of the duke of Bedford, the duke of Richmond, lord 
.Wharton, and many other persons of rank. * To this they 
were probably induced by a congeniality of principle; but 
independent of this* Dr. Manton was a man of great learn- 
ing and extensive reading, and his conversation aa much 
recommended him to men of the world, as to those who 
admired his pious services. Waller, the poet, said " that 
he never discoursed with such a man as Dr. Manton in alt 
bis life." He was also a person of extraordinary charity, 
and supplicated the assistance of his great friends more for 
the poor than for himself, being perfectly disinterested. 
Wood has misrepresented his character in all these respects. 
His constitution, although a man of great temperance, 
early gave way \ and his complaints terminating in a 
lethargy, he died Oct. 18, 1677, in the fifty-seventh year 
of his age. He was buried in the chancel of the church at 
Stoke Newington, where his intimate friend Dr. Bates 
prea'ehed his funeral sermon, which includes a. very copious 
character of him. 

He published in his lifetime only some occasional ser- 
mons, and the Commentaries on St Jude and St. James, 
already mentioned, except a controversial work, entitled 
" Smectymnuus Redivivus, being an answer to a book enr 
titled An humble remonstrance." After his death, va- 
rious treatises and collections of sermons were printed se- 
parately, all of which, if we are not mistaken, were aft^r- 

Vou XXI. S 

25* M A N T O N. 

wards incorporated in an edition of his " Works" in five 
large volumes, 1681—1691, Folio. 1 

MANTUAN (Baptist), an Italian poet of great tem- 
porary fame, was born at Mantua, whence he took his 
name, in 1448, and not in 1444, as Cardan and others 
have said ; for Mantuan himself relates, in a short account 
#f bis own life, that he was born under the pontificate of 
Nicholas V. and Nicholas was only made pope in March 
1447. He was of the illustrious family of the Spagnoli, 
being a natural son of Peter Spagnolo, as we learn from 
Paul Jovius, who was his countryman, and thirty-three 
years old when Mantuan died, and therefore must have 
known the fact. Mantuan too speaks frequently and highly, 
in his works, of his father Peter Spagnolo, to whom he 
ascribes the care of his education. In his youth, he ap- 
plied himself ardently to books, and began early with Latin 
poetry, which he cultivated all his life ; for it does not ap- 
pear. that he wrote any thing in Italian. He entered him- 
self, we do hot know exactly when, among the Carmelites, 
and came at length to be general of his order ; which dig- 
nity, upon some disgust or other, he quitted in 1515, and 
devoted himself entirely to the pursuit of the belles-lettres. 
He did not enjoy his retirement long, for he died in March 
1516; upwards of eighty years of age. The duke of Man- 
tua, some years after, erected to his memory a marble 
statue crowned with laurel, and placed it next to that of 
Virgil ;. and even Erasmus went so far as to say that a 
time would come, when Baptist Mantuan would not be 
placed much below his illustrious countryman. In this 
opinion few critics will now join. If he had possessed the 
talents of Virgil, he had not his taste, and knew not how 
to regulate them. Yet allowance -is to be made, when we 
consider that, in the age in which he lived, good taste had 
not. yet emerged. Lilius Gyraldns, in his " Dialogues 
upon the poets of his own times," says, "that the verses 
which Mantuan wrote in his youth are very well ; but that* 
his imagination afterwards growing colder, his latter pro- 
. ductions have uot the force or vigour of his earlier.'* *Vt5 
may add, that Mantuan was more solicitous about the 
number than the goodness of his poems ; yet, considering 
that be lived when letters were but just reviving, it must 
be owned, that he was a very extraordinary person. 

1 Memoirs of Dr. Manton by Win. Harris, 1725, 8vo. — Calamy. — NeaVsPu- 
ritaflft.-— Ath. Ox. vol. U. — Wilson's Hist, of Dissenting churches and mettiags* 

M A N T U A N. /• 2S9 


His poetical works were first printed, in a folio volume 
without a date, consisting of his eclogues, written chiefly in: 
bis youth ; seven pieces in honour of the virgins inscribed on 
the kalendar, beginning with the virgin Mary; .these he calls 
"Parthenissal." "ParthenissaII."&c; four books of Silv® 
or poems on different subjects ; elegies, epistles, and, in 
shorty poems of every description. This was followed by 
an edition at Bologna, 1502, folio, and by another at Paris 
in 1513, with the commentaries of Murrho, Brant, and 
Ascensius, 3 vols. fol. but usually bound in one. A more 
complete, but now more rare, edition of them was pub- 
lished at. Antwerp, 1576, in four vols. 8vo, under this 
title, " J.. Baptists Mantuani, Carmelits, theologi, philo- 
sophi, po£t8B, & oratoris clarissimi, opera omnia, pluribus 
libris aucta & restituta." The Commentaries of the Paris 
edition are omitted in this; but the editors have added, it 
does not appear on what account, the name of John, to 
Baptist Man tuan.' 

MANUTIUS (Aldus), the elder of three justly cele- 
braj^d printers, was born about 1447, at Bassiano, a small 
town in the ,duchy of Sermonetta. He was educated at 
Rome, under Gaspar of Verona and Domitius Calderinus, 
hpthof whom he has mentioned in several of his prefaces, 
aaip?n of talents and erudition. Having acquired a know- 
1^4g? ofthe Latin language from them, he went to Ferrara 
to study Greek under Baptist Guarini, and, probably 
after his own studies were completed, became the pre- 
ceptor of the prince of Carpi, a nephew of the .celebrated 
Picus of Mirandula. In 1482, Ferrara being closely be- 
sieged by a Venetian army, he retired to Mirandula, and 
spent some time in the society of Picus, who, though not 
quite twenty years of age, was already a consummate 
master of almost $11 learning. From Mirandula, Aldus 
went, some time after, to reside with his pupil, who* 
though, only twelve years of age, had made such advances 
in learning, that he was already qualified to take a part in 
the serious conversations, and the designs of his uncle and 
hjs preceptor; and it is believed to have been, at this time, 
that^ 4'dos conceived the project of bis subsequent printing 
establishment at Venice, to the expences of which, Piod$ 
and his pupil probably contributed. He began, however, 
to print, '^t Venice, in 1488, with an edition of the small 

l Niceron, xoh XXVII— (Slinguene Hirt. J, it, D'ltalie.— Rwcoe'i Lco. # 

S 2 


Greek poem of Mtistfus, in quarto, with a Latin transla- 
tion, but without date. In 1 494 be published the Greek 
grammar of Lascaris, and in 14*95, in one collection, the 
gracftmatical treatises of Theodore Gaza, Apollonius, and 

He had already begun to prepare for the press the ma- 
nuscripts of the then unprinted originals of the works of 
Ari6tofle, which, in number and extent, were sufficient to 
fill five volumes in folio. Although the state of these MSB. 
required almost incredible efforts of diligence and erudition, 
Aldus brought out a first volume in 1495, and the edition 
was completed in 1498. Aldus was from that time con- 
fessed, without dispute, to stand as an editor in the very 
first rank among his contemporaries. He was not, how* 
ever, the very first that printed an entire Greek book. 
The Greek grammar of Lascaris had been printed in folio, 
at Milan, in 1476. The works of Homer were printed at 
Florence in i 488 ; and several other Greek works hkd also 
appeared in print, when Aldus began his establishment j 
yet he must be allowed the praise of having first used ele- 
gant Greek types, and printed from thfc most corrfect' and 
authentic manuscripts* 

In imitation, it is said, of the hand-writing of the cele* 
brated Petrarch, Aldus procured the first examples of thtft 
which is called, in printing, the Italic character, to be cut 
and cast for him by Francesco of Bologna, about 150O. 
An edition of the works of Virgil, in octavo, was the first 
book he printed in this type, which was long known among 
printers by the name of Aldine. The inventor obtained 
a patent from the Senate of Venice, for its exclusive use 
for ten years, from the 13th of November, 1502; and 
another similar patent from pope Alexander the Sixth, 
from the 17th of November, 1502. The last of these was 
renewed for fifteen years more, by Julius the Second, on 
the 27th of January, 1513; and again by Leo the Tenth, 
on the 28th of the following November. 

From 1 502, the different works printed by Aldus, were 
reprinted at Lyons, with a close imitation of the Aldine 
type and edition. The very prefaces of Aldus and his as- 
sistants, were copied in the editions of Lyons. But the 
imitation was disgraced by many typographical errors. 
'Aldus, observing and noting these, publishe^Mfethe 16th 
of March, 1503, a list in which they were particularly 
enumerated, arid which he appears to have distributed to 

M&R.U-JT.IHA 281 

the purchasers of copies of bis own genuine editions, Thte 
canning tnd industrious Lyonne§e took this list of their 
erroirs, corrected them in new editions of the same books ; 
and thus still divided the market with Aldus, and uow 
Wore successfully than at the first. . 

In 151)1, 1502, 1503, 1504, and 1505, Aldus printed ia 
folio, of in octavo, a considerable number of the best au* 
thors^ Greek, Roman, and Italian* such ,as Demosthenes* 
Lucian, Dante, Horace, Petrarch, Cicero's epistles to bis 
familiar friends, Juvenal, Lucan, Homer* Sophqples, £u« 
ripjdps, &c. &c. He published, at the least, a, Volume 
every Theae publications were in all respects m* 
celleitf. .Tbjey.wer^af wo*k$ the most valuable in aJLl lite- 
ratyre* anpienjt or. modem. The composition of. the types 
WPtijnely regular and .uniform; .the pres£»werk was admire 
abljf; executed ; and the ink sQ truly good, that it retains 
to this day all its beauty. and lustre of cqIquc . , 

Iq the necessary pains upon these work^ Aldus bad the 
assistance of some of the best and most learned among his 
contemporaries. His house became a sort of new academy. 
The learned in Venice began, about J 500, to. assemble 
there pn 6xed days of frequent recurrence, for conyersa* 
lion on interesting literary, topics : and their meetings were 
continued for several years subsequent. The topics on 
which they conversed were, usually, what books were 
fittest to be printed, what manuscripts might be consulted 
with the greatest advantage, what readings, out of a diver- 
sity, for any one passage, ought to be preferred. Among 
those who attended these -conversations, were, besides 
Aldus himself, the famous A. Navagerus, P. Bembo the 
celebrated cardinal, Erasmus, when he was at Venice, 
P. Alcionius, M. Musurus, Marc-Ant. Cocch. Sabellicus, 
Albertus Pius, prince of Carpi, and others, whose names, 
though they were then eminent, are not now equally in 
remembrance,/ Among those who assisted Aldus in the 
correction of the press, were men not less eminent than 
Demetrius Cbalcondylas, Aleander, afterwards famous as 
a cardinal, and even Erasmus. 

There are some curious circumstances in the history of 
the acquaintance and connexion between Erasmus and 
Aldus, : The " Adagia" of Polydore Vergil bad been 
printed at* Venice, and well received in the world. Eras- 
jftus, aware of ■, this fact, wrote from Bologna, to request 
that Aldus would undertake the printing of his " Adagia." 


362 M A N U T I U S. 


Aldus readily agreed to tbe proposal, and invited Erasmus 
upon it to Venice. When Erasmus came, it was not till 
after some delay that be obtained admittance to tbe print- 
er's closet, whose servants were not aware of the stranger's 
literary consequence. But Aldus no sooner knew that it 
was Erasmus who waited for him, than be hastened to re- 
ceive his visitor with open arms. He did more: he stop- 
ped the progress of several important Greek and Latin 
works, which he had then in the press, to make room for 
the printing of the great collection of Erasmus with the 
desired expedition. Erasmus was, in the meaft time, en- 
tertained in the house of Andrew d' A sola, father-in-law to 
Aldus, with whom Aldus and his wife appear, by Erasmus** 
account, to have lived. D 1 Asola was rich ; yet his table 
was, even for that of an Italian family, parsimoniously 
served : and Erasmus loved good cheer. The Dutchman 
made frequent remonstrances to bis friend Aldus, against 
tbe thinness of the soups, the absence of solid animal food, 
the weakness and sourness of the wine, the general scanti- 
ness of the whole provisions. ♦ The Italians* whose, climate 
and natural habits had taught them to Kve J much nffiore 
sparingly than was usual for the Dut£h and (iertnadk; 'wete 
astonished and offended by bis complaints. Stone sittall 
additions, such as a fowl or two, and. perhaps half a dozen 
eggs a week, were made on his account to the commons of 
the family. But these dainties were sometimes intercepted 
by the women in the kitchen, on their way to tbe table. 
On the table, they were devoured by tbe rest who sat at it 
still more eagerly than by Erasmus. And if he was not 
absolutely starved, he was assuredly a good deal mortified 
in his appetite for a glass of good wine and a mess of deli- 
cate and savoury meat, before he could see the printing 
of his " Adagia" entirely at an end. His humours and 
complaints made him at length a very unpleasant inmate 
to the family ; while he was, on the other hand, dissatis- 
fied still more, that his murmurs were not more complai- 
santly, attended to. They parted with mutual dislike. 
Erasmus wrote afterwards his dialogue, which has the title 
of " Opulentia Sordida," in ridicule of the parsimonious 
spirit, and the scantily-served table of Andrea D'Asola. 
Aldus and bis successors, whenever they, after this time, 
reprinted any work by Erasmus, avoided to mention his 
name, and gave him tiimply tbe appellation of " Transal- 
pine quidam homo.'' 

M AN U T I U S. 263 

Aldus, not thinking that he did enough for the interests 
of literature, in printing, for the first time, so many ex- 
cellent books in. the Latin, Greek, and Italian languages, 
gave, in his. Latin grammar, in 1501, a short introduction 
to the knowledge of the Hebrew tongue ; and even propo** 
sed to give a beautiful edition of the original Hebrew of 
the sacred Scriptures, with the Septuagint and the Vulgate 
Latin versions. Of this, however, be was diverted from 
printing more than a specimen sheet. That sheet, now in 
the royal library at Paris, exhibits the text in the three 
different languages, each occupying one of three parallel 
. columns on the same page. It is to be regretted that 
Aldus should have been hindered from completing a design 
so noble. 

In 1500, Aldus, married the daughter of the above-men- 
tioned Andrew of Asola, who had been a printer of some 
reputation at Venice, and who soon after became his son- 
in-law's partner. The "Letters of Pliny," 1508, is the 
first book which marks this partnership, " in eedibus Aldi 
et Andre© Asulani soceri." In 1 506 Aldus was a great 
sufferer by the war which then raged in Italy, and his 
printing was so much interrupted, that he was not able to 
resume it until 1512. From that to 1515, he executed 
several works, and was proceeding with others when he 
died, nearly seventy years of age, in the last-mentioned 

The character of Aldus as a printer is so well known to 
every scholar, and to such only it can be interesting, that 
it is unnecessary to enlarge upon it here. But he may be 
considered also as an original benefactor to the literature 
of the age. He published a Latin grammar of his own 
composition; and in 1515, after his death, was published 
by bis friend Marcus Musurus, a Greek grammar, which 
Aldus had compiled with great research and industry. He 
wrote likewise a treatise " de metris Horatianis," which is 
reprinted in Dr. Combe's edition of that poet. He pro* 
duced a Greek dictionary, printed by himself, in folio, 
1497, and reprinted by Francis D' Asola in 1524. He was 
likewise the author of many of the Latin translations of the 
classics, wrote many letters, some of which have been 
published, and for some years after be settled at Venice, 
gave a course of lectures on the best Greek and Roman 
authors, which was attended by a great number of students. 
Aldus, however, has not escaped the censures of criticism. 

•M M A K U T I U fc 

Urceus Godru4> the learned professor of Bologna, Mm- 
plained, that be suffered many errofs to escape imtof- 
reoted, in bis editions of the Greek authors ; that be s©14 
bis copies too dear ; and printed them with an useless and 
unsuitable width of margin. Later critics have ndt beetl 
sparing of remarks somewhat similar. Ernesti, in bis notM 
on the Letters of pliny, blames Aldus for excessive bold- 
cess of conjectural criticism. In the preface to his Taoittte* 
the same critic remarks, that Aldus rarely made on the 
second and subsequent editions of the works he printed, 
any alterations but such as consisted in negleeted errors 
of the press. It is indeed true, that the editions of Greek 
works printed by Aldus, are not always so correct *s his 
Latin and Italian editions. But their defects are owing 
to the disadvantages of Aldus's situation,, much rather than 
to negligence, or inability in himself, as a printer and a 
man of letters. He had not always a sufficient dumber of 
manuscripts to collate : and sonietjmea he could not bate 
the benefit of the judgment of a sufficient number of the 
learned upon the difficulties which occurred to him. After 
beginning to print any particular work* he often had not 
leisure to pause for a sufficient length of time* over the 
difficulties occurring in the progress of the edition. He 
might, in some instances, also, print a manuscript which 
he did not approve, lest it should otherwise have btiee lost 
to posterity. l 

MANtJTIUS (Paul), the son of the preceding, was 
born at Venice in 1 512. After his father's death, he lived 
with bis mother and her other children at Asqla, at some 
distance from Venice, while the business of the printing 
esabjishment at Venice was carried on, for the general 
benefit of the family* by his grandfather, Andrea D* Asolrf, 
and the Torresaiii, his maternal uncles. At A so la Paul 
fftad$ but small progress in letters ; he was, however, re- 
moved when very young to Vehioe, where be bad every 
advantage of instruction and encouragement to study; 
Bembo, Sadolet, BonarrUcus, Reginald Pole, and espe- 
cially Rambertus and Gasp. Contarinus, who had been 
bis father's friends, todk a pleasure to excite and direct 
him in his literary pursuits* Under their tuition he ap- 
plied to his studies wich such zeal and assiduity as even to 

i Renouard's " Annates de I'lmprimem des Aides ou Hittoire des trois Ma- 

nuce," 1803, 2 vols. 8vo, translated and abridged in the Month. Mag. 

M AN U T I U S, 26* 

injure his health, bat he suffered more from the depute* 
that took place respecting tbe partition of the estates of 
bis father and hie maternal grandfather, between himself 
And the other heirs. His uncles *ad himself could net 
agree in the management of the printing«bou8e, and in 
l§29 it was shot up; but in 1533, hating arrived at the 
age of twenty-one, he again opened it, and renewed tbe 
business in tbd names, mod for the common benefit, of the 
heirs of Aldus, and Andrea D'Asola. In 1540, however, 
fthie partnership was dissolved ; and from tbis period, the 
business was continued in tbe name! of the sons of Aldus 

Paul became now indefatigable in tbe management of 
the printing establishment; and as tbe most valuable re-* 
Bains of Grecian literature were already in print, deter- 
mined to give new editions of the best Latin authors. As 
bis admiration had been principally directed to the style 
.and eloquence of Cicero,, the first work be printed was that 
author's Weitises on Oratory, which appeared from bis press 
in 1533, and the same year he published Cicero's Familiar 
Letters. He printed also at this time the fifth Decade of 
Livy, 11 Cortegiano, by Castiglione, II Petrarca, and Pon* 
tani Carmioa, torn* I. la the following year the number 
of Italiaii and Latin books which he published was very 
considerable, His first Greek publication Was Themistius* 
wbicb was speedily followed by Isocrates and Aetius Ami* 
denug. In these publications he availed himself of the 
literary assistance of various learned friends, whose atten- 
tion and corrections gave that decided superiority to the 
Akrtne editions which his father bad endeavoured to esta- 

In 1535 he accepted at* invitation to Rome, upon the 
promise of an opolent and eligible situation; but, not being 
received with vespett or attention, he returned to Venice, 
.and resumed his studies and employment. Having, howv 
ever, attained no degree of opulence, ho engaged in the 
business of education, took twelve young men of family 
into his hoose, *nd superintended their education for three 
years. Of these, two were Mattb. Senarega, who trans** 
lated Cicero's Letters to Atticus into Italian, and Paul 
Coutarinu*. 'trr l£fe8 he went on an excursion to erfajmne 
the Hfiann#crif)ts m certain old 'libraries, particularly tbe 
library of the Franoiscaos in Cfesena," which contained 
some M8S. left to their convent by Malbtesta Novellas ; 

866 M A N U T I U S. 

and such was bis reputation at this time, that he was in- 
cited to fill the chair of the professor of eloquence at 
Venice, and had the offer of a similar situation at Padua, 
vacant by the death of fionamicus. But his ill health, and 
bis predilection for his business, induced him to devote his 
whole time to the printing-house,; from wtrick & great num- 
ber of the classics issued. 

After; a second journey to Rome, in 1546, he married 
Margarita, the daughter of Jerome Odonys. His* eldest 
son, Aldus, the subject of our next article, was the first- 
fruit of this marriage : he had also twb other sons, who died 
young, and a daughter, who is often mentioned in his let* 
ten* and was married in* 1573.. In 1556 an acadtnsy was 
established at Veuice, , in the house of Frederick Badoarns, 
one of the principal senators: of the republic, . which was 
composed of about an hundred members, who endeavoured 
to unite every species of literary and, scientific excellence. 
Belonging to this afcademy was a printing-.bouse, in which 
it w*s . proposed to print good editions , of all books and 
nttkieacfipts already known to exist, as well as the original 
Stings of the academicians. Over, this establishment, 
Paul was appointed to preside, and, it was completely fur- 
nished with, new founts of his own *yp£s, and he had under 
him several other skilful printers, particularly Dominick 
Jftevilacqua. In 1558 and 1559, fifteen different books 
were printed in this hopse, none very large, but intended 
as a prelude to greater undertakings, of which a catalogue 
was published both in Italian and Latin, and may be seen 
ip tttnouard's " Annates de rimprimerie des Aides," 
vol. I. , The books printed in this academy were all exe- 
cuted with admirable correctness and beauty, and are be* 
rcome exceeding scarce, and valuable* Paul was farther 
honoured with: the professorship of eloquence in this aca- 
demy, which, however, did not exist long. It was pro* 
hably thought to have been an engine in Badoarus's hands, 
bji which he might have become dangerous to the state j 
or perhaps its expences might exceed his resources, and 
drive him to pecuniary shifts of the discreditable kind. In 
: August 1562, however, the academy was dissolved by a 
public decree. 

In 1561 Paul had been invited by Pius IV. upon terms 
of great honour and ath^ntage, to repair to Rome, and 
engage in printing the Hply Scriptures and the works of 
the father* of the churchy He accordingly undertook this 


journey, of which his holiness bore the expences, as weH 
as of the removal of bis printing-materials and of his family ; 
and conditioned to allow him, from the time of his arrival, 
a yearly salary of at least 500 crowns.- From this time, 
till the death of Pius, be continued to exercise bis. profes- 
sion as a printer -with griat .reputation at Rome, while he 
also kept open his printmg*house at Venice. But at 
length dissatisfied with his situation, and in ill health,, he 
•left ifloihe in September 1570, and after visiting several 
distinguished places in Italy^ returned to Venice in May 
1572. From Venice, after a very short stay, he went 
back again to Rome, where he was cheered <by the season- 
able liberality of the pope, Which was made more agree- 
able by being bestowed without any exaction *>f personal 
labour or attendance. '• ■.;-.;.•::. 

■ r Much of his life appears to have been embittered by 
sickness, and in September 1573 his health began to. de- 
cline very rapidly. Three months after, he thought. him- 
self better, but he had still an extreme weakness! in his 
•loins, < with frequent and; severe head-ach£s, 'tad -he. re- 
'deifeedftb' benefit frorti medicines. On the 6th. ofrApril, 
1574, he expired in the arms of his son, who, had just ar- 
rived from Venice to (attend him: in . his sickness, \ He.* had 
lived in general 4steem;> and his death was universally, re- 
gretted. He left a variety of writings, . which distinguish 
him as one of the most judicious critics, and' one of the 
most elegaut Latin writers that/ modern > times i have pro- 
duced. Of these, the principal are his. letters in Latin 
and Italian, his Commentaries on the works of his favourite 
•Cicero, and his treatise " De Curia Romana." . The pro* 
ductiens of *his presses are all of the highest value, for both 
acquracy and beauty. 1 . m.:. ... ». , 

. MANUTIUS (Aldus), the younger, son of the pre- 
ceding,^ was born m 1547. His father paid the utmost 
attention to bis ^education ; and so extraordinary was the 
progress of the youth in learning, that he Was enabled to 
give the world " A collection of elegant * phrases in the 
Tuscan and Latin language*;" when .he was only eleven 
years of age. Other juvenile works at, different periods 
marked his advances in classical literature, and he soon 
became his father's assistant in. bis labours. When very 
young, he conducted the printing-business at Venice while 


1 Renouard, fcc. 


father was engaged at Rome. In » 1 572 he married * 
,ledy of the Giunti family, so well known ia (he annuls of 
.typography; and oa the death of his father in 1574, all the 
eMCeree of the Aldine prats devolved upon hifia. He waa, 
however, less calculated for the business. of a (printer than 
for the profession of an author. In 1$7T he was appointed 
professor of the belies lettres in the school of the Venetian 
chancery, in which young men designed for public em- 
ploy ments. were educated. This Office be held till 1 585, 
when he was made professor of rhetoric at Bologna.. In 
the. same year lie published the. " .Life rf Cpam* dc Ma- 
-dici/' whkb wtas.sowell received* that he! was [almost int*- 
mediately invited to undertake the professorship <rf .polite 
Ikeratujre. at Piaey which he accepted, aitbeftgh he received 
an invitation at the same time to a professorship at Rome* 
Which bad been lately held; by Muratus* During his stay 
-el Pisa he jr*oeived the degree of doctor of laws, and was 
admitted a. member of the Florentine academy, on which 
eeoasion he delivered an eloquent oration " On the nature 
of Petetiy." He now paid a visit to Lucca in order to ob- 
tain materials for * " History of Castruccio Castraoani," 
-which he afterwards published* and which is much ap- 
plauded by Thuanus. The Roman; professorship: being 
reserved for him, he removed thither in 1*588, and <iatead«» 
ing to spend bis life there, he caused hia whojt library to 
be brought to Rome from Venice, at a very greet expenoe. 
He was in high favour with Sixtus V. who gave him an 
apartment in the Vatican, and a table, at the public- est* 
pence. He was also patronized in various. ways by Cle* 
snent VIII. He difed' in the fifty-firstyear of his age, in 
October, 1667/. He left no posterity, and with him ended 
the glory of the A 1 dine press. His 1 library » consisting of 
80,000 volumes, collected by himself and bis predecessors, 
was sold to pay his debts,. He . was author of many per- 
formances besides those already mentioned, but the moat 
celebrated of his works were his " Commentaries on all 
the Works of Cicero/' in ten volumes/ His "Familiar 
Letters/' published in 1592, were highly esteemed ; but 
M« Itenouard confesses, that were it not from fats inheriting 
the Aldine offices, it might not have been remembered be 
bad ever been a printer ; yet, though difference of taste 
gave hia studies a different bent, his numerous writings, 
notwithstanding they were inferior to bis father's and grand- 
father's, sufficiently prove his industry and learning, and 

MA PES. *e» 

jtistify, to a certain point, the eommefidatkms besttfwed eh 
htm by ma»y to wham bistfcerit* were known. * ' ' ) 

MAPES (Walter), mt pfcet of some celebrity fbrkltf 
time* which was that - of • Heeiry II. of England, whose 
chaplain he was about 1190. After the death of that 
mouarch he held the same odice under prince John, and 
kred familiarly with him. He was then made a canon of 
Salisbury, afterwards precentor of Lincoln, and in the 
eighth year of Richard I. archdeacon of Oxford. He wrote 
in Latin; and some of hi* verses, which are in a light and 
satirical style; are still extant. There is in the Bodleian a 
work of his under the assumed name of Valerius, entitled 
" Valerias ad Jlufinum de oott ducenda uxore," with a 
large glpssj He perhaps adopted this name because one 
Vjderias had written * treatise on the same subject in St. 
Jerom't works. Wartofi thinks it probfeble that he trans- 
lated from Latin into French the popular romance of Saint 
Gnaal, at the instance of Henry II. He was* also cele- 
brated fpr his wit and facetiousness in conversation. When 
M heard a natural son of Hetiry II. swear by his father 9 * 
royalty, be told him to remember also hid mother's honesty. 
Be wrote a *' Compendium Topograph!^ and " Epi- 
tome Cambria* ;*' and is* thought to hare written a " De- 
scriptio Norfolciffi," which, says Mr. Gough, if we could 
find it, would be a rateable curiosity. Mapes was often 
confounded with a contemporary poet, Golias, of a similar 
genius ; and some have supposed that Golias was a name 
- assumed by Mapes. But according to Warton's informa- 
tion^ they were different persons. * 
. MAPLET (John), a physician and scholar, was the son 
of * father of both his names, whom Wood calls M a suf- 
Aciertf: shoemaker," and was born in 1616 in St. Martin's* 
ie-graad-, London, and educated' at Westminster-school. 
He wjis thence elected a student of Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1630, wbete he took his degrees in arts. Wood 
ogives it as a report that he \yas first admitted to holy orders, 
hothrsjnore certain that be was made M. D. in 1647, and 
principal of Gloucester Hall. He then travelled on the 
continent with his pupil, Lucius, lord Falkland, for two 

. l Ifcnouartl. — Dibdiu's Classics.— and Bibl. Spenceriana passion, for notipes 
•fallthe Aldi. 

* Leland.— Tanner.— Warton's Hist, of Poetry.— Cave, vol. IX.-*Fabricii 
Bibl. Lat. Med. 

tW MA.P.LE T. 

yean 9 and wtotys an account of his travels in Latin, which 
Guidot promised to publish. He then travelled with Hen- 
ry, brother to Lucius lord Falkland, and on his return 
settled .^s a physician at Bath in summer, and at Bristol 
in wiqtpr f . and had great practice. During the usurpation 
he had been ejected from his office of principal of Glou- 
cester Hall, but was restored in 1660, and soon after re- 
signed it. He died at Bath, Aug. 4, 1670, and was buried 
in the cathedral, with a monument and inscription cele- 
brating his learning and skill as a physician. Wood speaks 
of his Consultations with certain physicians, his cosmetics, 
and his, poems, and epitaphs, but does not say where these 
are to be found, or whether printed. He has not escaped 
the diligence of Eloy, who, however, merely copies from 
the Ath. Ox. The only publication printed appears to have 
been a collection of letters on the efficacy of the Bath 
waters, , published by Guidot under the title " Epistolangfri 
Medicariyn specimen de Thermarum Batboniensiunnef- 
fectis, ad clariss. medicos D. Bate Eraser, Wedderbourne, 
&c." Lond. 1694, 4to. He appears to have been a dif- 
ferent person from the J. Maplet who wrote " A Discourse 
of metals, stones, herbs, &c." printed in 8vcr. This is 
mentioned by Dr. Pulteney, who says the author was of 
Cambridge. 1 **'.•<;' 

MAPLETOFT (John), a very learned. Englishman, was 
descended , from a good family in Huntingdonshire, and 
born at Margaret-Inge, in June 1631. He was educated 
under the famous Busby at Westminster-school, .and being 
king's scholar, was elected thence to Trinity college,; Cam* 
bridge, in 1648. He took his .degrees in arts' at the re- 
gular time, and was njade fellow of his .college Jn 1653. 
In 1658 he left the college in order to be tutor to Joseelin, 
son of Algernon, the last earl of Northumberland, with 
whom he continued till 1660, and then travelled at his own 
expence, to qualify himself for, the -profession of physic, 
into which he had resolved to enter some years before. 
He passed through France to Home, where he lived near 
a year iu the bouse of the hoti. Algernon Sidney, to whom 
he was recommended by his uncle the earl of Northumber- 
land. In 1663 he returned to England, and to that earl's 
family ; and, taking his doctor of physic's degree at Cam- 
bridge in 1667, he practised in London. Here he cqbl- 

1 Ath. Ox. vo!. If,— Pultncy's Sketches.— E!oy Diet. Hist, de MWipjne. ; 


tracted an acquaintance- with many eminent persons in bis* 
own faculty, as< Willis, Sydenham, Locke; and with se- 
veral of the most distinguished divines, as Whichcote, 
Tilloteon, Patrick, Sherlock, Stillingfleet, Sharp, and Clag- 
get. hi I670he attended lord Essex in his embassy to 
Denmark; and, in 1672, waited on the lady dowager 
Northumberland into France. In March 1675, he was 
chosen professor of physic in Gresham college, London; 
and, in 1676, attended the lord ambassador Montague, 
and lady Northumberland, to France. The same year 
Dr. Sydenham published ihis " Observations medicae circa 
inorborum acutorum historiahi et curatjonem," which he 
dedicated to Dr.Mapletoft; who, at the desire of the 
author, had translated theta into. Latin. • He held has pro- 
fessorship at Gresham till October 1679, and married the 
month following. ■' > 

Soon after his marriage he relinquished the practice of 
physic, and retired, in order to turn bis* studies to divinity. 
In March 1689, be took both deacon's and priest's orders, 
andi was. soon * after presented to the rectory of Braybrooke 
in Northamptonshire, by lord Griffin. In 16S4 he was 
chosen lecturer of Ipswich, and a year after, vicar of St. 
Lawrence Jewry, and lecturer of St. Christopher's in Lon- 
don. In 1689 he accumulated bis doctor's degree in di- 
vinity, while king William was at Cambridge. In 1707 
be was chosen president of Sion college, having been a 
benefactor to their building and library. He continued to 
preach in his church of St; Lawrence Jewry till he was 
turned of eighty ; and, when he vyks thinking of retiring, 
he printed a book entitled " The prineiples and duties of 
the Christian religion," &c. 1710, 8vo, a copy of which 
he sent to every house in his parish. He lived the last ten 
years of his life with his only/daughter Elizabeth, the wife 
of Dr. Gastrell, bishop of Chester, sometimes at Oxford; 
and in the winter at Westminster, where he died in 1721, 
in his ninety-first year. He was a very polite scholar, 
wrote Latin elegantly, was a great master of the Greek, 
and understood well the French, Spanish, and Italian 

Besides his Latin translation of Sydenham's " Observa- 
tiones medicae," and " The principles and duties of the 
Christian religion," he published other tracts upon moral 
and theological subjects; and, in the appendix to " Ward's 
Lives of the professors of Gresham college/' from which 


this account is extracted, there are insetted three Latitf 
lectures of his, read at Gresfaam in 167S, upon the origin 
of the art of medicine, and the history of its invention. ' 

MAPLfiTOFT (Robert), an English divine, was born 
at North Tboresby in the county of Lincoln, in the be* 
ginning of 1610, of which place his father, Henry Maple-* 
toft, was many years rector. He was educated at the free 
grammar school of Louth, and admitted of Queen's college 
in -Cambridge* When he had taken the degree of B. A. 
he removed to Pembroke hall, and was there made fel- 
low January 6, 1630; and in or about 163$ was appointed 
tbaplain to bishop Wren. He was one of the university 
preachers in 1641, and was some time after one of the 
proctors of the university. In 1644 (being then bachelor 
io divinity) he was ejected from his fellowship for not taking 
the covenant. After this he retired, and lived privately 
among bis friends, and particularly with sir Robert Shirley 
in Leicestershire, where he became acquainted with Dr« 
Sheldon, who became archbishop of Canterbury. He had 
afterwards a private congregation in Lincoln, where he used 
to officiate according to the Liturgy of the church of 
England : this had like to have produced him much trouble; 
but it being found that he had refused a considerable sum 
of money offered him by his congregation, he escaped pro* 
sectuion. Oil the restoration he returned to Cambridge, 
and was re-instated in his fellowship, and was presented by 
the Crown, August 1, 1660, on the death of Dr. Newell, t* 
the prebend of Clifton in Lincoln cathedral, to which he 
was installed August 23, 1660: and then resigning it, he 
was ,alsQ on the same day installed to the sab-deanery of 
the same church, which he resigned in 1671 ; and about 
the same time he became rector of Clay worth in Notting- 
hamshire, which living he afterwards exchanged for the 
vicarage of Sobam, in Cambridgeshire. In 1661 he re- 
signed his fellowship, and about that time was invited by 
archbishop Sheldon to be chaplain to the duchess of York, 
then supposed to be inclining to popery, and in want of a 
person of Dr. Mapletoft's primitive stamp to keep her 
steady to her religion ; but he could not be prevailed upon 
to accept the appointment. In 1664 he was elected mas- 
ter of Pembroke hall, and became doctor in divinity, and 
was by the king, August 7, 1667, promoted to the deanery 

* Ward's prcibaia Profewrs.— Biof. Brit. Supplement, vol. VII. 


of Ely. He served the office of vice-chancellor of the 
university of Cambridge in 1671, and died at Pembroke 
hall, August 20, 1677. His remains, according to his own 
desire, were deposited in a vault in the chapel of that 
college, near the body of bishop Wren, the founder of it, 
his honoured friend and patron, without any memorial. 

Dr. Mapletoft lived very hospitably at Ely, and wherever 
be resided, and was esteemed for the many pious and 
charitable acts in his life-time; and, at bis death, after 
many gifts, legacies, and charitable donations, he be- 
queathed to the university 100/. towards purchasing Go- 
lius's library of Oriental books for the university library ; 
and in case that design was not executed, then to some 
permanent university use, at the discretion of the vice- 
chancellor and the two professors of divinity ; 100/. to poor 
widows, chiefly clergymen's. His benefactions to the 
church of Ely were, to the dean and chapter for ever, all 
his close called hundred acres in the Wash in the town of 
Coveney, for the increase of the singing men's stipends, 
and on condition that they should frequent early prayers 
in the cathedral. He also bequeathed to the same church 
his library of books, and 100/. toward fitting up a place to 
receive them, and furnishing it with more books; to each 
of the prebendaries a ring of 20s. to each* minor canon and 
schoolmaster 205. to each singing-man and verger 10s. and 
to the choristers 5s. each. 

In a codicil to his last will, signed 17th day of August, 
1677, he gives to the use of the town of North Thoresby, 
in the county of Lincoln, bis two cottages and one mes- 
suage, vfrith all his lands in the same town and fields of the 
same for ever, to be settled upon trustees, for and towards 
the maintenance of one fit person to teach the scholars 
there to read, to learn them their catechism, and instruct 
them in it, to write, to cast accounts, and to teach them 
their accidence, and to make them fit for the grammar 
school, according, to the rules and orders which he or his ex- 
ecutors should prescribe ; and also gives all those his lands, 
meadow, and pasture in Saltfleetby to the use of the town 
of Louth for ever, for and towards the maintenance of one 
fit person to teach the children there in like manner as in 
his gift to North Thoresby, per omnia. He gives likewise 
to the master, fellows, and scholars of Pembroke Hal}, 
lands in Coveney for ever, on condition that they pay 
yearly for ever to two poor scholars to be called his exhi- 

Vou XXI. T 


bitioners, 4l. each, and that they lay out yearly 40*. in 
good books for the library 6f the said college. ' 

MARACCI (Louis), t learned author, born at Lucca 
in 1612, became a member of the congregation of regular 
derks, " de la Mere <fe Dieu." He obtained a name in 
, tlfe literary world by an edition of the Koran, published at 
Padua in 1698, in 2 vols, folio, and entitled " Alcorani 
Textus universes, Arabice et Latine," to which he sub* 

.,, joined notes, with a refutation, and a life of Mahomet* 

The argumentative part, however, is not always solid; the 

w cjrftjfcs in Arabic have found several faults in the printing 

of that language ; and the editor appears to be. more versed 

_.'. in the Mussulman authors thai), in philosppby or theology, 

Maracci had a large shar^in. the edition of th§ Arabic 

Bible printed at Rome iu 1671, in 3 vols, folio; and. was 

certainly very successful as a professor of Arabic, in the 

s college delja Sapienza. Innocent Xl. respected his vir-r 

tues and knpwledge, chose him for bis confessor, and 

would have raised him to the purple, had not his great 

• modesty declined that honour. He died in 1700. Niceron 

-> recounts a long list of his works. * 

MARALD1 (James Philip), a learned astronomer and 
mathematician, was born in 1665 at Perinaldo in the county 
of Nice, a place already honoured by the birth of his ma<* 
terual uncle, the celebrated Cassini. Having made a cob- 
siderable progress in mathematics, at the age of twenty- 
two his uncle, who had been a long time settled in France, 
invited him there, that he might himself cultivate the 
promising genius of his nephew. Maraldi np sooner ap- 
plied himself to the contemplation of the heavens, than 
be conceived the design of forming a catalogue of the 
fixed stars, the foundation of the whole astronomical edi- 
fice. In consequence of this design, . he applied himself to 
observe them with the most constant attention ; and he 
became by this means so intimate with them, that on being 
shown any one of them, however small, he could imme- 
diately tell what constellation it belonged to, and its place 
in that constellation* He has been known to discover 
those small comets, which astronomers pften takg for the 
stars of the constellation in which they are seen, for want 
of knowing precisely what stars the constellation consists 


) Ward's Gresham Professors; — but chiefly his life in the Gent. Mag. vol. 
LXXVII. • Niceron, vol. XLI.— DicL Hist. 

MAR 4 I; D:l. 275 

of, when others, on the $pot, and with $yes directed 
equally to the. sate e part of the heavens, cbuld. not for it 
long time see any thing of them. 

. In l TOO he was employed under Cassini in prolonging 
the, French meridian to the northern extremity pf France* 
and had no small share in completing it, He next set ,ont 
for Italy, where Clement the Xlth invited him to assist a£ 
the assemblies of the congregation then pitting in Rome, to 
reform the calendar. Bianchini also availed himself. pfhis 
assistance to construct the great meridian pf tbe Cartbu>- 
sian church in that city. In 1718 Maraldi, with three 
other academicians, prolonged the French meridian to the 
southern extremity of that country.. He was admitted a 
mepiber of the academy of sciences of Paris in 1699, in 
the department of astronomy, and communicated a great 
multitude of papers, which are printed in their memoirs, in 
almost every year from 1699 to 1729, and usually several 
paper* in each of the years ; for he was indefatigable in his 
observation of every thing that was curious and useful in 
the motions and phenomena of the heavenly bodies..^ As 
to the catalogue of the fixed stars, it was not quite com* 
pleted: just as be had placed a mural quadrant on the 
terras of the observatory, to observe some stars towards 
the north and the zenith, he fell sick, and died the 1st of 
December 1729. 1 

. MARANA (John Paol), the author of the Turkish Spy* 
a book cried up far beyond its merits, for a long time, 
both in France and England, was born about 1642, at or 
near Genoa. When he was only twenty-seven or twenty- 
eight, be was involved in the conspiracy of Raphael de la 
Torre, who was desirous to give up Genoa to the duke of 
Savoy. After being imprisoned four years, he retired to 
Monaco, where he wrote the history of that plot, printed 
at Lyons, jn 1632, in Italian. It contains some curious 
particulars. , 

Marana, who had always wished to visit Paris, in 1682 
went to settle there; and his merit being distinguished, 
be found patronage from several people of consequence* 
He there wrote his " Turkish Spy," in 6 vols, duodecimo, 
to which a seventh was added in 1742, when the last edi- 
tion appeared. Though the style of this work was neither 

* Hottoa'8 Diet.— Martin's Biog. Phitoi.— Fabroni Vita Italorum, vol. VIII. 
— Moreri. 

T 2 

276 M A K A N A. 

precise, correct, nor elegant, it was greatly relished by the 
public. The author had the art to interest curiosity by an 
amusing mixture of adventures, half true and half ficti- 
tious, but all received at the time as authentic, by persons 
of confined information. Few supposed the author to be 
a real Turk, but credit was given to the unknown Euro- 
pean, who, under a slight fiction, thus delivered opinions 
and anecdotes, which it might not have been safe to pub- 
lish in a more open manner. The first three volumes were 
most approved ; the next three, which are in reality much 
inferior, were received with a proportionable degree of 
attention. The whole are now the amusement of few ex- 
cept very idle readers. Many other spies of a similar kind 
have been formed upon this plan. Marana lived at Paris, 
rather in a retired manner, which suited his taste, to 1689, 
when the desire of solitude led him to retire into Italy, 
where he died in 1693. 1 

MARAT (John-Paul), a prominent actor in the French 
revolution, was born of protestant parents, in Neufehatel, 
in 1744. In early life he went to Paris to study physic, 
and appears to have made very great proficiency in it; 
but probably from not having patience to pursue the pro- 
fession in a regular course, he became an empyric, selling 
his medicines at an extravagant price. On the breaking 
out of the revolution, he took the lead among the most 
violent and savage of all the factions that disgraced the ca- 
pital ; and had endeavoured to preach murder and rob- 
bery long before it appeared probable that such crimes 
could have been practised with impunity. His first publi- 
cation was a periodical paper, entitled the "Publiciste 
Parisien," in wliich he, without scruple, and without any 
regard to decency and truth, attacked Neckar, and other 
men eminent for their integrity and public talents. His 
next paper was entitled " The Friend of the People," in 
which he more openly excited the troops to use their arms 
against their generals, the poor to plunder the rich, and 
the people at large to rise against the king. Afte/ the de- 
position of Louis XVI. he was named a deputy of the de- 
partment of Paris to the convention, in which assembly be 
appeared armed with pistols. In April 1793, he publicly 
denounced the leaders of the Brissotine party, accusing 
them of treason against the state : he was supported by 


1 Moreri, — Diet. Hist. 

MARAT. 277 

Robespierre ; a.violent tumult ensued, but Marat and his 
friends were subdued, and himself impeached and prose* 
.cuted; in a few days, being brought to trial, he was acquit- 
ted. The triumph of his party was now unbounded, and 
they soon gained such an ascendancy over their enemies, 
that they murdered or banished all that attempted to obstruct 
the progress of their nefarious projects ; till at length their 
ieader Marat fell a victim to the enthusiastic rage of a fe- 
male, Charlotte Cord6, who had travelled from Caen, in 
Normandy, with a determination of rescuing, as she hoped, 
her country from the hands of barbarians, by the assassi- 
nation of one of the chief among them. He died unpitied 
by every human being, who was not of the atrocious fac- 
tion which he led, having, for some weeks, acted the most 
savage parts, and been the means of involving many of the 
most virtuous characters in France in almost indiscriminate 
slaughter. Previously to joining in revolutionary politics, 
he was Ifiiown as an author, and published a work *' On 
Man, or Principles of the reciprocal Influence of the Soul 
and Body," in two volumes, 12mo: also some tracts on 
Electriqity and'Light, in which he attacked the Newtoniaci 
System. These works had been forgot long before he 
began to make a figure in the political world ; but it \i 
remarkable that bis death occasioned a fresh demand for 
them. They are now, however, again sunk into oblivion, 
and his name is never mentioned but with contempt and 

MARATTI (Carlo), one of the most admired painters 
of the Italian school, was born in 1625, at Camerino in the 
march of, A neon a. When quite a child he is said to have* 
pressed out the juices of flowers, which he used for colours 
in drawing on the walls of his father's house. This pro- 
pensity most probably induced his parents to send him to 
Rome a^ eleven years old; where, by his manner of copy- 
ing the designs of Raphael in the Vatican, he obtained 
the favour of Andrea Sacchi, and became his pupil. From 
the grace and beauty of his ideas he was generally em- 
ployed in painting Madonnas and female saints; on which 
account he was, by Salvator Rosa, satirically called 
Carluccio delta Madonna. He was far from being ashamed 
of this name, and in the inscription placed by himself on 
his monument (nine years before his death), he calls it 

1 JBiog. Modefne —Dick Hist.— Rees's Cyclopaedia. 



278 M A R A T t I. 


gloriosum cognomen? and professes his particular devotion 
to the Virgin Mary. The pope, Clement XI. gave him a 
pension, and the title of Caoatiero ii Cristo ; and he wats 
appointed painter in ordinary to Lours XIV. He died at 
Rome, loaded with honours, in IT IS, at the advanced! age 
of eighty-eight Extreme modesty and gentleness were 
the characteristics of bis disposition ; and his admiration 
of the great models he had studied was such, that not 
content with having contributed to preserve the works of 
Raphael and the Car*ccis in die Farnese gallery, he erected 
monuments to them in the Pantheon, at his own expehce. 
Sfveral plates are extant, etched by him in aquafortis, in 
which he has displayed abundant taste and genius. 

Of this artist Mr. Fuseli says, that although " he enjoyed 
in his life the reputation of one of the first painters of 
Europe, his talent seldom rose above mediocrity ; he de- 
lighted in easel-pictures or altar-pieces, though not unac- 
9uaihted with fresco. He is celebrated for the lovely, mo- 
est, and yet dignified air of bis* Madonnas, the grace of his 
angels, the devout character of his saints, and their festive 
dresses. His best pictures are in the style of Sacchi: those 
ior bis second manner are more elaborate, more ankibusly 
Studied, but, with less freedom, have less grandeur; The 
masses of his draperies are too much intersected, shew the 
naked too little, and sometimes make his figures appear too 
heavy or too short, He certainly aimed at fixing Ips prin- 
cipal light to the most important spot of his picture; bur, 
being unacquainted with the nature and the gradations 
of shade, involved its general tone in a certain mistiness, 
which was carried to excess by his pupils, and became a 
characteristic mark of his school; He studied in his youtfk 
the style and works of Raphael with the, most sedulous 
attention, and strove to imitate him at every peridd of ftis 
practice ; but it does not appear that he ever discriminated 
his principles of design or composition, notwithstanding 
the subsequent minute and laborious employment of re- 
storing his frescoes. , * ' ♦ 

"The churches and palaces of Rome, filled with th* 
pictures of Maratti, bear witness of his popularity *' bti$ 
perhaps,, no work of his can impress us with a more *Jj|* 
Vfmtageous opinion of bis powers, than the fifathsftebti 
viewed by David ; a work, of which it is easier to feel ; than 
to describe the charms fr which has no rival, and seems to 
preclude all hope of equal success in any future repetition 

M A ft A T T I. X?9 

of the subject*' Maratti had a, daughter, Marijjtfaratti, 
whom he instructed himself in the art ; hexportrait, exe- 
cuted by herself, in a painting att^iide, is in the gallery 
Corsini at Rome. ' 

MARC A (Peter de), one of the greatest ornaments of 
the Gallican church, but a man of great inconsistency of 
character, was born in 1594, at Gam, in Beam, of a very 
ancient family in that principality. He went through his 
course of philosophy among Jthe Jesuits, and theti studied ' 
the law for three years; after which he was received a 
counsellor in 1615, in the supreme council at Pail. In 
1621 hie was made president of the parliament of Beam f 
and going to Paris in 1639, about the affairs of his pro- 
vides, was made a counsellor of state. In 1640 he pub- 
lished " "the History of Beaih," which confirmed the good 
opinion that was conceived of his knowledge and parts. 
fee was thought, therefore, a very proper person to under- 
take a delicate and important subject, which offered itself 
about that time. The bourt of France was then it variance 
witb tile court of Ronie, and the book which Peter de Puy 
published, concerning the liberties of the Gallican church, 
greatly alarmed the pahffians of the court of Rome ; sotoe 
3f whom endeavoured to pefsuade^he world that they were > 
the preliminaries of a schism (GonMvAl by cardinal* Riche* 
lieu ; as if his emihency had it in his head to erect a patri- 
archate in that kingdom, in order "to render the Gallican 
cdtarch independent bf the pope. A French divide, M. 
hersent (see Hersen*), who took the name of Optatus 
Gallus, addtessed -A book" to the clergy upon the subject; 
and insinuated that the cardinal had brought over to bis 
party a great persotlage, who was 'ready to defend this 
conduct of the cardinal; and this grfeat personage was 
Pete'r deMa^rca. But an insinuation of this nature tending 
Mb ihfeke the cardinal odious, as it occasioned a rumour 
that 'bfe aspired to the patriarchate, the king laid his com- 
tfjjftftb dn'tfe Marca to refute Hersent's work, and at the 
same time to preserve the liberties of the Gallican church 
6n the one hand, and to make it appear on the other that , 
flfttee liberties did not in the least diminish the reverence 
dtt&td^he holy see. . He accepted of this commission, ami 
executed it by his book "De Concordia sacerdotii & iifiperii, 

- J r A^uvm^, to!. I.-iPMttgtoa by Fuieli. r 4ir J. Rejrnold^ WotU;itl 

280 MARC A. 

sive, de libertatibus ecclesiae Gallicae," which be published 
in 1641. He declared in his preface, that he did not enter 
upon the discussion of right, but confined himself to the 
settling of facts : that is, he only attempted to shew what 
deference the Western churches had always paid to the 
bishop of Rome on the one side; and on the other, what 
rights and privileges the Gallican church had always pos- 
sessed. But though he. had collected an infinite number 
of testimonies in favour of the pope's power, the work was 
of too liberal a cast not to give offence : perhaps even the 
very attempt to throw the subject open to discussion was not 
very agreeable ; and accordingly, the court of Rome made 
a great many difficulties in dispatching the bulls which 
were demanded in favour of de Marca, who bad, in the 
end of 1641, been presented to the bishopric of Conserans. 
That court gave him to understand that it was necessary 
he should soften some things he had advanced ; and caused 
his book to pass a very strict examination. After the 
death of Urban VlII. cardinal Bichi warmly solicited Juno- 
cent X. to grant the bulls in favour of the bishop of Con- 
serans ; but the assessor of the holy office recalled the 
remembrance of the complaints which had been made 
against his book " De Concordia," which occasioned this 
pope to order the examination of it anew. De Marca, 
despairing of success unless he gave satisfaction to the 
court of Rome, published a book in 1646, in which he 
Explained the design of his " De Concordia," &c. sub- 
mitted himself to the censure of the apostolic see, and 
shewed that kings were not the authors, but the guardians 
of the canon laws. ".I own," says he, " that I favoured the 
side of my prince too much, and acted the part of a president 
rather than that of a bishop. I renounce my errors, and pro- 
mise for the future to be a strenuous advocate for the au- 
thority of the holy see." Accordingly, in 1647, he wrote 
a book entitled " De singqlari primatu Petri," in which he 
proved that St, Peter was the only head of the church; 
and this he sent to the pope, who was so pleased with it, 
that he immediately granted his bulls, and be was. made 
bishop of Conserans in 1648. This conduct of de Marca 
has been noticed by lord Bolingbroke, in his posthumous 
work's* wit^ .becoming indignation. Recalls him "a time-* 
serving priest, interested, and a great flatterer, if ever 
there was one;" an 4 adds, that, " when he could not get 
his bulls dispatched, he made no scruple to explain awfcjr 

M A R C A. 281 

all that "he had said in favour of the state, and to limit the 
papal power." 

In 1644, de Marca was sent into Catalonia, to perform 
the office of visitor -general, and counsellor of the viceroy, 
which he executed to the year 1651, and so gained the; 
affections of the Catalonians, that in 1647, when he was 
dangerously ill, they put up public prayers, and vows for 
his recovery. Th/e city of Barcelona, in particular, made a 
vow to our lady of Montserrat, and sent thither in their name 
twelve capuchins and twelve nuns, who performed their 
journey with their hair hanging loose, and bare-footed. 
De Marca was persuaded, or rather seemed to be per- 
suaded, that his recovery was entirely owing to so many 
vows and prayers ; and would not leave Catalonia without 
going to pay bis devotions at Montserrat, in the beginning 
of 1651, and there wrote a small treatise, " De origine & 
progressu cult&s beatse Marise Virginis in Mftnteserato," 
which he left in the archives of the monastery ; so little 
did he really possess of that liberality and firmness of mind 
which is abovje vulgar prejudice and superstition. In Au- 
gust of. the same year, he went to take possession of his 
bishopric ; and &e year after was nominated to the arch* 
bishopric of Toulouse, but did not take possession till. 
1655. In 1656 he assisted at the general assembly of the 
French clergy, and appeared in opposition to the Jan- 
senists, that be might wip&off all suspicion of his not being 
an, adherent of the court of Rome, for he knew that his 
being suspected of Jansenism had for a long time retarded 
the bull which was necessary to establish him in the arch- 
bishopric of Toulouse. He was made a minister of state 
in 1658, and went to Toulouse in 1659. In the following* 
year he went to Roussillon, thereto determine die marches 
with the commissaries of the king of Spain. In these con- 
ferences be had occasion to display his learning, as they 
involved points of criticism respecting the language of Pom-} 
ponius Mela and Strabo. It was said in the Pyren&u 
treaty, that the limits of France and Spain were the same, 
with those which anciently separated the Gauls from Spain* 
This obliged th$m to examine whereabouts, according to 
the ancient geographers, the Gauls terminated here ; and' 
d$ Marca' s knowledge was of great use at this juncture. 
He took a journey to Paris the same .year, and obtained 
the appointment of archbishop of Paris ; but died there 
J»ne 29, 1662, the very day that the bulls for his promo* 

1282 to A H C A. 

tian arrived. Hi^su&ten death, at thi* time, occasioned 
the following jocular epitaph : 

■ " Ci git monseigneur de Marca* 

Que le Roi sagement marqua, 
• Four le prelat de son e£li*e 3 
.Majs la mort qui le remarqua/ 

Et qui se plait a lq. surprise, 

Tout aussitdt le demarqua." 

He left the cafe of his manuscripts to Mr. Baluze, *wbb 
had lived with him ever since June, 1656, and who htfe 
written bis life, whence this account is taken. Baluze* 
also published an edition of his work " De Concordia," in 
1704, as originally written: The only other works he 
wrote of any note are his " Hrstoire de Beam," Paris, 
J640,4bL and his H Marca Hispanica* sive Limfcs His*- 
paoicus," Paris, 16S8, fol. edited by Baluze. Le Clerc 
Very justly thinks Baluze's account of De Marca, a pane*- 
gyric'or an apology rather than a life* The most favour- 
able trait in De Marca' s character Was bit ambition to rise by 
learning, which certainly first brought him Into notice. H6 
is said to have renounced all the pleasures of yduth, while he 
was at school, for the Ibve of books ; and tti have foretold t6 
his school-fellows, who spent their tune in vain amusements, 
the difference which would one day app'ear between *heir 
glory and his. It was at Toulouse that he laid the ground* 
work of his great learning; auti he did not neglect td 
make himself a complete master of the Greek tongue, 
which greatly distinguished him from other learned men. 
He was early mdrried to a young lady of the ancient 
fatmMy of the viscounts of Lavedan, who bore him several 
children ;-. but she dying in 1632, he went into orders. 1 


MARCELLO (Benedetto), fet nobleman celebrated for 
musical knowledge, was born July 24, 16^80, at Venice, 1 
and was the descendant of one of the most illustrious faU 
milies of that republic. He had cultivated music so seitf- 
ously.aud successfully under the guidance of the celebrated 
Gasparini, that no contemporary professor was more re^ 
iterenced for musical science, or half ^o* much praisgd fb^ 
his abilities as a compose^ Us MftrCello ; arid BeslSfefe Hrf 
musical productions, consisting of psfela&, oneHM^madri- 

. , ♦""! 

J Dupin.— pen. pfet«— Nieeri*, Tol,^U,-rP«raaltS| ^i^S^fee^Wtai 

MARC t 1 1 & 2M 

gats, songs, and cantata*, he was frequently his own poet, 
and sometimes assumed the character of lyric bard for 
other musicians. It is probable that Marc el I o had received 
some disgust in his early attempts at dramatic music ; for, 
in 1720, he published a furious satire upon composers, 
/Singing-masters, and singers in general, under the title 
of " Teatro alia Moda," or " An easy and certain Method 
of composing and performing Italian Operas in the modern 
'manner. 19 But his great musical work, to which the late 
Mr. Avison's encomiums and Mr. Garth's publication to 
'English words, have given celebrity in our own country, 
was first printed at Venice, in 8 vols, folio, under the fof- 
lowing title: " Estro poetico-armonico, Parafrasi sopra 
1 primi 50 S&lmi, Poesia di Girolamo Ascanio Giustiuiani, 
Musica di Benedetto Marcello, Patrizj Veneti, 1724 and 
1725." Dr. Burney, after a careful examination of thia 
'elaborate work, is of opinion, that though it has Consider- 
able merit, the author has been over-praised ; as the sub- 
jects of many of his fugues end airs are not only common 
&nd old-fashioned at present, but were far from new. at 
the time these psalms were composed. But, adds Dr. Bur- 
ney, Marcello was a Venetian nobtoman, as Vftnosa was a 
Neapolitan prince ; both did honour to music. by cultivating 
it; and both expected and received a greater return in 
fame than, the legal interest of the art would allow. , Mar- 
cello died at Brescia, June 25, 1739, ot, according to our 
principal authority, in 1741. He was author of a drama 
called a Arato in Bparta," which was' set by fiuggieri, and 
performed at Venice in 1704 ; and in 1 mo he produced 
both the words and the music of an oratorio called rt Giu- 
dittd." He set. the " Psyche 1 ' dT ! ta,ssini about the same 
time; ind in 1718 he published " Sonnets** Of his own 
writing, Without music. 1 ' > - » 

MARCHAND (Prosper), art author to whom the cu- 
rious in literary Aistory are greatly indebtefl, was probably 
a native of Paris, and born towards the conclusion of the 
seventeenth century. He Was bred op as a bookseller itl 
that city, a business which always requires some knowledge 
of books, but which he carried to an extent very unusual, 
and for forty years employed ^lrttost the whole of his time 
$ti inspecting the works oi eminent authors, inquiring iritii 
{heir history, their editions, differences, and every species 

i r * 

- * By Dr. Burtxy iikHfrt., tf.Mt*ic-*4udJtqj*fl C^clop^Ui.— IJpC HJiW * j 


of information which fonps the accurate bibliographer* 
During the time that Mr. Bernard published the " Nou- 
velles de la Republiques des Lettres," Marchand was his 
constant correspondent, and contributed all the literary 
anecdotes from Paris, which appeared in that journal. 
Being, however, a conscientious protestant, and suspect- 
ing that in consequence of the repeal of the edict of Nantz, 
he might be interrupted in tbe exercise of his religion, he 
went to reside in Holland, and carried on the bookselling 
trade, there for some time, until meeting with some lack ot" 
honesty among his brethren (peu dc bonne-foil qu'.il avoit 
trouvetj, be relinquished business, and devoted bis jtime en- 
tirely to literary history and biography. In both his know- 
ledge was so conspicuous, that the booksellers were always 
happy to avail themselves of his opinion respecting intend- 
ed publications, and more happy when they could engage 
his assistance as an editor. In the latter character, we 
find that he superintended an edition* 1. of Ba}'le's " Dic- 
tionary /'and " Letters," both which he illustrated with notes. 
2. " Satyre Menippge," RatisUonne, (Brussels), 1714, 3 
vols. 8vo. 3. " Cymbalum mundi," by Bonaventure de 
Perrieres, Amst. 1732, 12mo. 4. Fenelon's " Direction pour 
Ja conscience d'un roi," Hague, 1747^ 8vo and 12mo. 5. 
The abbe .Brenner's " Histoire des Revolutions de Hon- 
grie," ibid., 1739, 2 vols. 4to, and 6 vols. l2mo. 6. " Let- 
tres, . Memgires, et Negociations du comte d'Estrades," 
London (Hague), 1743, 9 vols. 12mo. 7. " Histpire de 
Fenelon," Hague, 1747, 12mq. 8, " Qeuvres de Bran- 
tome," ibid. 1740, 15 vols. l2mo. 9. " Oeuvres de Villon,'* 
ibid. 1742, 8vo, &c. &c. \\ - 

Marcband was also one of the principal, writers in the 
" Journal Litteraire," which was reckoned one of the best 
of the kind, and he contributed occasionally to other pe- 
riodical ?vorks. He maintained at the same time a regular 
and extensive correspondence with the most learned men 
in different parts of Europe ; to whom he Communicated, 
and from whom he' received communications,: and often: 
had it in his power to assist them from the stores of his own 
curious and well-chosen library. 

Besides the " Anti-Cotton, ou Refutation de Ja lettre de- 
claratoire du P. Cotton* avec un dissertation," printed a( 
the Hague in 1738, at the end of the history of Don lnigo 
de Guipuscoa, and the " Chef-d'oeuvre d'un inconnu,'* 
$ften reprinted, he published in 1740 " Histoire de Pirn- 


primerie," Hague, 4to, a work of great research, and often 
consulted by* typographical antiquaries, but deficient in 
perspicuity of arrangement. A valuable supplement t) it 
iMs published by Mercier, the abb6 of St. Leger, 1775, 
2 vols. 4to, ' which French bibliographers say is better exe- 
cuted than Marchand' s work, and certainly is more correct. 
But the work which best preserves the name of Marchand, 
was one to which we have taken many opportunities to own 
our obligations, his " Dictionnaire Historique, ou Memoires 
Critiques et Litteraires, concernant la vie et les ouvrages 
de divers person n ages distingue^, particulierement dans la 
republique des lettres y " 1758 — 9, 2 vols, folio. This has 
1>een by his editor and others called a Supplement to Bayle; 
but, although Marchand has touched upon a few of the 
authors in Bayle's series, and has made useful corrections - 
and valuable additions to them, yet in general the mate- 
rials are entirely his own, and the information of bis own 
discovering: The articles are partly biographical, and 
partly historical ; but his main object being the history of 
-books, he sometimes enlarges to a degree of minuteness, 
which bibliographers only can pardon, and it must be owned 
sometimes brings forward inquiries into the history of 
authors and works which his utmost care can scarcely rescue 
from the oblivion in which he found them. With this ob- 
jection, which by no means affects the totality of the work, 
we. know few volumes that afford more satisfaction or in- 
formation on the subjects introduced. His accuracy is in 
general precise, but there are many errors of the press, 
and the work laboured under the disadvantage of not 
being handed to the press by the author. He often in- 
tended this, and as often deferred it, because his mate- 
rials increased so that he never could say when his design 
was accomplished ; and at length, when he had nearly over- 
come all his scruples, and was about to print, a stroke of 
palsy deprived him of the use of his right hand, and un- 
fitted him for every business but that of prepariug to die, 
and the settlement of his affairs. This last took up little 
time. He was a man of frugal habits, content with the 
decent necessaries of life, and laid out what remained of 
his money in books. The items of his will, therefore, were 
few, but liberal. He left his personal property to a society 
established at the Hague for the education of the poor; 
and his library and MSS. to the university of Leyden. He 
died, at an advanced age, June 14, 1756. 

*« M A ft C H A W D 

His ?' Dictionnaire" he consigned to the care bf a friend, 
jWho has given us only the initials of his name (J* N. S. A->) 
tjo whpm be likewise intrusted a new edition of bis C4 Hi**- 
tory of Printing/* which has never appeared. This friend 
undertook to publish the J)ictiopary with the greater aU* 
crity, as Marchand assured him that the many script was 
ready. Ready it certainly watf, but in such a state as 
frightened the editor, being all written upon little pieces 
of paper of different sizes, some not bigger than one's 
thumb-nail, and written in a character so exceeding small, 
that it was not legible to the naked eye. The editor, therer 
fore, said perhaps truly, that this was the first book ever 
printed by the help of a microscope. These circum- 
stances, however, may afford a sufficient apology for the 
errors of the press, already noticed ; and the editor cerr 
tainly deserves praise for having so well accomplished hit 
.undertaking amidst so many difficulties. 1 

MARC HE (Oliver de la), a French courtier and au- 
thor, of the fifteenth century, was the son of a Burgqn* 
dian gentleman. He was first page, and afterwards gentle- 
man to Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, who so highly 
esteemed his fidelity, that be refused to give him up at 
the demand of Louis XI. La Marche served afterwards 
with zeal under Charles the Rash, who was slain ait the 
battle of Nancy, in 1477. After this, he bad the office of 
grand maitre d'hotel to Maximilian of Austria, who bad 
married the heiress >of Burgundy; and, maintaining the 
same post under the archduke Philip, was sent oh an em* 
bassy to France after the death of Louis XL He died at 
JB^ussels Feb. 1, 1501. His works are, 1. "Memoirs, of 
JChronicles," printed at Lyons in 1 562, and at Brussels i» 
1616, 4to. They are reckoned inferior to the Memoirs of 
Comines, as to their style, but perhaps superior as to their 
sincerity. The author relates several curious anecdotes in 
a manner which, though flat, is rendered pleasing by its 
frankness. 2. " A Treatise on Duels," &c. 8vo. 3. "Trif 
oraphe des Dames. d'Honoeur," 1520, 8vo; the Triumph 
of virtuous Women. This is a work of dull and trivial 
jnorality, full of quaint allusions and metaphors. Several 
other performances are said to be extant in print, and in 
manuscript, but from the account given of them there is 

1 Preface to the Dictionnaire. — Diet Hist. 

* . -4 • w 

M A R C H R. ' 287 

little motive for making tbyem the object of any further 
• inquiry. 1 

MARCHETTI (Alexander), a physician, mathemati- ( 
cian, and poet of. Pisa, was born at Pontormo, between 
JPisa and Tlorence, March 17, 1633. His talents were 
early developed, and he became the pupil and intimate 
friend of the learned Berelli, whom be succeeded in 1679, 
as professor of mathematics at Pisa. He was a man above 
prejudices, free to declare his sentiments, preferring expe- 
riment to authority, and rqason to Aristotle. He produced 
several excellent disciples, and died at Pontormo, Sept* 
,6, 1714, aged eighty-one. There are extant by him. 1. 
"Poems," 1704, in 4tp. 2. Several treatises on; philoso- 
phical subjects, among which that on the resistance of 
fluids, is particularly valued, 1-669^ 4to. After his death 
appeared, 3. A translation of Lucretius, in Italian verse, 
much esteemed for its fidelity, ease, and harmony ; yet, 
says Baretti, " the versification, in my opinion, is but in- 
different 1 ' It was not allowed to be published in Italy, 
but was published in .London, 1717, in 4to, by Paulo Rollt, 
the translator of Milton into blank verse* 4. His free trans- 
lation of Anacreon is less esteemed ; it was published at 
Venice in 1736. There is an edition of his poems, printed 
at Venice in 1755, 4to, to which his life is prefixed. 1 

MARCHETTI, or MARCHETTIS (Peter de), a phy- 
sician, was professor of anatomy at Padua, where he was 
born, and where be continued to teach that art from 1652 
until 1669, when he was allowed to resign his fchair to his 
son Anthony. In 1661, he also obtained the appointment 
to the first professorship of surgery, which he held along 
with that of anatonpy. His merit, in both procured him the 
honour of knighthood of the order of Sl Mark. At the 
age of eighty years, he retired altogether from the univer- 
sity ; and, after having enjoy ed a short period of repose, he 
died in April 1673. He left the following works : " Ana- 
tomia," Venice, 1654, 4to. " Sylloge Observationum Me- 
dico-chirurgk^rum rarjoruoV' Padua* 1664, several times 
reprinted, and translated into German. It contained fifty- 
three Cjtses of some interest, and three tracts on ulcers, on 
fittulse of the urethra, and on spina ventosa. 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri. — Bullart't Academic des Sciences.— Du Verdier, 
vol. HI. 

* Fabrooi Vita Italorum, vol. II.— Niceron, vol. VI.— £l*y D'jct Hiak. da la 


His two sons, Dominic and Anthony de Marchetti, 
were likewise both professors in their native university of 
Padua. The former was author of a good compendium of 
anatomy, according to the judgment of Haller, which 
passed through several editions, under the title of " Ana- 
tomia, cui Kesponsiones ad Riolanum, Anatomicum Pa- 
risiensem, in ipsius animadversionibus contra Veslingium, 
additae sunt,*' Padua, J 652, &C. 1 

MARCHMONT (Hugh Hume, Campbell, third earl 
of), a nobleman of great learning and accomplishments, 
was born in 170S. He was the third in succession to, and 
the last inheritor of, that title ; there being no male de- 
scendants of his grandfather, sir Patrick Hume, tDe ^ rst 
earl, and his lordship having survived his only son, Alex- 
ander lord Polwarth, who had been created an English 
peer, but died without issue of his marriage with the lady 
Isabella Grey, daughter of the earl of Hardwicke, and 
heiress of the last duke of Kent ; a peeress in her own 
right, under a limitation by Charles II. of the barony of 
Lucas of Crudwell. 

Sir Patrick Hume, the first earl, was raised to the 
peerage by king William III, for having taken a very 
leading and active part to counteract the arbitrary proceed- 
ings of Charles II. ; and afterwards the more dangerous 
measures of James II. which threatened the annihilation oi 
the liberties of the country, as well as the complete sub-' 
version of its religion ; for which attempts he was long 
imprisoned in the former reign ; and persecuted with a 
most unrelenting spirit in the latter, for having joined in 
the unsuccessful attempt of the earl of Argyle in 1685. 
King William's private regard for sir Patrick was marked 
by his majesty's granting an addition to his arms of an 
orange, ensigned with an imperial crown; and by giving 
him an original portrait of himself. 

Concerning the danger to which sir Patrick was exposed 
in the last of the two reigns above-mentioned, we have 
the following very interesting narrative in a work recently 
published *, for extracting which it is needless to make 
any apology. „ 

When a near relatibn, very dear to sir Patrick, was again 
imprisoned, he thought it adviseable to keep himself con- 

* Mr, Rose's Observations on Mr. Fox's Historical Work, Appendix No. I. p. V 
1 Eloy Diet. Hist, de la Medicine.— Haller. — ReiVs Cyclopaedia. 


cealed. The following account of his concealment is taken 
from the MS* preserved in the family by his grand-daughter. 
— *-" After persecution began afresh, and my grandfather 
Baillie again in prison, sir Patrick thought it necessary to 
keep concealed ; and soon found he had too good reason for 
so doing, parties being continually sent out in search of 
him, and often to his own house, to the terror of all in it, 
though not from any fear for his safety, whom they imagined 
at a great distance from home, for no soul knew where he 
was but my grandmother, and my mother, except one man, 
a carpenter, called Jamie Winter, who used to work in the 
house, and lived a mile off, on whose fidelity they thought 
they could depend ; and were not deceived. The frequent 
examinations and oaths put to servants in order to make dis- 
coveries wereso strict, they durst not run the risk of trusting 
any of them. By the assistance of this man they got a bed 
and bed-clothes carried in the night to the burying-place, a 
vault underground at Polwarth church, a mile from the 
house, where he was concealed a month; and had only for 
-light an open slit at the one end, through which nobody 
could see what was below ; she (his daughter) went every 
night by herself at midnight, to carry him victuals and 
drink, and staid with him as long as she could to get home 
.before day. In all this time my grandfather shewed the 
same constant composure and cheerfulness of mind that he 
continued to possess to his death, which was at the age of 
eighty -four ; all which good qualities she inherited from 
him in a high degree ; often did they laugh heartily in 
that doleful habitation, at different accidents that hap- 

• pened. She at that time had a terror for a church-yard, 
especially in the dark, as it is not uncommon at her age, 

* by. idle nursery stories ; but when engaged by concern for 
her father, she stumbled over the graves every j night alone, 
without fear of any kind entering her thoughts, but for 

. soldiers and parties in search of him, which the, least noise 

or motion of a leaf put her in terror for. The minister's 

house was near the church ; the first night she went, his 

dogs kept such a barking as put her in the utmost fear of a' 

discovery ; my grandmother sent for the minister next day, 

< and upon pretence. of a mad dog, got him to hang all his 

. dogs. There was also difficulty of getting victuals to 

.carry .him without the servants suspecting; the only way it 

was done, was, by stealing it off her plate at dinner into 

her lap ; many a diverting story she has told about this, 

>ojl. XXI. U 


290 MARCHMOtfT. 

and other things of alike nature. Her father liked sheep** 
head, and while the children were eating their broth, she 
had conveyed most of one into her lap ; when her brother 
Sandy (the second lord Marchmont) had done, he looked 
up with astonishment, and said, " Mother, will ye look at* 
Grizzel ; while we have been eating our broth, she has eat 
up the whole sheep's head.*' This occasioned so much 
mirth among them, that her father at night was greatly en- 
tertained by it ; and desired Sandy might have a share in 
the next. I need not multiply stories of this kind, of 
which I know many. His great comfort and constant en- 
tertainment (for he had no light to read by) was repeating 
Buchanan's Psalms, which he had by heart from -beginning 
to end; and retained them to his dying^day ; two years 
before he died, which was in 1724, 1 was witness to hts 
desiring my mother to take up that work, which, amongst 
others, always lay upon his table, and bid her try if he had 
forgot his psalms, by naming any one she would have him 
repeat ; and by casting her eye over it she would know if 
he was right, though she did not understand it ; and he 
missed not a word in any place she named to him, and said 
they had been the great comfort of his life, by night and 
day, on all occasions. As the gloomy habitation my father 
was in, was not to be long endured but from necessity,, 
they were contriving other places of safety for him;, 
amongst others, particularly one under a bed which drew 
out, on a ground floor, in a room of which my mother kept 
the key ; she and the same man worked in the night, mak- 
ing a hole in the earth after lifting the boards, which they 
did by scratching it up with their hands not to make any 
noise, till she left not a nail upon her fingers, she helping 
the man to carry the earth as they dug it, in a sheet, on 
his back, out at the window into the garden ; he then made 
a box at his own house, large enough for her father to lie 
in, with bed and bed-clothes, and bored holes in the boards 
for air ; when all this was finished, for it was long about, 
. she thought herself the most secure happy creature alive. 
When it had stood the trial for a month of no water coming 
into it, which was feared from being so low, and every 
day examined by my mother, and the holes for air made 
clear, and kept clean-picked, her father ventured homey 
having that to trust to. After being at home a week or 
two, the bed daily examined as usual, one day in lifting 
the boards, the bed bounced to the top, the box beiug 


full of water : in her life she was never so struck, and had 
gear dropped down, it being at that time their only refuge; 
her father, with great composure, said to his wife and her, 
he saw they must tempt Providence no longer, and that it 
was now fit and necessary for him to go off, and leave 
them; in which he was confirmed by the carrier telling 
for news he had brought from Edinburgh, that the day 
before, Mr. Baillie of Jerviswoode bad his life taken from 
him at the Cross, and that every body was sorry, though 
they durst not shew it ; as all intercourse by letters was 
dangerous, it was the first notice they bad of it ; and the 
more shocking, that it was not expected. They imme- 
diately set about preparing for my grandfather's going 
away. My mother worked night and day in making some 
alterations in his clothes for disguise; they were then 
obliged to trust John Allen, their grieve, who fainted away 
wheq he was told his master was in the house, and that he 
was to set out with him on horseback before day, and pre- 
tend to the rest of the servants that he bad orders to sell 
some horses at Morpeth fair. Accordingly, my grand- 
father getting out at a window in the stables, they set out in 
the dark ; though with good reason it was a sorrowful 
parting, yet after he was fairly gone they rejoiced, and 
thought themselves happy that he was in a way of being 
safe, though they were deprived of him, and little knew 
what was to be either his fate or their own." 

Sir Patrick, having by such means eluded all the exer- 
tions of government to have bim seized, after the failure 
of the duke of Argyle's attempt, escaped to France, and 
travelled through that country, as a physician, to Bour- 
deaux, from whence he embarked for Holland, where be 
attached himself to the prince of Orange, looking up to 
him, as many others both at home and in Holland did, 
as the best resource against the threatened destruction of 
every thing most dear to British subjects. 

When his serene highness came over, and happily ef- 
fected the bloodless revolution, sir Patrick Hume was one 
of those who accompanied him, and was by him created 
lord Polwarthof Pol warth, and afterwards earl of Marchcnont. 
He was also made lord high chancellor of Scotland by king 
William; an office in that country, before the Union, of the 
highest rank, as it is here. 

Alexander, the second earl, second son of the pre* 
ceding, was ambassador to Denmark and Prussia in 1715 j 

u 2 


ft! A R C H M 6 N T. 

in 1716 was appointed lord register of Scotland; and 
in 1721 was named first ambassador in the congress at 
Cam bray *. 

Hugh, of whom we now speak, the third earl, was the 
third son of the above-mentioned Alexander, and twin- 
brother f of Mr. Hume Campbell, who was in the first 
practice at the English bar, but retired from it on being 
appointed lord register of Scotland. The subject of our 
present article having finished his studies in the learned 
languages, in which at an early period of his life he was 
a most distinguished scholar, he was sent to Utrecht to 
complete his education. Here, under the instruction of 
one of the most eminent civilians of modern times, he 
succeeded in the attainment of a knowledge of the civil 
law to an extent seldom acquired, even by those who were 
to follow it as a profession ; and at the same time became 
master of several modern languages, which he read and 
wrote with great facility. 

These qualifications, with an unwearied industry to reach 
the bottom of every subject of discussion, and a habit of 
speaking, attracted great attention to him, very soon after 
his coming into parliament for the town of Berwick, in 
1734. He was one of the most active members of the 
opposition of that period ; and on the secession of Mr. 
Pulteney, afterwards earl of Bath, in 1739, he took the 
decided lead in it; but his career in the House of Com- 
mons was stopped by his succession to the peerage, on 
the death of his father, in 1740. On which occasion sir 
ftobert Walpole said to an intimate and confidential friend, 
that an event had occurred which had rid him of the op- 
ponent by far the most troublesome to him in the House. 

When the circumstances here alluded to are considered, 

• In the Gent Mag. for 1741 are 
some lines addressed by lord Chester- 
field to the late earl of Marcbmont or 
the death of. his father the preceding 

. f The resemblance between these 
brothers was so strong that they were 
frequently mistaken for each other by 
intimate friends : a remarkable in- 
stance of this occurred when the che- 
valier.&arjisay was soliciting subscript, 
tions for his Travels of Cyrus ; he had 
sent a certain number of proposals to 
both brothers to get off for him. Lord 
Marchmont disposed of all his Tory soon* 

Mr. Hume Campbell, in the midst of 
business*, forgot those sent to him; and 
walking one day in the court of re- 
quests with a gentleman who was talk- 
ing with him on a cause in which Mr. 
Hume Campbell was employed, the 
chevalier came to him with expressions 
of warm gratitude for his attention, 
in so immediately getting off his sub- 
scriptions ; on • which the gentleman 
who bad been talking with him made 
apologies to him for having troubled 
him about his cause, assuring him that 
he took him for bis brother, Mr. Hum* 


it will not be tbgught surprising that the society of his 
lordship, fend his correspondence, should have been sought 
by some of the most distinguished characters of the time ; 
he lived in close intimacy with lord Cob ham, who placed 
his bust among the worthies at Stowe ; lord Cornbury, sir 
William Wyndham, lord Chesterfield, and Mr. Pope*; 
and notwithstanding an essential difference of opinion from 
lord Bolingbroke on some very important points, he was 
so attracted by. his most extraordinary talents, as to form 
an intimate friendship with him, which continued to the 
death of the viscount, although with a short temporary 
interruption to it, owing to the part which lord Marchmont 
took in vindicating, rather or extenuating, the conduct of 
Pope, respecting the printing of lord Bolingbroke' s « Pa- 
triot King." Of this affair we have taken some notice ip 
our account of Mallet ; and shall be able to throw additional 
light on it when we come to the article of Pope, from lord 
Marchmont' s account, with which we have been favoured. 

The points on which lord Marchmont and lord Boling- 
broke differed, were occasionally .the subject of conversa- 
tion between them ; respecting which there was certainly 
some change in the mind of lord Bolingbroke, towards t\\e 
close of his life. This is proved beyond the possibility of 
contradiction by the author of a recent publication, of 
which we have already availed ourselves f. The evidence 

* The earl was one of the executors Pope entertained of his lordship's me- 
of Pope, who left his MSS. to lord Bo- rits may be judged of by the following 
lingbrok, and lord Marchmont, and lines in the inscription on his grotto at 
the survivor of them. The opinion Twickenham: 

" Approach : But awful • Lo I the iEgerian grot, 
Where,- nobly -pensive, St. John sate and thought: 
Where British sighs from dying Wyndham stole, 
And the bright flame was shot through Marchment's soul. 
Let such, such only, tread this sacred floor, 
Who dare to love their country and be poor." 
To lord . Marchmont also he be- pressing my deep regret, that soma 
queathed the picture of lord Boling- essays written by him in the latter end 
broke by Ricbardsoo, and his large of his life are not to be fouod among 
paper edition of Thuanus. Among his his works : because they would have 
lordship's papers found at his death, illustrated many interesting occurren- 
are a great number of Mr. Pope's let- ces in his own time, and would hfve 
ters, in many of which he expresses shown his mind in a different state from 
the highest esteem ami regard for him. that to which it has been sometimes 
These are now in the possession of l> is supposed to be subject. How it bap- 
lordship's sole executor, the right hon. pened that they were not published by 
George Rose. Mr. Mallet, it is not necessary to state 

f «• Having" (says Mr. Rose, In- here; they were certaiuly written j for 
traduction, p. xxxi, note C.) •• been in a letter to lord Marchmont from 
led by Mr. Fox's observation to men- Argevitle, August 8, 1740, (in my pos- 
tioii this nobleman, I cannot resist ex- session) on the occasion of the dearth 

294 M A fe C tl M O N T. 

is clear as to the a Essays" having been written and ad- 
dressed to lord Marchmont ; and it is equally certain, they 
are not among the works of his lordship, as edited by Mr. 
Mallet, to whose care the whole was intrusted, in conse- 
quence of a decided influence he acquired over his lord- 
ship, not long previous to his death. How little either of 
fame or fortune accrued to Mallet from this advantage, we 
bave already noticed in our account of him. 
' Lord Marchmont was also distinguished by Sarah duchess 
of Marlborough, in a very remarkable manner*, with 
whom he lived in the most friendly habits, and was ap- 
pointed by her grace one of her executors, with a large 
legacy, and named in the succession to a part of her great 
estate, on failure of certain heirs of her body (excluding 
the duke of Marlborough) on whom she entailed the whole; 
the discharge of which trust fell principally on the earl. 

After his lordship's accession to the peerage in 1740, he 
did not mix in public business till 1747, when he was ap- 
pointed first lord commissioner of police in Scotland ; and 
had no opportunity of tendering himself conspicuous in poli- 
tical life until 1750, when he was elected one of the six- 
teen peers, in the room of the earl of Crawford. From this 
time he took a very active share in most of the important de- 
bates that occurred, which led to his being appointed keeper 
of the great seal of Scotland in 1764 (on the death of the 

of sir William Wyndbam, lord Boling- ship, and to put together many memo- 
broke fays, after mentioning some ei- rials, anecdotes, and other miscellane* 
says he was writing, * This puts me in oos pieces which 1 have in my power, 
mind of some miscellaneous writings or the materials of which are so ; they 
that 1 shall leave behind me, if 1 live shall be addressed to your lordship 
a little longer and enjoy a little health ; most certainly ; the subject of a great 
the principal parts of them will be his- part will probably carry the whole 
torical j and these I intended to address down to posterity ; and there is nothing 
to Wyndham ; permit me to address can flatter me more agreeably than to 
the whole to you. I shall finish them have future generations know, that I 
up with more spirit, and with greater lived and died your lordship's friend.' 
pleasure, when I think that if they In which letter, lord B. says be has 
carry to posterity any memorial of my tent one of these productions to Pope, 
weakness, as an actor or a writer, they * that may not only stay, but atop 
will carry thither a character of me, his longing for the rest'." 
that I prefer to both, the character of • The duchess in her life-time gave 
Wyndham's aud Marchmont's friend.' the earl a remarkably fine portrait of 
His lordship certainly fulfilled his in- herself, when in the prime of her 
teotions, which is proved net only by beauty, by sir Godfrey Kneller, ia- 
what be said to lord Marchmont, but tended by her grace for the duke, her 
in a subsequent letter of October 1742 grandson, till she quarrelled with him 
(also in my possession), be alludes to decidedly, for bis political conduct 
closer retirement m France, and says Pope also gave lord Marchmont the 
to the earl, ' it is there 1 propose to original portrait of | himself by Rfcb- 
discharge my promise to your lord- ardson. 


duke of Athol), the office substituted for that, of lord chan- 
cellor. The last political act of his life, was the vote he 
gave on Mr. Fox's India bill ; on which occasion he was 
the first peer who went below the bar as a non-content. 

In the new parliament which met in the spring of 1784, 
after the dissolution subsequent to the rejection of that fa* 
raous measure, he was not included in, the list of the six- 
teen representative peers of Scotland. He then Sold his 
house in London, and retired to a small place in Hertfqrd- 
shire, that had belonged to the father of the countess, 
where he continued to reside during the remainder of his 
life, never having quitted it for a single day* He read in- 
cessantly in the library which he built for the reception of 
his books from London, and for the most valuable qf those 
from Marchmont house in Berwickshire, except during a 
few hours that he allotted for his daily exercise on horse- 
back, and for making improvements that were constantly 

?>ing on in his small dpmain near Hemel Hempstead, 
he visits he made were almost exclusively in a morning, 
and to his nearest neighbours only. 

It may be truly said, that there have been few; men in 
any age, who read more deeply than this . distinguished 
nobleman. The notes he left behind Him on almost every 
eminent author of antiquity, and on %he most useful pub- 
lications in modem times, afford ao unequivocal proof of 
this. He was never himself an author; but it Is to Him 
the public are indebted for the publication of the re- 
cords of parliament, from very nearly the earliest period 
of that assembly meeting, which have thrown most useful 
light on our constitutional history. The famous survey of 
all the counties in England made under the authority of 
William the Conqueror, called Domesday Book *, was 
printed at the same time. The earl died at his house m 
Hertfordshire, January 10, 1794. ! 

* This, hook, which is perhaps the oor courts of law, some aiearly at the 
oldest authentic record in Europe, it reigns- of king John and Henry the 3d, 
as perfectly legible now as it was in under the authority and direction of 
1086, when it was written 3 it was in commissioners appointed by his Ma- 
ine custody of the chamberlain* of the jesty for that purpose ; for the exeou* 
exchequer, till early in the last ceo- tion of which trust, in a manner de- 
tury, when* with a great variety of serving the highest commendation, the 
other records, it was (on the report of present Speakeil of the House of Coro- 
a Committee of the House of Lords) mons (the right honourable Charles 
transferred to a separate custody. Abbot) has a very large share of the 

Xhe publishing these valuable mum* merit ; in truth, it has* been executed, 

ments has. been followed by a very in a great degree, under his immediate 

extensive publication of the records of iu&pectioB. 

I From private communication, the source of which is perfectly authentic^ 

296 M A R C I L I U S. 

MARCILIUS (Theodore), a learned. German critic, 
was born at Arnheim, a town of Gueldres, in 1548. His 
father, who was a man of rank and learning, observing in. 
him a more than ordinary inclination for books, took parti- 
cular care of his education. He had him taught at home 
the elements of the Latin tongue, and then sent him to 
school at Deventer, where he learned the Greek under 
Noviomagus. Marcilius, having made a great progress in 
both languages, was removed thence to the university of 
Lou vain, where he applied himself to philosophy and civil 
law; and, having finished his studies, went to Paris, aud 
thence to Toulouse, where he taught polite literature many 
years. Returning to Paris, he taught rhetoric in 1578, in 
the college of Grassins, and afterwards read lectures in se- 
veral other colleges successively. In 1602, he was made 
royal professor of the Latin tongue, and the belles lettres ; 
and died March 15, 1617. Though he was not a critic of 
the first rank, yet he did not deserve the contemptuous 
treatment which Scaliger has given him. He published an 
edition in Greek and Latin of " Pythagoras's Golden 
Verses," at Paris, 1585, with commentaries, which John 
Albert Fabricius has called learned ; and notes upon many 
of the ancient authors, Persius, Horace, Martial, Catullus, 
Suetonius, Aulus Gellius, &c. which are to be found in 
several editions of their works. He was also the author of 
some Latin works, as, " Historia Strenarura," 1596, 3vo ; 
" Lusus de Nemine," &c. and some poems and orations. 1 

MARC ION, a heretic, who lived in the second century 
of the church, was boru at Sinope, a city of Paphlagonia, 
upon the Euxine sea, and had for his father the bishop or 
that city. Eusebius calls him i foams, the mariner ; and 
Tertullian, more than once, Ponticus Nauclerus. Whe- 
ther he acquired this name from having learned the art of 
sailing in his youth, or from being born in a sea-port town, 
ecclesiastical antiquity has not told us. At first he pro- 
fessed continency, and betook himself to an ascetic life ; 
but, having so far forgotten himself as to debauch a young 
lady, he was excommunicated by his father, who was so 
rigid an observer of the discipline of the church, that he 
could never be induced, by all his prayers and vows of 
repentance, to re-admit ;him into the communion of the 
faithful. This exposed him so much to the scoffs and 

I Niceron, vol Xjfol.— Mortri.— Diet. Hist* 


insults of His countrymen, that he privily withdrew himself, 
and went to Rome, hoping to gain admittance there. But 
his case being known, he was again unsuccessful, which sa 
irritated him, that he became a disciple of Cerdo, and es- 
poused the opinions of that famous heretic. The most 
accurate cbronologers have not agreed as to the precise 
time when Marcion went to Rome ; but the learned Cave, 
after considering their reasons, determines it, and with the 
greatest appearance of probability, to the year 127 ; and 
supposes further, that he began to appear at the head of 
his sect, and to propagate his doctrines publicly, about the 
year 130. Indeed it could not well be later, because his 
opinions were dispersed far and wide in the reign of Adrian; 
and Clemens Alexandrinus, speaking of the heretics who 
lived under that emperor, mentions Basilides, Valentinus, 
and Marcion, who, he says, '*' conversed along with them, 
as a junior among seniors:" and Basilides died in the 
year 134. 

The doctrines .of this heretic were, many of them, the 
same with those which were afterwards adopted by Manes 
and his followers ; that, for instance, of two co-eternal, 
and independent principles, one 'the* author of all good, 
the other of all evil. In other to support and propagate 
this principle more successfully, he is said to have applied 
himself to the study of philosophy, that of the stoics espe- 
cially. Marcion likewise taught, as Manes did after him, that 
the God of the Old Testament was the evil principle ; that 
he was an imperious tyrannical being, who imposed the 
hardest laws upon the Jews, and injuriously restrained 
Adam from touching the best tree in Paradise ; and that 
the serpent was a nobler being than he, for encouraging 
him to eat of its fruit : on which account, as Theodoret 
tells us upon his own knowledge, the Marcionites wor- 
shipped a brazen serpent, which they always kept shut up in 
an ark. He taught, that Christ came down from heaven to 
free us from the yoke, which this being had put upon us; 
that Christ, however, was not clothed with real flesh and 
. blood, but only appeared to the senses to be so, and that 
his sufferings were nothing more than appearance; that 
when Christ descended into hell, and preached the Gos- 
pel there, he brought the followers of Cain, the inha- 
bitants of Sodom, and other wicked people, who were con- 
verted from the error of their ways, back with him to hea- 
ven ; but that he left Noah, Abraham, and the other 

«98 M A R C I O N. 

patriarchs, who would not listen to bis preaching, bat trusted 
too much to their own righteousness, fast bound in that 
horrible dungeon ; that there would be no resurrection of 
the body, but only of the soul, &c. &c. He rejected the 
N law and the prophets, as being written under the inspira- 
tion of the evil god. He rejected also four epistles of St. 
Paul, together with all the gospels,' except that of St Luke ; 
out of which, and the rest of St. Paul's epistles, he com- 
posed, for the use of his. followers, two books, which he 
persuaded them were of divine authority ; calling one 
" Evangelium," and the other " Apostolicon." Such is 
•the account given in Irenseus, in Tertullian's five books 
against Marcion, and in Epiphanius. 

While Marcion was at Rome, he happened to meet 
Polycarp of Smyrna: and upon asking that bishop, " whe- 
ther he acknowledged him for a brother ?" " I acknow- 
ledge you," says Polycarp, " for the first-born of Satan/* 
Tertullian relates that Marcion at length repented of all 
his errors, and would have testified bis repentance in pub- 
lic, provided they would have admitted him again into the 
church. This was agreed to, upon condition that he would 
bring back all those whom he had seduced from it ; which 
before he could effect, be died. The precise time of his 
death cannot be collected from antiquity, any more than 
that of his going to Rome. It is certain, that he lived after 
Antoninus Pius began to reign ; for, although his heresy 
bad spread a great way under Adrian, yet, by his extraor- 
dinary vigilance and activity, it spread much further under 
Antoninus Pius. His first apology for the Christians was 
presented to Antoninus Pius about the year 140; and Jus- 
tin Martyr tells us there, in express terms, that " Marcion 
of Pontus was then living, and taught his disciples at 
Rome." ■ 

MARCK, or MARCKIUS (John de), au eminent pro- 
testaut divine, was born at Sneck in Friesland, in 1655, 
and became professor of divinity at Franeker, and professor 
of divinity and ecclesiastical history at Groningen, whence 
in 16S9 he was removed to the same office at Ley den, and 
died there, Jan. SO, 173,1. His first publication was an 
inaugural dissertation in 1676, " De augmento scientist 
theologies." He afterwards derived great reputatiop from 
his " Disputationes duodecim de Sibyllinis caroiinibus," 

1 Cave, toI. I.— Mosbekn and Miioer's.Cb, Hist. — Lardner. 

M A R C K. 39* 

Franeker, 1682, 8 vo, written in opposition to the senti- 
ments of Crasset. 2. xi Compendium theologize," Amst, 
1712, 4 to. 3. " Exercitationes Biblicss," published at 
different times, amounting to eight volumes. 4. " Exer- 
citationes miscellanea." These turn on various disputed 
passages in the holy Scriptures, concerning which be com- 
bats the opinions of the Roman catholics, Socinians, &c 
A selection from his 'works was published at Groningen in 
1748, 2 vols. 4to. In the Museum library are two of hit 
orations, one on the agreement between the old and new 
errors of popery, Groningen, 1683 ; the other on the re- 
verence due to the sacred Scriptures, Ley den, 1639* both 
in 4to.* 

MARE (Nicolas be la), was a principal magistrate of 
the Ch&telet under Louis XIV. who reposed great confi- 
dence in him, and gave him a considerable pension. He 
was employed in several important affairs, particularly 
during the scarcity of corn in 1693, 1700, 1709, and 1710. 
■He received a free gift of 300,000 livres, arising from the 
ninth part of the increased prices of admission to the pub- 
lic amusements, exhibited at the Hotel Dieu in Paris; but 
this sum did not increase his fortune, for he liberally em- 
ployed it all in the expences attendant on the gratuitous 
functions of his office, the commissions with which he was 
entrusted, and the completion of his great work. He died 
April 15, 1723, aged near 82. This worthy magistrate 
established his fame by a most laborious treatise on the 
police, in 3 vols, folio, to which another author, M, le 
Clerc du Briilet, has since added a fourth. Tbey contain a 
history of the French police, the privileges of the magis- 
trates, the laws on that subject, &c. The two first vo- 
lumes had supplements, which, in the edition of 1722, 
were thrown into the body of the work. The third yolume 
was printed in 1719, and the fourth in 1738, and not re- 
printed. There is a valuable plate of the water-conduits 
of Paris, which is wanting in some copies.* 

MARE (Philibbrt de la), was a counsellor in the par- 
liament of Dijon, deeply versed in literature and history, 
and esteemed almost as elegant a writer in Latin as the 
president de Thou, whom he had made his model. He 
died May 16, 1687, after having published several works, 

*>f which the most known is, his " Commentarius de Bello 


> Diet. Hist.— Saxii OftooMt. * Moreri.— Diet Hist. 

300 MARE. 

Burgundico." This makes a part of bis " Historicorum 
Burgundise conspectus/' published in 4to, in 1689* He 
wrote also " Huberti Langueti vita," published by J. P. 
Ludvvig, at Halle, 1700, 12H10. 1 

MARECHAL • (Peter Sylvanus), a miscellaneous 
French writer, was bom at Paris, Aug. 15, 1750, and was 
bred up to the bar, which he quitted for the more general 
pursuits of literature. He became librarian to the Maza- 
rine college, and from time to time published a great many 
works; on various subjects of polite literature, criticism, 
manners, poetry, &c. most of which shew considerable ge- 
nius and learning, and all were well received by the pub- 
lic. His very amiable private character appears to have 
procured him many friends and much respect, although his 
principles were not always sound, his person had little to 
recommend it, and an impediment in his speech rendered 
his conversation somewhat painful. He retired to the 
country about the close of his life, as he said, " that he 
might enjoy the^sun more at his ease." He died at Mont- 
rouge, Jan. 18, 1805. His principal works are : 1. "-De 
Bergeries," 1770, 12nfo. 2. " Le Temple de Hymen," 
1771, 12mo. 3. " Bibtiotheque des Amans," 1777, 16mo. 
4. "Tombeau de J. J. Rousseau," 1779, 8vo. 5. " Le 
Livre de tou&les ages," 1779, 12 mo. 6. u Fragmens d'un 
poeme moral sur Dieu, ou, Nouvelle Lucrece," 1781, a 
poem which the Diet. Hist, says is neither moral nor reli- 
gious. 7. " L'age d'or,V 1782, 12mo, an agreeable col- 
lection of anecdotes. 8. " Prophetie d'Arlainek," 12 mo. 
9. " Livre echappe* au deluge," 1784, 12mo, a collection 
of psalms in the oriental style, of which the moral is pure; 
but we are told it afforded his enemies a pretence to get 
him dismissed from his office of librarian to the Mazarine 
college. . 10. u Recueil des poetes moralistes Francais," 
1784, 2 vols. 18mo. 11." Costumes civils actuels de tous 
les peuples," 1784, 4to. 12. "Tableau de la fable," 
1787. 13. " Paris et la Province, ou Choix des plus beaux 
monumens d'architecture en France," 1787. 14. " Cate- 
chisme de cure* Meslier,"' 1789, 8vo. 15. " Dictionnaire 
d'amour," 1789, 16mo. 16. " Le Pantheon, ou les figures 
de la fable, avec leurs histoires," 1791, 8vo. 17. " Alma- 
nec des honnetes gens," 1788, a publication containing 
some impieties, for which he suffered imprisonment. 18. 

* Moreri.— Diet. Hi*. < - * 



Decades du cultivate™*," 2 vols. 18mo. 19; " Voyage de 
Pythagore," 1798, 16 vols. 8vo, in imitation of the Anachar- 
sis of Barthelemi, but greatly interior. 20. " Dictionnaire 
des ath^es," 18(K). He was also the author .of prefaces 
and introductions to various collections or engravings,, as 
the history of Greece, 1795, 5 vols. 4to, the fiorence Mu- 
seum, 6 vols. 4to, &c. 2 

MARETS (John des), de Saint Sorlin, was a man of 
genius, and a favourite of cardinal Richelieu, who used to 
receive him at his retired hours, an (J unbend his mind by 
conversing with him upon gay and delicate subjects. On 
this account, and because he assisted the cardinal in th6 
tragedies he composed, Bayle used to say, that " he pos- 
sessed an employment of genius under his eminence;" 
which in French is a pun, as genie means* g*mW and en- 
gineer ship. He was born at Paris in 1595. He has left 
us himself a picture of his morals, which is by no means 
advantageous; for he owns that, in order to triumph over 
the virtue of such women as objected to him the interest 
of their salvation, he made no scruple to lead them into 
atheistical principles, "I ought," says he, " to weep tears 
of blood, considering the bad use I have made of my ad- 
dress among the ladies; for I have used nothing but spe- 
cious falsehoods, malicious subtleties, and infamous trea- 
cheries, endeavouring to ruin the souls of those I pre- 
tended to Jove. I studied. artful speeches to shake, blind, 
and seduce them ; and strove to persuade then), that vice 
was virtue, or at least a thing natural and indifferent. '• 
Marets at -length, became a visionary and fanatic; dealt in 
nothing but inward • lights and revelations; and promised 
the king of France, upon the strength of some prophecies, 
whose meaning he tells us was imparted to him from above, 
that he should have the honour of overthrowing the Maho- 
metan empire*. " This valiant prince," says he, ." shall 
destroy and expel from their dominions impiety and heresy, 
and reform the ecclesiastics, the courts of justice, and the 
finances. After this, in common agreement with the king 
of Spain, he shall summon together all the princes of 
Europe, with the pope, in order to~re-umte all-the Chris- 
tians to the true and only, catholic religion. After all the 
Jjeretics are re-united, to the holy see, the king, as eldest 
«on of the church, shall be declared generalissimo of all 

.VDict, Hist, ♦ 

302 M A R E T 3, 


the Christians and, with the joint forces of Christendom, 
shall destroy by sea and land the Turkish empire, and la* 
of Mahomet, and propagate the faith and dominion of Je- 
sus Christ oyer the whole earth :" that is to say, over Persia, 
the eqapire of the great mogul, Tartary, and China, 

These absurdities do not appear to have lessened bis 
reputation among his countrymen, as the charge of inqui* 
sitor was bestowed upon him : and he showed himself very 
active in bringing about the extirpation of Jansenism. He 
bad been a member of tbe French academy from it* first 
establishment, and was always esteemed one of its prin* 
cipal ornaments. He wrote several dramatic pieces, which 
were received with great applause, especially that entitled 
" Les Visionaires." He attempted an epic poem, entitled 
" Clovis," which cost him several years 9 labour; and he 
was of opinion, that it would have cost him a good many 
more to have finished it, if Providence bad not destined 
his pen for works of devotion, and on that account afforded 
him supernatural assistance. This we learn from the pre* 
face of his " Delices de F Esprit," in which he professes 
that he dare not say in how short a time he bad finished 
the nine remaining books of that poem, and retouched the 
rest He also very seriously boasts, that "God, in his 
infinite goodness, had sent him the key of the treasure, 
contained in tbe Apocalypse, which was known but to few 
before bim ;" and that, " by the command of God, he was 
to levy an army of 144,000 men, part of which he had 
already enlisted, to make war upon the impious and the 
Jansenists." He died in 1676, aged eighty-one. 

His works are thus enumerated : 1. " A Paraphrase off 
tbe Psalms of David." 2. " The Tomb of Card. Riche- 
lieu," an ode. 3. "The Service to the Virgin," turned 
into verse. 4. " The Christian Virtues," a poem in eight 
cantos. 5. The four books, " On the Imitation of Jesus 
Christ," 1654, 12 mo, very badly translated into Frenck 
verse. 6. " Clovis," or France converted, an epic poem 
in twenty-six books, 1657. This poem, though the author 
thought so highly of it, as we have already seen, is wholly 
destitute of genius, and its memory is preserved more by 
a severe epigram of Boileau against it, than by any other 
circumstance. He wrote also, 7. <' The Conquest of 
Franche Comte," and some other poems not worth emir 
merating. Besides these works in verse, he published in 
'prose, 8. " l^es Delices de V Esprit," a fanatical and incom- 

M A R E f S, 305 

prehensible work above-mentioned, which was best criti- 
cized by a person who said, that at the head of the Errata, 
should be put, " for Del ices, read Delires ;" instead of 
delights of the mind, ravings of it. 9. " Avis du St. Es- 
prit au Roi," still more extravagant if possible than the 
former. 10. " Several Romances, and among them one 
entitled " Ariane," or Ariadne, at once dull and indecent. 
11. " La Veritg des Fables/' 1648, 2 vols. 8vo. 12. A 
dissertation on Poets, in which the* author ventures to at- 
tack the maxims of Aristotle and Horace. Some writing* 
against the satires of Boileau, and several against the Jan- 
senists, complete the list. His countrymen now consider 
the verses of Des Marets as low, drawling, and incorrect ; 
his prose, as disgraced by a species of bombast which ren- 
tiers it more intolerable than his poetry. 

His niece, Mary Dupre', was born at Paris, and edu- 
cated by her uncle. She was endowed with a happy ge- 
nius and a retentive memory. After reading most of the 
principal French authors, she learnt Latin, and went 
through Cicero, Ovid, Quintus Curtius, and Justin. With 
'these books she made herself so familiarly acquainted, that 
tier uncle proceeded to teach her the Greek language, the 
arts of rhetoric and versification, and philosophy ; not that 
scholastic philosbphy which is made up of sophistry and 
-ridiculous subtleties, but a system drawn from the purer 
sources of sense and nature. She studied Descartes with 
such application, that she got the surname of la Cart6- 
sienue. She likewise made very agreeable verses in her 
own language, and acquired a thorough knowledge of the 
Italian. She held a friendly and literary correspondence 
with several of the learned her contemporaries, as ako 
with the mademoiselles de Scuderi and de la Vigne. The 
answers of Isis to Climene, that is to mademoiselle de la 
Vigne, in the select pieces of poetry published by father 
Bouhours, are by this ingenious and learned lady. 1 

MARETS (Samuel des), a celebrated divine of the re- 
formed church, was born at Oisemond in Picardy, in 1599- 
At thirteen he was sent to Paris, where he made great 
advances in the belles lettres and philosophy ; and three 
* years after to Saumur, where he studied divinity under 
Qomarus, and Hebrew under Ludovicus Capellus. He 
returned to his father in 1618, and afterwards' went to 

1 Gen. Diet— Nictron, vol. XXX V.— Moreri. 

304 M A R E T S. 

Geneva, to finish bis course of divinity. The year follow- 
ing be went to Paris, and, by the advice of M. Durand, 
applied immediately for admission to the holy ministry, to 
the synod of Charenton, in March 1620, who received 
him, and settled him in the church of Laon. But bis minis- 
terial functions here were soon disturbed; for, the governor 
of La Fere's wife having changed her religion, wrote him 
a letter in vindication of her conduct, and sent him a 
pamphlet containing the history of her conversion. His 
answer to this lady's letter provoked his adversaries to such 
a degree, that a Jesuit was supposed to have suborned an 
assassin, who stabbed him deeply, but, as it happened, 
not mortally, with a knife into his breast. Thisjnduced 
Des Marets to leave Laon, and go to Falaise in 1624: He 
afterwards accepted a call to the church of Sedan ; and 
soon after took the degree of doctor in divinity at Leyden, 
in July 1625. Having made a short visit to England, he 
returned to Sedan. In 1640, he had an invitation to a 
professorship at Fraueker ; and to another at Groningen, 
•in 1642. This last he accepted; and from that time to 
his death, rendered such services to that university, that it 
was reckoned one of the most flourishing in the Nether- 
lands. The magistrates of Berne, well informed of his 
abilities and learning, offered him, in 1661, the professor 
of divinity's chair at Lausanne; and, in 1663, the univer- 
sity of Leyden invited htm to a like professorship there. 
He accepted of this last, but died before he could take 
possession of it, at Groningen, May 1 8, the same year. 

A chronological table of the works of this celebrated 
divine may be found at the end of his " System of Divi- 
nity." They are mostly of the controversial kind, and 
now seldom inquired after. , He designed to collect all his 
works into a body, as well those which had been already 
published, as those which were in manuscript. He revised 
and augmented them for that purpose, and had materials 
for four volumes in folio ; but his death prevented the exe- 
cution of that project. The first volume was to. have con- 
tained all those works which he had published before bis 
being settled at Groningen.^ The second, bis •' Opera the- 
ologica didactrca." The third, his " Opera theologica po- 
lemica." The title of the fourth was to have, been u Im- 
pietas triumphata." Its contents were to have been the 
" Hydra Socinianismi expugnata," the " Biga fanaticorum 
e versa/* and the " Fabula P>«adamitaruoi refutata ;" three 

M A R E T S. 305 

works which had been printed at different times. Marets's 
system of divinity was found to be so methodical, that they 
made use of it at other academies ; and indeed this author's 
reputation procured him so much authority in foreign 
countries as well as his own, that a person in Germany, 
who published some reflections on him, received orders to 
suppress his book. 1 - - . 

MARGARET, Countess of Richmond, &c. See BEAU- 

MARGARET, Duchess of Newcastle. See CAVEN- 

MARGARET of Valois, queen of Navarre, and sister 
to Francis I. of France, celebrated as an author yet more 
than for her rank, was born at Angoul6me, April 1 1, 1492; 
being the daughter of Charles of Orleans, duke of Angou- 
l£me, and Louisa of Savoy. In 1 509 she married Charles 
the last duke of Alencon, who died at Lyons, after the 
battle of Pavia, in 1525. The widow, inconsolable at once 
for the loss of her husband, and the captivity of her be- 
loved brother, removed to Madrid, to attend the latter 
durjmg his illness. - She was there of. the greatest service 
to her brother, by her firmness obliging Charles and his 
ministers to treat him as his rank demanded. His love and 
gratitude were equal to her merits, and he warmly pro- 
moted her marriage with Henry d'Albret, king of Navarre. 
The offspring of this marriage was Joan d'Albret, mother 
of Henry IV. Margaret filled the character of a queen 
with exemplary goodness ; encouraging arts, agriculture, 
and learning, and advancing ,by every means the prosperity 
of the. kingdom. She died at the castle of Odos, in Bi- 
gorre, Dec. 2, 1549. She had conversed with protestant 
ministers, and had the sagacity to perceive the justness of 
their reasonings ; and their opinions were countenanced 
by he* in a little work entitled " Le Miroir de l'Ame pe- 
cheresse," published in 1533, and condemned by the Sorr- 
bpqne as heretical * but on her complaining to the king, 
these pliant doctors withdrew their censure.. The Roman 
catholic writers say, that she was. completely re-cdn verted 
before she died. The positive , absolution of the Rotaistb 
priests is certainly a great temptation to pious minds in the 
hour of weakness and decline. Margaret is described as 
an assemblage of virtues and perfections, among . which, 

i Geu. Diet.— Niceron, vol XXVIIJ. — Mooeri. — Saxii Onomast. 

Vol. XXI. X 

306 MA R G A RET. 

that of chastity was by no means the least complete, not- 
withstanding the freedom, and, to our ideas, licence of 
some of her tales. Such is the difference of manners. She 
wrote well both in verse and prose, and was celebrated in 
both. She was called the tenth muse ; ana the Margaret, 
or pearl, surpassing all the pearls of the east. Of her 
works, we have now extant, 1. her " Heptameron," or, 
Novels of the queen of Navarre, 1559, and 1560, in 4to, 
and several times re-published. They are tales in the 
style of Bqccace, and are told with a spirit, genius, and 
simplicity, which have been often serviceable to Fontaine 
in his tales. Several editions have been printed' with cuts, 
of which the most valued are that of Amsterdam, in 1698, 
in 2 vols. Svo, with cuts by Romain de Hooge ;. the re- 
prints of this edition in 1700 and 1 70S, are not quite so 
much valued, yet are expensive, as are the editions with 
Chodoviechi's cuts, Berne, 1780 — 1, 3 vols. 8vo ; Paris, 
1784, and 1790. 2. " Les Marguerites de la Marguerite 
des Princesses ;" a collection of her productions, formed 
by John de la Haye, her valet de chambre, and published 
at Lyons, in 1547, Svo; a very rare edition, as is that of 
1 554. In this collection there are four mysteries, or sacred 
comedies, and two farces, according to the taste of the 
times. A long poem entitled " The Triumph of the 
Lamb," and "The Complaints of a Prisoner," apparently 
intended for Francis I. l 

M ARGON (William Plantavit de la Pause, de), a 
French author and journalist, was born in Languedoc, in 
the diocese of Bezieres. He appeared at Paris about 
171 5j and espoused the cause of the Jesuits against the 
Jansenists ; in which business he wrote with so much acri- 
mony, that the court thought themselves obliged to banish 
him* He was sent to the isles of Larins, in the Mediter- 
ranean, and when these were taken by the Austrians in 
1746, his. liberty was granted on condition that he would 
retire into some religious house. He chose a monastery 
of Bernardines, where he died in 1760. His caustic and 
satirical disposition rendered him un pleasing in society at 
well as in his writings ; and it is thought that his banish- 
ment and solitude much increased the acrimony of his cha- 
racter. He was concerned in several works, as, l." Memoirs 
of Marshal Vi liars/' 3 vols. 12 mo, the two first of which 

* Gen. Diet.— Diet. Hist. 

MARGON, 307 

arc written by Villars himself. 2. €i The Memoirs of the 
Duke of Berwick," 2 vols. 12mo. $. " Memoirs of Tour- 
ville," 3 vols. 12mo, not much esteemed. 4. "Letters 
of Fitz-Moritz." * $. Several <small tracts, and some pieces 
of poetry of no great value. 1 

MARGRAF (Andrew Sigismond), a celebrated che- 
mist, was born at Berlin, March 3, 1709. His father was 
apothecary to the court, and assessor of the college of 
medicine, and under his care his attention was naturally 
turned to the pursuits of chemistry and pharmacy. To 
pursue these, his father sent him to study under the cele- 
brated professor Neumann, for five years, and subsequently 
under professor Spielmann, at Strasburg. In 1733 he 
went to the university of Halle, where he became a pupil 
of Hoffmann in the study of medicine, and continued his 
chemical pursuits under the direction of Juncker, to which 
last science be ultimately devoted his sole attention. He 
also studied mineralogy, under Henckel, and the art of 
assaying under Susmilch. In the following year he visited 
the' Hurtz mines, and then returned to Berlin, where his 
incessant application to chemical labours so materially in- 
jured his health, that it was never afterward* vigorous. 
In 1738 he was received into the society of sciences, and 
furnished some memoirs for the " Miscellanea Berolinen- 
sia ;** and when this society was renovated in 1744, as the 
royal academy of sciences and belles lettres, he was placed 
in the class of experimental philosophy, of which he was 
chosen director in 1760. He had also the high gratifica- 
tion of being entrusted with the laboratory of the academy 
in 1754, in which he almost lived, absorbed in the study 
or practice of bis favourite art. He was, nevertheless, "k 
man of great amenity of temper, and fconsiderable; con- 
viviality, when mixing in the society of his friends. He 
had been for some years liable to spasmodic affections, and 
in 1774, was attacked with apoplexy, which left a paralysis 
behind it. He continued, however, to attend the meet- 
ings of the academy till the autumn of 1776 ; after which 
his mental and bodily powers gradually declined, and he 
<Jied in August, 1782. 

Margraf was held in considerable estimation as a chemist, 
throughout Europe, and bad the honour of being elected 
a member of several learned bodies. All the writings 

i Diet. Hiit. 

» * 

X 2 

508 M A R G R A F. 

which he produced were published in the Memoirs of the 
Literary Society of Berlin, before and after it» renovation ; 
but they have been collected and published both in Ger- 
man and French. Tbey contain the detail* of a great 
number of processes and analyses, described in clear and 
simple language. Seme of the most important of his dis- 
coveries relate to phosphorus and its acid ; to the reduction 
of zinc from calamine ; to the fixed and volatile alkalies ; 
to manganese, the Bolognian stone, platina, and the acid 
of sugar. In short, he is entitled to rank among the more 
accurate experimentalists who contributed to the advance- 
ment of the science of chemistry, before the recent limit* 
nous improvements which it has gained. 1 

M ARIALES (Xantes), a laborious Dominican, was bpra 
about 1580, at Venice, of the noble family of Pinardii 
He taught philosophy and theology for some time, but 
afterwards refused all offices in his order, that he might be 
more at liberty to study. He died 1660, at Venice, aged 
eighty, leaving several large tbeok>gie4l works, the moat 
curious among which is entitled " Bibliotheca Interpretum 
ad universam summam D. Thomie," 1669, 4 vols, folio; 
and several " Declamations," in Italian, against the liber- 
ties of the Galhcan church, which involved the writer in 
great troubles, and occasioned him to be twice driven from 
Venice. 1 • 

MARIANA (John), a Spanish historian, was born at 
Talavera, in Castille, in 1337 \ and entered into the order 
of Jesuits when he was seventeen, He was one of the 


most learned men of bis age, an able divine, a consider- 
able master of polite literature, admirably skilled in sacred 
and profane history, and a good linguist. In 1561 be was 
sent by his superiors to Rome, where he taught divinity, 
and received the order of priesthood ; and at the end of 
four years went to Sicily, where ne continued the same 
profession two years more. He came to Paris ui 1569, 
and read lectures publicly upon Thomas Aqtrina* for five 
years ; then returned into Spain, and passed the remainder 
of his life at Toledo. He wrote many books in Latin. 
His piece " De monetae mutatione," gave great offence to 
the court of Spain ; for Philip III* haviqg altered and em- 
based the coin by the advice of the duke of Lerma, Mart- 

* Eloget des Acad«miewnf t vol III.— Reei'i Cyclopsclis. 
» Moreri.— Diet Hist. 


Ma shewed, with great freedom, the injustice and disad- 
vantage of this project ; for which, he was put into prison* 
*»d kept there about a year by that minister. But what 
made more noise stiH, was his tract " De rege & regis 
institutione," consisting of three books, which he published 
to justify James Clement, a young monk, for assassinating 
Henry III. of France. In this he argues against passive 
obedience and non-resistance , asserts the lawfulness of 
resisting " the powers that be/' where -the administration 
is tyrannical; and founds his whole argument upon this 
principle, " that the authority of the people is superior to 
that of kings." This' book *f Mariana, though it passed 
without censure in Spain and Italy, was burnt at Paris, by 
?narr£t of parliament. 

: But the most considerable by far of all his performances, 
is bis " History of Spain,'* divided into thirty books. This 
be wrote at first in Latin ; but, fearing lest some unskilful 
pen should sully the reputation of his work lay a bad trans* 
Ration of it into Spanish, he undertook that task himself* 
not as a translator, but as an author, who might assume the 
liberty of adding and altering, as he found it requisite, 
upon further inquiry into records, and ancient writers. 
Yet neither the Latin nor the Spanish <came lower down 
than the end of the reigh of king Ferdinand, grandfather 
to the emperor Charles V. where Mariana concluded his 
thirty books ; . not caring to venture nearer his own times, 
because he* could not speak with the freedom and impar- 
tiality of a just historian, of persons who were either alive 
themselves, or whose immediate descendants were. 4* 
the instigation *of friends, however, he afterwards drew up 
a short supplement, in which he brought his history down 
to 1621, when king Philip HI. died, and Philip IV. came 
to the crown. . After his death, F. Ferdinand Gamargory 
Salcedo, of the order of St, Augustin, carried on another 
supplement from 1621, where Mariana left off, to 1649, 
inclusive ; where F. Basil Voren de Soto, of the regular 
clergy took it up, and went on to 1669, being the fifth 
year of the reign of Charles II. king of Spain. Gibbon 
says that' in this work he almost forgets that he is a Jesuit, 
to assume the style and spirit of a Roman classic. It is a 
work of great research and spirit, although not free from 
the prejudices which may be supposed to arise from his 
education and profession. The first edition was entitled 
" Historic de rebus Hispaniee, lib. viginti," Toleti, I5$t, 

310 MAR I A N A. 

folio. To some copies were afterwards added five more 
books, and a new title, with the date 1595, or in some 
1592. The remaining five books were printed as " Historic 
Hispanic® Appendix, libri scilicet XXI — XXX, cum in- 
dice," Francfort, 1616, fol. There is an edition printed 
at the Hague,' with the continuations, 1733, 4 vols, in 2, 
fol. The best editions in the Spanish are, that of Madrid, 
1780, 2 vols, folio, and that with Mariana's continuation, 
ibid. 1794, 10'vols. 8vo. The French have various trans- 
lations, and the English an indifferent one by capt. Ste- 
vens, 1699, fol. 

Mariana's history did not pass without animadversions in 
his own time. A secretary of the constable of Castile, 
who calls himself Pedro Mantuana, published " Critical 
Remarks" upon it at s Milan, in 16 1 1, which were answered, 
by Thomas Tamaius de Vorgas.' The latter informs us, 
" that Mariana would never cast his eyes upon the work of 
bis censurer, or on that of his apologist ; though this latter 
offered him his manuscript before he gave it to the printer, 
and desired him to correct it." - 

Besides those already mentioned, he published several 
other pieces in Latin, theological and historical ; among 
the rest, one entitled " Notes upon the Old Testament ;" 
which father Simon, in his " Critical History," says^ 
and Dupin agrees with him, are very useful for under- 
standing the literal sense of the Scripture, because he 
chiefly applies himself to find out the proper signification 
of the Hebrew words. It is, however, as the historian of 
Spain only that he now deserves to be remembered. He 
^ied, at Toledo, in 1624, .aged eighty-seven. After his 
(Jeath, was published in Italian, Latin, and French, another 
treatise of his, wherein he discovers the faults in the go- 
vernment of his society ; but the Jesuits have thrown doubts 
on the authenticity of this work, which have not been alto- 
gether removed. 1 . 

, MARIN (Michael Angelo), a writer of several ro- 
mances or novels much esteemed in France, was born at 
Marseilles in 1697, bis family having been originally of 
Genoa. He was early in orders, >and settled at Avignon, 
where, as a minim, he was much employed in all the offices 
pf his order, and preached against the Jews with no little 
success. He published some works oc* pious discipline, 

i Antonio Bibl. Hisp.— Gen. Diet.— Dupin.— Marchand Diet. Hist.-— B run et 
Mamwl du Librajjo* 

MA R I N. 311 

which were much esteemed, and gained him the favour 
of pope Clement XIII.. From this pontiff he received se- 
veral marks of honour, and was employed by him to collect 
the " Acts of the Martyrs." He had composed only two 
volumes in 12mo of this work, when he was seized with a 
dropsy in the heart, and died April 3, 1767, in his seven- 
tieth year. He was much esteemed by all worthy men ; 
and his novels, as well as his other writings, were calcu- 
lated to serve the cause of virtue and religion. The prin- 
cipal of his works are : 1. " Conduct of Sister Violet, who 
died in odour of sanctity, at Avignon," I2mo: 2. "Ade- 
laide de Vitzburg, or the pious pensioner/ 9 12mo. 3. 
" The perfect Nun," 12mo. 4. "Virginia, or the Christ 
tian Virgin," 2 vols. 12 mo. 5. " The Lives of the Soli- 
taries of the East," 9 vols. 12mo. 6. " Baron Van- Hes- 
den, or the Republic of Unbelievers," 5 vols. 12 mo. 7. 
" Tbeodule, or the Child of Blessing," 16mo. 8, " Far- 
fal la, or the converted Actress," 12mo. 9. " Retreat for 
a Day in each Month," 2 vols. 12 mo. 10. " Spiritual 
Letters," 1769, 2 vols. 12mo ; and a few more of less con* 
sequence. 1 

MARINI (John Baptist), a pnce celebrated Italian, 
poet, was born at Naples in 1569; and made so great a 
progress in his juvenile studies, that he was thought quali- 
fied for that of the civil law at thirteen. His father, who 
was a lawyer, intended him for that profession, as the pro- 
perest means of advancing him ; but Marin i had already 
contracted a taste for poetry, and was so far from relishing 
the science to which he was (tat, that he sold his law-books, 
in order to purchase books of polite literature. This so 
much irritated his father, that he turned him out of doors, 
and obliged him to seek for protectors and supporters 
abroad. Having acquired a reputation for poetry, he hap- 
pily found in Inico de Guevara, duke of Bovino, a friend 
who conceived an affection for him, and supported him 
for three years in his house. The prince of Conca, grand 
admiral of the kibgdom of Naples, next took him into 
bis service, in quality of secretary; and in this situation 
he continued five or six years ; but having assisted a friend 
ip a very delicate intrigue, he was thrown into prison, and 
very hardly escaped with his life. Thence he retired to 
Rome, where, after some time spent in suspense and po- 
verty, he became known to Melchipr Crescentio, a pre-* 

* Diet Hist, 

512 . M A R I N I. 

late of great distinction, who patronized him, and pro- 
vided him with every thing he wanted. 

In 1601, he went to Venice, to print some poems which 
be dedicated to Crescentio ; and after making the tour of 
that part of Italy, returned to Rome. His reputation in* 
creased greatly, so as to engage the attention of the car* 
dinal Peter Aldobrandini, who made him his gentleman, 
and settled on him a considerable pension. After the 
election of pope Paul V. which was in 1605, he accom- 
panied this cardinal to Ravenna, his archbishopric, and 
lived with him several years. He then attended him to 
Turin, at wtlich court he ingratiated himself by a panegyric 
upon the duke Charles Emmanuel ; for which this prince 
recompensed him with honours, and retained him, when 
bis patron the cardinal left Piedmont. During his resi- 
dence here he had a violent dispute, both poetical and 
personal, with Gasper Murtola,' the duke's secretary. 
Murtola was, or fancied himself* as good a poet as Marini, 
and was jealous of Marini's h^igh favour with the duke, and 
therefore took every opportunity toispeak ill of him. Ma* 
rini, by way of revenge, published a sharp sonnet upon 
him at Venice, in 1608, under the title of " II nuovo 
mondo;" to which Murtola opposed a satire, containing 
an abridged life of Marini. Marini answered in eighty-one 
sonnets, named the " Murtoleide :" to which Murtola re- 
plied in a " Marineide," consisting of thirty sonnets. 
But the latter, perceiving that his poems were inferior in 
force as well as number to those of his adversary, resolved 
to put an end to the quarrel, by destroying him ; and ac- 
cordingly fired a pistol, the ball of which luckily missed 
him. Murtola was cast into prison, but saved from punish- 
ment at the intercession of Marini, who, nevertheless, soon 
found it expedient to quit his- present station. 

He went afterwards to France, where be found a pa- 
troness in Mary de Medicis^ who settled a handsome pen- 
sion upon him. ' In 1'62 1 he sent a nephew whom be had 
with him at Paris,' to Rome, about business, and conveyed by 
him h& compliments to cardinal Louis Ludovisio, nephew to 
Gregory XV: then the reigning pope; which compliments 
were so well received by the cardinal, tfiat he wrote to 
him immediately to return to Rome. Marini complied, 
and quitted France about the end of 1622 ; and on bis 
arrival at Rome, was made president of the academy of 
the Umoristi. Upon the advancement of Urban VIII. td 

M A R I N I. 313 

the pontificate, in 1623, be went to Naples, and was 
chosen president of one of the academies in that city, but 
soon after conceived an inclination to return to Rome, 
which he was about to indulge,' when he was seized with a 
oomplaint which carried him off, in 1625. 

Marini had a very lively imagination, but little judgment, 
and abandoned himself to the way of writing fashionable 
in those times, which consisted in points and conceits ; so 
that he may be justly reckoned among the corrupters of 
taste in Italy, a& his name and fame, which were very con- 
siderable, produced a number of imitators. His works are 
numerous, and have been often printed. The principal 
of them are, 1. " Strage degli Innocenti," a poem on the 
slaughter of the Innocents, Venice, 1633. 2. "Rime,** 
or miscellaneous poems, in three parts. 3. " La Sam- 
pogna," or the flageolet ; 1620. 4. " La Murtoleide," 
1626,. 4to, the occasion of which has been already no- 
ticed. 5. « Letters," 1627, 8vo. 6. " Adone ;" an he- 
roic poem. This was one of the most popular poems in 
the Italian language, little less so than the Aminta of 
Tasso, and the Pastor Fido of Guarini ; and, says Baretti, 
w would cope with any one in our Italian, if Marini had 
not run away with his overflowing imagination, and if his 
language was more correct." It has been frequently printed 
in Italy, France, and other parts of Europe. >: One of th« 
most valued editions is the Elzevir, printed' at' Amsterdam, 
in 1678, in 4 vols. 16mo. ! 

MARIOTTE (Edmund), an eminent French philoso- 
pher and mathematician, was born at Dijon, and admitted 
a member of the academy of sciences of Paris in 1666. His 
works, however, are better known than his life. He was 
a good mathematician, and the first French philosopher 
who applied much to experimental physics. The law of 
the- shock or collision of bodies, the theory of the pressure 
and motion of fluid s, the nature of vision, and of the air, 
particularly engaged bis attention. He carried into his 
philosophical researches that spirit of scrutiny and investi- 
gation so necessary to those who would make any consi- 
derable progress in it. He died May 12, 1684t He com- 
municated a number of curious and valuable papers to the 
academy of sciences, which were printed in the collection 
of their Memoirs dated 1666, viz. from volume 1 to volume 

1 Njc«rOD, vol.XXXII.— Tiraboschi.*— Moreri. , 

314 M A R I O T T E. 

10. And all bis works were collected into 2 volumes in 
4to, and printed at Leyden in 1717. 1 

MARIVAUX (Peter Carlet de Chamblaw de), a ce- 
lebrated French writer of the drama and of romance, was 
born at Paris in 1688. His father was of a good family in 
Normandy ; his fortune was considerable, and he spared 
nothing in the education of his son, who discovered un- 
common talents, and a most amiable disposition. His first 
object was the theatre, where he met with the highest 
success in comic productions; and these, with the merit of 
his other works, procured him a place in the French aca- 
demy. The great object of both his comedies and ro- 
mances was, to convey an useful moral under the veil of 
wit and sentiment : " my only object," says he, " is to 
make men more just and more humane;" and he was as 
amiable in his life and conversation as in bis writings. 
He was compassionate and humane, and a strenuous ad- 
vocate for morality and religion. To relieve the indigent, 
to console the unfortunate, and to succour the oppressed^ 
were duties which he not only recommeuded by his writ- 
ings, but by his own practice and example. He would 
frequently ridicule the excessive credulity of infidels iiv 
matters of trivial importance ; and once said to lord Bo* 
lingbroke, who was of that character, " If you cannot be- 
lieve, it is not for want of faith." 

Marivaux had the misfortune, or rather the imprudence, 
to join the party of M. de la Motte, in the famous dispute 
concerning the superiority of the ancients to the moderns. 
His attachment to the latter produced bis travesty of Ho- 
mer, which contributed but little to his literary fame. His 
prose works, while they display great fertility of invention, 
and a happy disposition of incidents to excite attention, 
and to interest the affections, have been censured for af- 
fectation of style, and a refinement that is sometimes too 
metaphysical. His " Vie de Marianne," and his " Paysaa 
Parvenu," hold the first rank among French romances; 
yet, by a fickleness which was natural to him, he left one 
of them incomplete to begin the other, and finished neither. 
He died at Paris, Feb. 11, 17C3, aged seventy-five. His 
works consist of, 1. " Pieces de Theatre," 5 vols. 12 mo. 
2. " Homere travesti," 12mo. 3. " Le Spectateur Fran§ois," 
2 vols. 12mo ; rather affected in style, but containing many 

* Eloge des Acafaimcien?, vol. !. — Diet. Hist.— Hutton's Dictionary. 

M A R I V A. U X. 315 

fine .thoughts. 4. "Le Philosophe indigent/' l2mo, lively 
and instructive. 5. " Vie 4 de Marianne/' 4 vols. 12 mo; 
one of the best. romances in the French language. 6. " Le 
Paysan Parvenu," 1 2 mo; more ingenious, perhaps, than 
Marianne, but less instructive, and. containing some scenes 
that ought to have, been omitted. 7. " Pharsamon ; ou 
les nouvelles follies romanesques ;" inferior to the former. 
This was republished under the name of " Nouveau Dom 
Quicbotte." The chief objection made to this, and in- 
deed many .other writings of Marivaux, is a mixture of me- 
taphysical style, sometimes too refined to be intelligible; 
but amends are generally made for this fault, by correct 
pictures of the human heart, and sentiments of great truth 
and beauty. ' „ 

MARK, or MARCUS, the founder of the sect of the 
Marcosians, is said to have, appeared about the year 160, 
or, according to some, about the year 127. Many learned 
moderns are of opinion that Mark belonged to the Valen- 
tinian school, but Rh en ford and Beausobre say that the 
^Marcosians were Jews, or judaizing Christians; andGrabe * 
likewise owns that. they were of Jewish extract. Irenaeus 
leads us to imagine that Mark, who was an Asiatic, had 
come into Gaul and made many converts there. Never- 
theless, learned moderns think that they were only dis- 
ciples of Mark, who came into that country, where Irenaeus 
resided, of whom, in one place, he makes particular men- 
tion.. Irenaeus represents him as exceedingly skilful in all 
magical arts, . by means of which he had great success* 
Tertullian and Theodoret concur in calling Mark a magi- 
cian. Irenaeus, after giving an account of the magical arts . 
of Mark, adds, that he had, probably, an assisting daemon, 
by which he himself appears .to prophesy, and which en- 
abled others, especially women, to prophesy likewise : this 
practice favoured his seduction of many, females, both in 
body and mind, which gained him much wealth. . He is 
also said to have made use of philters and love-potions, in 
order to gain the affections of women ; and his disciples 
are charged with doing the same. Dr. Lardner suggests 
some doubts as to the justice of these accusations ; and 
jndeed there is considerable obscurity in every particular 
of his personal history. His followers, called Marcosians, 

* D'Alembert'j Eloges. — Necrologie. — L'Esprit dc Marivaux, 17(59, 8vo.— - 
Diet. Hist 

W6 MAR K, 

are said to have placed a great deal of mystery in the 
letters of the alphabet, and thought that they were very 
useful in trading out the truth. They are charged un- 
justly with holding two principles, and as if they were 
Doceta&y and denied the resurrection of the dead; for 
which there w no sufficient evidence. They persisted in the 
practice of baptism and the eucharist. As to their opinion 
concerning Jestts Christ, they seem to have had a notion 
of the great dignity and excellence of his person, or bis 
ineffable generation : and, according to them, he was born 
of Mary, • a virgin, and the word was in him. When be 
tame to the water, the supreme power descended upon 
him; and. .he had in him all fulness; for in him was the 
word, the father, truth, the church, and life. They said 
that the Christ, or the Spirit, came down Upon the man 
Jesus. He made known the Father, and destroyed death, 
and called himself the Son of Man; for it was the good 
pleasure of the Father of all that he should banish igno- 
rance and destroy death : and the acknowledgment of him 
is the overthrow of ignorance. From the account of Ire* 
naerus, we may infer that the Marcosians believed, the facts 
recorded in the gospels ; and that they received most, or 
all the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. Irenseus 
also says that they had an innumerable multitude of apo- 
cryphal and spurious writings, which they had forged : and 
that they made use of that fiction concerning the child 
Jesus, that when his master bade him say, alpha, the Lord 
did so ; but when the master called him to say beta, he 
answered, " Do you first tell me what is alpha, and then 
I will tell you what beta is/ 9 As this story concerning 
alpha and beta is found in the gospel of the infancy of Jesus 
Christ, still in being, some are of opinion that this gospel 
was! composed by the Marcosians. l 

MARKHAM (Gervase), an English author, who lived 
in the reigns of James I. and Charles I. but whose private 
history is involved in much obscurity, was son of Robert 
Markham, esq. of Gotham, in the county of Nottingham. 
He bore a captain's commission under Charles I. in the 
civil wars, and was accounted a good soldier, as well as a 
good scholar. One piece of dramatic poetry which he has 
published will shew, says Langbaine, that he sacrificed to 
Apollo and the muses, as well as to Mars and Pallas. This 

> Lardner't Worlw.— Rees't Cyclopaedia* . 

M A R K H A M, 317 

play is extant under under the title of " Herod and Anti* 
pat£r," a tragedy, printed in 1622. Markham published 
a great many volumes upon husbandry and horsemanship ; 
one upon the latter, printed in qttarto, without date* he 
dedicated to prince Henry, eldest son to James I, In 
husbandry be published " Liebault's La Maison rustique, 
or the country- farm," in 1616. This treatise, which was 
at first translated by Mr. Richard Surfleit, a physician* 
Markham, enlarged, with several additions from the French 
books of Serris and Vinet, the Spanish of Albiterio, and 
the Italian of Grilli. He published other books of Jams-* 
baodry, particularly " The English Husbandman, in two 
parts," Lond, 16 13-— 1635, with the " Pleasures of Princes 
in the Art of Angling." Granger mentions " The whole 
Art of Angling," 1656, 4to, in which he says Markham, 
very gravely tells us that ao angler should " be a general 
scholar, and seen in all the liberal sciences ; as a grant* 
marian, to know how to write or discourse of bis art in 
true ^ and fitting tern)s. He should have sweetness in. speech 
to entice others to delight in an exercise so muqh laudable. 
fie should have strength of argument to defend and main- 
tain his profession against envy and slauder," &c, Markhacq 
also wrote a tract entitled " Hunger's prevention^, or the 
whole Art of Fowling*'' 162 1, 8vo* In military discipline 
he published " The Soldier's- Accidence and Grammar," m 
1635. But he appears to have been earliest distinguished 
by bis talents for poetry. In 1597 be published " De- 
vereti? Yertues tears fort^e loss of the most .Ghristiaa 
king Henry, third of that name king of France, and. the 
untimely death of the most ivafele and heroical Walter 
Devereux, who was slain before Roan, in Fraunce," a trans- 
lation from the French, 4to. He was the author also of 
" England's Arcadia, alluding his beginning from sir Philip 
Sydney's ending," 1607, 4to. The extracts from Mark- 
ham in " England's Parnassus/' are more numerous than 
from any other minor poet. The . most remarkable of his 
poetical attempts appears to have been entitled " The 
Poem of Poems, or Sioii's Muse, contaynyng the diuine 
Song of king Salomon, deuided into eight eclogues," 1596, 
16mo. This is dedicated to "the sacred virgin, divine 
qsistress Elizabeth Sydney, sole daughter of the ever* 
admired sir Philip Sydney." Bishop Hall, who was justly 
dissatisfied with much of the spiritual poetry with which his 
age was overwhelmed, alludes to this piece in his " Satires** 


(B. L Sat. VIII.) ; and says that in Markham's verses So- 
lomon assumes the character of a modern sonneteer, ahd 
celebrates the sacred-spouse of Christ with the levities and 
in the language of a lover singing the praises of his mis- 
tress. For this censure, Marston in his " Certayne Satires" 
(Sat. IV.) endeavours to retort ttpon Hall. 

Langbaine is very lavish of his praise of Markham ; but 
he does not appear to have known much of his poetry, or 
of his real character. In the works referred to below are 
some conjectures, and some information respecting Mark- 
ham, which place his character rather in an equivocal 
light. It appears, however, that his works on husbandry, 
agriculture, &c. were once held in great esteem, and 
often reprinted. On the records of the stationers' com- 
pany is a very extraordinary agreement signed by this 
author, which probably arose from the booksellers* know, 
ledge of the value of Markham 9 s work,' and their appre- 
hensions that a new performance' on the same subject 
might be hurtful to the treatises then Circulating. It is as 
follows : 

" Md. That I Gervase Markham, of London, gent, do 
promise hereafter never to write any more book or books 
to be printed of the diseases or cures of any cattle, as horse, 
oxe, co we, sheepe, swine, and goates, &c. In witnes 
whereof I have hereunto sett my hand the 24th day of 
Julie, *l 6 17. Gervis Markham." 

This likewise seems to confirm the opinion of some that 
he was an author by profession, and one of the earliest on 
record. Numerous, however, as were this writer's works, 
bis memory has not had the fate of being transmitted with 
any clearness to posterity. The time of his birth, death, 
and all other particulars regarding him, are utterly unknown. 1 

MARKLAND (Jeremiah), M. A. one of the most learned 
critics of the eighteenth century, was descended from an 
ancient family of that name, seated near Wigan, in Lan- 
cashire. He was one of the twelve children of the rev. 
Ralph Markland, M. A. vicar of Child wall, in that county, 
whose unblemished life and character gave efficacy to the 
doctrines he preached, and rendered him an ornament to 
the church of which he was' a member. He was not, how- 
ever, the author of a poem, frequently attributed to hit 

1 Langbaine. — Biog. Dram.— Warton's Hist, of Poetry.— Phillips's Theatrunt 
by sir Edward Brydges.— Censura JCiteraria, rols. II and III.-— Granger, vol. If- 


T>en, entitled * Pteryplegia, or the art of Shooting Fly- 
ing/ 4 as it was one of the juvenile productions of his rela- 
tive, Dr. Abraham^ Markland, fellow of St. John's college, 
Oxford, and above thirty years master of St. Cross, near 
Winchester, of whose Ufe and more important writings 

• Wood has made some mention. 

Jeremiah was born Oct. 29, 1693, and in 1704 was ad- 
mitted upon the foundation of Christ's Hospital, London, 
whence, in 1710, he was sent to the university of Cam- 
bridge, with the usual exhibition of 30/. per annum for 
seven years, and admitted of St. Peter's college. Here 
be took the degree of B. A. in 1713, and the following 
year appears among the poetical contributors to the " Cam- 
bridge Gratulations." In 1 7 17 he took his master's degree, 
and about the same time ably vindicated the character of 
Addison against the satire of Pope, in some verses ad- 
dressed to the countess, of Warwick. He was the author 
also of a translation of " The Friar's Tale," frorrf Chaucer, 
which is printed in Ogle's edition of 1741. Curll, the 
bookseller, in some of his publications, includes poems by 
a Mr. John Markland of St. Peter's college. If this is not 
a blunder for Jeremiah, these might be the production of 
Mr. Markland's brpther John, who was also educated at 
Christ's Hospital ; but this is doubtful, and not very im- 

In 1717 Mr. Markland was chosen fellow of his college, 
and probably intended to have taken orders ; but it soon 
appeared that from extreme weakness of lungs he could 
never have performed the duties of a clergyman, and even 
at this time reading a lecture for only one hour in a day 

•disordered him greatly. He continued, however, for se- 
veral years as a tutor in St. Peter's college. He became 
first distinguished in the learned world by his " Epistola 
Critica ad eruditissimum virum Franciscum Hare r S. T. P. 
decanum Vigorniensenr, in qua Horatii loca aliquot et alio- 
rum veterum emendantur, Camb. 1723, 8vo. In this, 
which at once decided the course of his studies, he gave 
many proofs of- extensive erudition and critical sagacity. 
He appears to have been also at this time employed on 
notes and emendations on Propertius, and promised a new 
edition of the Thebaid and Achillaid of Statius, but he 
published only an edition of the " Sylvae," in 1728, 4to, 
printed by Mr. Bowyer. In this, probably his first con- 
nexion with that learned printer,* he gavfc a proof of the 



scrupulous integrity which was conspicuous throughout his 
whole life; for, it not beiog convenient for him to pay Mr. 
Bowyer as soon as he wished and intended, he insisted on 
adding the interest. 

Mr. Markland found the " Syjvae" of Statius in a very 
corrupt state, obscure in itself, and mangled by its editor*; 
yet, notwithstanding the want of MS copies, of which there 
were none in England, he appears to have accomplished 
bis task by uncoiqmoi) felicity of judgment and conjecture. 
It is not very easy to comprehend Ernesti's objection, that 
he " sometimes rather indulged bis ingenuity and exquisite 
learning against the expressed authority of books," since 
bis object was to prove how much those books had failed 
in exhibiting a pure text. Of the ancient editious, Mr. 
Markland owns his obligations \o that of Venice, 1 472, 
which he found in the duke of Devonshire's library, and 
which is also in lord Spencer's; and that of Parma, 1473, 
belonging to the earl of Sunderland. The " Statius," as 
well as the "Epistola Critica," was dedicated to bis friend 
bishop Hare. 

It appears that he had begun an edition of " Apuleius" 
at Cambridge, of which seven sheets were printed off, 
from Morell's French edition ; but on Dr. Bentley's send- 
ing him a rude message concerning "his. having left out a 
line that was extant in one of the MSS. he .went no farther. 
Bowyer, who knew the value of Mr. Markland's labours, 
would have carried on, this work, but n$$er could obtain a 
copy of the printed sheets, which remained formany years 
in Mr. Benthapd's warehouse at Cambridge. 

After several years residence at St. Peter's college, he 
undertook in 1728 the education of William Strode, esq, 
of Punsborn in Herts, with whom be continued above two 
years at his bouse, and as long abroad in France, Flanders, 
and Holland. Some time ?ftejr their return, Mr. Strode 
married, and when his eldest son was about six years old, 
Mr. Markland undertook the care of his education, and 
was with him seven years. This pupil, who was afterwards 
a gentleman of the bed-chamber to his majesty, a man of 
extensive benevolence and generosity, and always very 
attentive to Mr. Markland, died in 1809. 

After his return from France, Mr. Markland again took 
up his residence at college, and resumed his learned la- 
bours. In 1739 we find Mr. Taylor acknowledging his 
obligations to Mr. Markland for the " Conjecture" an- 

M A R K L A N D. 3£1 

nexed to bis " Orationes et Fragmenta JLysiee," an in* 
comparable edition, on which Taylor's fame may securely 
rest. In 1740 Mr. Markland "contributed annotations to 
Dr. Davies's second edition of Maxim us Tyrius. This vo- 
lume was printed by Mr. Bowyer, under the sanction of 
the society for the encouragement of learning ; and such 
was Mr. Markland's care, that this society, although on 
their part not very consistently, complained of the ex- 
pence which Mr. Markland occasioned by his extreme 
nicety in correcting the proof-sheets. In an address to the 
reader, prefixed to his annotations, Mr. Markland brought 
forward a very singular discovery, that Maxim us had him- 
self published two editions of his work. It is very sur- 
prizing, therefore, that at this time, when Markland was 
receiving the thanks and praises of his learned contem- 
poraries, Warburton only should under-irate his labours, 
and say in a letter to Dr. Birch, " I have a poor opinion 
both of Markland's and Taylor's critical abilities." Whe- 
ther this " poor opinion" proceeded from temper or taste, 
we find that it was afterwards adopted by Warbur ton's 
friend Dr. Hurd, who went a little farther in compliment 
to his correspondent, and, somewhat luckily for Mr. Mark- 
land, involves himself in a direct contradiction, calling Mr. 
Markland, in the same sentence, a " learned man," and a 
man of " slender parts and sense." It cannot be too 
much regretted that bishop Hurd should have left bis 
Warburtonian correspondence to be printed, after he had, 
in the republication of his own works, professed to recant 
many of the harsh opinions of his early days. 

In 1743, we find Mr. Markland residing at Twyford, 
where, in June of that year, he talks of the gout as an 
old companion : and at this period of life, it appears that 
he was twice encouraged to offer himself a candidate for 
the Greek professorship ; but had either not ambition enough 
to aspire to this honour, or had some dislike to the office, 
to which, however, abilities like his must have done cre- 
dit. From 1744 to 1752, his residence was at Uckfield 
in Sussex, where he boarded in the house of the school- 
master under whose care young Mr. Strode had been 
placed, and where he first formed an intimacy with the 
rev. William Clarke, whose son Edward was placed under 
his private tuition. In 1745, he published " Remarks on 
the Epistles of Cicero to Brutus, and of Brutus to Cicero, 
in a letter to a friend. With a dissertation upon four ora- 

Vol. XXL Y 


tions ascribed to Cicero; viz. 1. Ad Quirites post redi- 
tum : 2. Post reditum in senatu : 3- Pro domo sua, ad 
pontifices : 4. De baruspicum responsis : To which are 
added, some extracts out of the notes of learned men upon 
those orations, and observations on them, attempting to 
prove them all spurious, and the works of some sophist,'* 
8vo. These remarks, which were addressed to Mr. Bowyer, 
although very ingenious, brought on the first controversy in 
which Mr. Markland was concerned ; but in which he was 
unwilling to exert himself. He seems to have contented 
himself with his own conviction upon the subject, and with 
shewing only some contempt of what was offered. " I be- 
lie ve," says he, in a letter to Mr. Bowyer, u I shall drop 
the affair of these spurious letters, and the orations I men- 
tioned ; for, though I am as certain that Cicero was riot 
the author of them, as I am that you were not, yet I con- 
sider that it must be judged of by those who are already 
prejudiced on the other side. And how far prejudice will 
go, is evident from the subject itself; for nothing else 
could have suffered such silly and barbarous stuff as these 
Epistles and Orations to pass so long, and through so many 
learned men's hands, for the writings of Cicero ; in which 
view, I confess, I cannot read them without astonishment 
and indignation." 

- A little farther account, however, of this controversy, 
and its rise, may yet be interesting. In 1741, Mr. Tun- 
stall, public orator of Cambridge, published his doubts on 
the authenticity of the letters between Cicero and Brutus 
(which Middleton, in his Life of Cicero, had considered 
as genuine), in a Latin dissertation. This Middleton called 
%i a frivolous, captious, disingenuous piece of criticism,* 
answered it in English, and published the disputed epis- 
tles with a translation. Oh this, Tunstall, in 1744, pub- 
lished his " Observations on the Epistles, representing se- 
veral evident marks of forgery in them, in answer to the 
late pretences of the Rev. Dr. Conyers Middleton." Mark- 
land, the following year, published his arguments on the 
same side of the question, which called forth a pamphlet, 
tvritten by Mr. Ross, afterwards bishop of Exeter, en- 
titled " A Dissertation in which the defence of P. Sylla, 
ascribed to M. Tullius Cicero, is * clearly proved to be 
spurious, after the manner of Mr. Markland; with some in- 
troductory Remarks on other writings of the Ancients, 
never before suspected." It is written in a sarcastic style, 

M A R K L A N D. 323 

but with a display of learning very inferior to that of the 
excellent scholar against whom it was directed, and in a 
disposition very dissimilar to the candour and fairness which 
accompanied the writings of Markland. It has lately beer* 
discovered that Gray, the celebrated poet, assisted Ross in 
his pamphlet, but at the same time does not seem to have 
entertained a very high opinion of Ross's wit» In a manu- 
script note in the first leaf of his copy of Markland, he 
writes : " This book is answered in an ingenious way, but 
the irony is not quite transparent." Gray's copy of Mark- 
land is now in the possession of his late excellent biogra- 
pher, the rev. John Mitford, to whom we are indebted fot 
these particulars. Mr. Mitford adds, that the notes which 
Gray has written in this copy u display a familiar knowledge 
of the structure of the Latin language, and answer some of 
the objections of Markland, " who had not then learnt the 
caution, in verbal criticism and conjectural emendation, 
which he well knew how to value when an editor of Euri- 
pides." — The only other pamphlet which this controversy 
produced was entitled "A Dissertation in which the obser- 
vations of a late pamphlet on the writings of the Ancients, 
after the manner of Mr. Markland, are clearly answered ; 
those passages in Tully corrected, on which some of the 
objections are founded : with Amendments of a few pieces 
of criticism in Mr. Markland's Epistola Critica," Lond. 
1746, 8vo. At length Gesner defended the genuineness 
of the orations in question, and they were reprinted by Er- 
nest, and are still believed to be part of Cicero's works. 

In 1743, Mr. Markland contributed some notes to Ar- 
nald's " Commentary on the book of Wisdom/ 9 which are 
noticed at the end of the author's preface, in the second 
edition, 1760. In 1750, he communicated some very ju- 
dicious remarks on an edition, .then printing by Bowyer, 
of " Kuster de Verbo medio." He was also at this time 
employed on his Euripides. In 1752, having completed the 
education of his amiable pupil Mr. Strode, he first began 
to seclude himself from the world. " By this time, 9 ' he says, 
" being grown old, and having moreover long and painful 
annual fits of the gout, he was glad to find, what his in- 
clination and infirmities, which made him unfit for the 
world and for company, had for a long time led him to, a 
very private place of retirement near Dorking in Surrey." 
In this pleasant and sequestered' spot, in the hamlet of 
Milton, he saw little company : his walks were almost eon* 

Y 2 



fined to the narrow limits of his garden : and he described 
himself, in 1755, to be as much out of the way of hear* 
ing, as of getting. " Of this last," he adds, ^ I have now 
no desire :« the other I should be glad of." What first in* 
duced him to retire from the world is not known. It has 
been supposed to have proceeded from disappointment : 
but of what nature is matter of conjecture.' There is a 
traditionary report, that he once received a munificent pro* 

{>osal from Dr. Mead, to enable him to travel, on a most 
iberal plan, in pursuit of such literary matters as should 
appear eligible to himself; and that his retirement arose 
from a disgust his extreme delicacy occasioned him to take 
during the negociation. He was certainly disinterested to 
an extreme : and money was never considered by him as a 
good, any farther than it enabled him to relieve the ne- 

In 1756 appeared an edition by Musgrave of the Hip- 
polytus of Euripides, under the title of " Euripidis Hip* 
polytus, ex MSS. Bibliothecee regis Parisiensis enienda- 
tus. Variis lectionibus et notis editoris accessere viri 
clarissimi Jeremiae Markland emendationes," a title which 
was printed without Mr. Markland's knowledge, and very 
Contrary to his inclination, as he has written on the margin 
of his own copy, now in Dr. Burney's possession ; and it 
is said that bis notes were obtained by a friend, and did 
not pass directly from Mr. Markland to Mr. Musgrave. In 
1758, he contributed some notes to an edition of seven 
plays of Sophocles printed by Mr. Bowyer. 

In 1760, Mr. Markland printed in quarto, at the ex- 
pence of his friend William Hall, esq. of the Temple, an 
excellent little treatise, under the title of " De Graeco- 
rum quinta declinatione imparisyllabic&, et inde formats 
Xatinorum tertia, quasstio Grammatica," 4to. No more 
than forty copies having been printed, which were all given 
away, it was annexed, in 1763, to an edition of Euripi- 
des's " Supplices Mulieres," 4to. This book was pub* 
lished without the editor's name; perhaps owing to the 
discouragement shewn to critical learning, as appears from 
a memorandum of his own hand-writing in a copy of it, in 
which he says, "There were only 250 copies printed, thia 
kind of study being at that time greatly neglected in Eng- 
land. The writer of the notes was then old and infirm; 
and, having by him several things of the same sprt, writ* 
ten many-years before, he did not think it worth while to 



revise them ; and was unwilling to leave them behind him 
as they were, in many places not legible to any body but 
himself; for which reason he destroyed them. Probably 
it will be a long time, if ever, before this sorj of learning 
will revive in England ; in which it is easy to foresee, that 
there must be a disturbance in a few years, and all public 
disorders are enemies to this sort of literature" In the 
same dejected tone he speaks, in 1772, of the edition of 
Euripides lately published : " The Oxonians, I hear, are 
about to publish Euripides in quarto ; two volumes, I sup- 
pose. Dr. Musgrave helps them with his collections, and 
perhaps conjectures. In my opinion, this is no time for 
such works; I mean for the undertakers." 

These, melancholy views of literary patronage and sup* 
port did not binder Mr. Markland from hazarding his little 
property on the more uncertain issue of a law-suit, into 
which be was drawn by the benevolence of his disposition* 
His primary object in this affair, which occurred in 1765, 
was to support the widow with whom he lodged against 
the injustice and oppression of her son, who, taking ad- 
vantage of maternal weakness, persuaded her to assign 
over to him the whole of her property. The consequence 
was a law-suit *,' which, after an enormous expenoe to Mr. 
Markland, was decided against the widow ; and his whole 
fortune, after this event, was expended in relieving the 
distresses of the family. Some assistance he appears to h$ve 
derived from his friends ; but such was his dislike, of this 
kind of aid, that he could rarely be prevailed upon to ac- 
cept it Yet at this time his whole property, exclusive of 
his fellowship (about seventy pounds a-year), consisted of 

* " My engaging in a law-matter 
was much contrary to my nature and 
inclination, and owing to nothing but 
compassion (you give it a suspicious 
name when you call it tenderness, the 
being in her 63d year, and I in my 
74th) to see a very worthy woman op- 
pressed and deprived by her own ion 
of every farthing ihe had in the world, 
and nothing left to subsist herself and 
two children, but what she received 
from me for board and lodging ; and 
this too endeavoured by several bad 
and ridiculous methods to be taken 
from her, and myself forced hence, 
that they might compel her into their 
unjust measures; not to mention the 
injuries, indignities, and inso- 

lences, which were used towards her. 
Could I run away, and leave an af- 
flicted goad woman and her children 
to starve, without the greatest base* 
ness, dishonour, and inhumanity ? Poor 
as I am, I would rather have pawned 
the coat on my back than have done it. 
I speak this in {he presence of God t 
and I appeal to Him, before whom f 
most soon appear, that this is the truer 
and only reason of my acting in this 
matter ; and though I know that the 
consequences of it wiM incommode mo 
greatly, and almost ruin me, yet I an 
sure I shall never repent of it." 

Letter from Mr. Markland, 
in Nichols's BowyeK 


five hundred pounds three per cent, reduced annuities; and 
part .of the latter we find him cheerfully selling out for 
the support of his poor friends, rather than accept any 
loan or gift from his friends. He appears indeed about this 
time to have been weaning himself from friendly connec- 
tions, as well as his customary pursuits. In October of 
this year he even declined entering into a correspondence 
with his old acquaintance bishop Law, who wished to servo, 
him, and desires Mr. Bowyer to write to the bishop, that 
"Mr.* Markland is very old, being within a few days of 
seventy-three, with weak eyes and a shaking hand, so 
that he can neither read nor write without trouble : that he 
has scarce looked into a Greek or Latin book for above 
these three years, having given over all literary concerns ; 
and therefore it is your (Mr. Bowyer' s) opinion that he 
(the bishop) had much better not write to Mr. Markland, 
which will only distress him ; but that you are very sure 
that he; will not now enter into any correspondence of 
learning." At length, in 1768, after much negotiation, 
and every delicate attention to his feelings, his pupil, 
Mr. Strode, prevailed on him to accept an annuity of one 
hundred pounds, which, with the dividends arising from 
bis fellowship, was, from that time, the whole of his in- 

Fortunately for the world of letters, tbe notes on the 
two " Iphigenias," which Mr. Markland at one time in- 
tended to destroy, from despair of public encouragement, 
were preserved and given by him to Dr. Heberden, with 
permission to burn or print them as he pleased; but if the 
latter, then they should be introduced by st short Latin 
dedication to Dr. Heberden, as a testimony of his gratitude 
for the many favours he had received from that gentleman. 
Dr. Heberden, whose generosity was unbounded, readily 
accepted the gift on Mr. Markland' s own conditions, paid 
the whole expence of printing, as he had before done that 
of the " Supplices Mulieres," and in 1770 had secured a 
copy of it corrected for a second edition, though at that 
time it was intended that the first should not be published 
till after Mr. Maryland's death. He had then burnt all his 
notes, except those on the New Testament ; and the dis- 
posal of his books became how to him a matter of serious 
concern. He wished them to be in the hands of J)r. He- 
berden, to whom he presented the greater part of them in 
his ]|fe*time, and the remainder at his death. These notes 

MARKLA N D. 327 

qn the New Testament had often made part of Mr. Mark- 
land's stady, and many of tbem have since appeared in 
Bowyer's " Conjectures on the New Testament." They 
were written in Kuster's edition. 

Contrary to the original intention, his edition of the 
"Two Iphigeniae," which bad been printed in 1768, 8vo, 
with a view to posthumous publication, was given to the 
world in 1771, under the title of li Euripidis Dramata, 
Iphigenia in Aulide, et Ipbigenia in Tauris; ad codd. MSS. 
recensuit, et notulas adjecit, Jer. Markland, Coll. D. 
Petri Cant. Socius." Of this, the " SuppliCes Mulieres," 
and the " Queestio grammatica de Graecorum quinta de- 
clinatione imparisyilabica," &c. an elegant and correct edi- 
tion has just been published at Oxford, in 8vo and 4to,. 
under the superintendance of one of the most profound 
Greek scholars of the age, Mr. Gaisford of Christ- church. 

Repeated attacks of the gout, and an accumulation of 
infirmities, at length put an end to Mr. Markland's life, at 
Milton-court, July 7, 1776, in the 'eighty-third year of 
bis age. His will was short. He bequeathed his books 
and papers to Dr. Heberden, and every thing else to Mrs. 
Martha Rose, the widow with whom he lived, and \\hom 
he made sole executrix, although he had a sister, Cathe* 
rine, then living, and not in good circumstances. This is 
the more remarkable, as we find in his letters, expressions* 
of affectionate anxiety for this sister ; but be delayed mak- 
ing his will until the year before his death, when his me- 
mory and faculties were probably in some degree impaired. 
fie had formerly entertained hopes of being able to make 
some acknowledgment to Christ's-hospital for his educa- 
tion, and to Peterhouse, from which he had for so many 
years received the chief part of his maintenance ; but, to 
use his own words, " as the providence of God saw fit th^t 
it should be otherwise, he was perfectly satisfied that it 
waa better it should be as it was." Immediately on his 
death, his friend Mr. Strode and Mr. Nichols went to Mil- 
ton-court, to give directions for the funeral, which was 
performed, strictly agreeable to his own request, in the 
church of Dorking, where a brass plate commemorates his 
learning and virtues. Several of his books, with a few 
MS notes in them, after the death of Dr. Heberden, were 
sold to Mr. Payne ; and some of them were purchased by 
Mr. Gough, and others are now in the possession of Dr. 
Ikirney, Mr. Heber, Mr. Hibbert, &c. &c. 


Such are the outlines of the history of this excellent 
Scholar and critic, concerning whom many additional par- 
ticulars may be found in our authority. The most con- 
spicuous trait in his character was his singular and un- 
wearied industry. The scholar, who secludes himself from 
the world for the purposes of study, frequently abandon* 
himself to desultory reading, or at least is Occupied at in- 
tervals only, in deep and laborious research. This, how- 
ever, was not the case with Markland. The years that 
successively rolled over his head, in the course of a long 
life, constantly found him engaged in his favourite pur- 
suits, collating the classic authors of antiquity, or illustrat- 
ing the book of Revelation. Of the truth of this remark, 
which we borrow from his amiable relative, liis correspond- 
ence affords sufficient testimony ; and the proofs which he 
there displays, even after he had passed his eighty-first 
year, of vigour and clearness of intellect, are perfectly 
astonishing. To this we may add what has recently been 
said of Mr. Markland, that "for modesty, candour, literary 
honesty, ami courteousness to other scholars, he has been 
considered as the model which ought to be proposed for the 
imitation of every critic." With exception to the opinions of 
Warburtdn and Hurd, which were concealed when they 
might have been answered, and published when they were 
hot worth answering, his deep aod extensive learning appears, 
from the concurrent testimony of his contemporaries and 
survivors, to have been at all times most justly appreciated; 
and a tribute, of great value, has lately been paid to his 
memory by Dr. Burney in the preface to his " Tentameir 
de Metrk ab -Eschylo in Choricis Cantibus adhibitis," 
where he places him among the " magnanimi heroes" of 
the eighteenth century, Bentley, Dawes, Taylor, Toup, 
Tyrwhitt, and Porson. 

It is to be regretted, however, that the splendour of bis 
abilities was obscured by the extreme privacy of his life, 
and the many' peculiarities of his disposition. The latter 
indeed seem to have been produced by the former, and 
that by some circumstances in his early life, which pre- 
vented him from making a choice among the learned pro- 
fessions. It is well known that bishop Hare would have 
provided for him, if he would have taken orders ; but what 
his reasons were for declining them, we are not told. It 
ttiay be inferred from his correspondence that in maturer 
age he had some scruples of the religious kind, but these 


♦Jo not appear inconsistent with the liberty which many 
great and good men have thought consistent with subscrip- 
tion to the formularies of the church. By whatever means 
he was prevented from taking orders, it appears to have 
been a misfortune to him, as the patrons who were the 
best judges of his merit had no means of providing for him 
in any other direction. If he ever fancied that he could 
make his way through the world by the talents of a mere 
scholar employed in writing, we have evidence in his let- 
ters that he soon found his mistake, and that in his time 
classical criticism was not an* article in great demand. 
Another reason for his frequent despondency, arid love of 
retirement, appears to have been his interesting himself too 
much in the politics of the time, which he always viewed 
through a gloomy medium. We may, however, conclude 
this article with the striking and just observation made by 
his pupil Mr. Strode, in a letter to Mr. Nichols, that " no 
friend of Mr. Markland can reflect on his life without great 
satisfaction, although, for the further benefit of society, 
one might be led to wish some few circumstances of it had 
been otherwise." 1 

MARLOE, or MARLOW (Christopher), whom Phil- 
lips calls " a kind of second Shakspeare," was born, as 
Mr. Ellis conjectures with great probability, about 1562. 
There is no account extant of his family, but it is welt 
known, says Baker, that he was of Bene't college, in the 
university of Cambridge, where he took the degree of B. A. 
1583, and M. A. 15S7; he, however, quitted the academic 
life, and went on the stage, where he became one of the 
most distinguished tragic poets of the age. Thomas Hey- 
wood styles him the " best of poets;" and Drayton also haa 
bestowed a high panegyric on him, in the " Censure of 
the Poets/' in these lines z 

" Next Marloe bathed in Thespian springs, 
Had in him those brave translunary things, 
That your first poets had ; his raptures were 
All air and fire, which made his verses clear: 
For that fine madness still he did retain, 
Which rightly should possess a poet's brain/* 

1 Nichols's Bowyer— with the addition of tome MS particulars and judicitu* 
remarks by James H. Markland, esq. F.S.A. of the Temple, a relation of the 
Critic, obligingly communicated to the Editor. A large proportion of the ori- 
ginal letters of Mr. Markland is in thii gentleman's possession, and Or. Buraey 
hat likewise a considerable number. 

330 MARLOE. 

In 1 5S7 he translated Coluthus's " Rape of Helen" into 
English rhyme. He also translated the elegies of Ovid, 
which book was ordered to be burnt at Stationers'-hall, 
1 599, by command of the archbishop of Canterbury and 
the bishop pf London. Before 1598 appeared his transla- 
tion of the " Loves of Hero and Leander," the elegant 
prolusion of an unknown sophist of Alexandria, but com- 
monly ascribed to the ancient Musaeus. It was left un- 
finished by Marlow's death ; but what was called a second 
part, which is nothing more than a continuation from the 
Italian, appeared by one Henry Petowe, in 1598. Another 
edition was published, with the first book of Lucan, trans- 
lated also by Marlow, and in blank verse, in 1600. At 
length Chapman, the translator of Homer, completed, but 
with a striking inequality, Marlow's unfinished version, 
and printed if at London in 1606, 4to. His plays were, 
1. " Tamerlane the great Scythian emperor, two parts," 
ascribed by Phillips erroneously to Newton. 2. ""The 
rich Jew of Maltha." 3. " The x Tragical History of the 
Life and Death of Dr. John Faustus." 4. " Lust's Do- 
minion," Lond. 1661, 8vo, from which was stolen the 
greater part of Aphra Behu's " Abdelazer, or the More's 
Revenge," Lond. 1677. 5. "The Tragedy of King Ed- 
ward II." 6. " The Tragedy of Dido, queen of Carthage," 
ill the composition of which he was assisted by Thomas 
Nash, who published it in 1594. 

His tragedies, says Warton, manifest traces of a just 
dramatic conception, but they abound with tedious and 
uninteresting scenes, or with such extravagancies as pro- 
ceeded from a want of judgment, and those barbarous 
ideas of the times, over which it was the peculiar gift of 
Shakspeare's genius alone to triumph and predominate. 
As a poet, there is one composition preserved in the col- 
lection called " England's Helicon," and often reprinted, 
which entitles him to the highest praise. It is that entitled 
" The Passionate Shepherd to his Love," beginning 
i€ Come live with me, and be my love." We can remem- 
ber the revival of this beautiful pastoral about forty years 
ago, with some pleasing music, which made it the fashion 
of every theatre, concert, and private party. Sir Walter 
Raleigh wrote a reply to this piece. 

Marloe's tragical 'death is thus related by Wood : " This 
Marloe, we are told, presuming upon his own little wit, 
thought proper to practise the most Epicurean indulgence, 

MARLOE. 331 

and openly professed Atheism. He denied God our Sa- 
viour ; he blasphemed the adorable Trinity ; and, as it 
was reported, wrote several discourses against it, affirming 
our Saviour to be a deceiver, the sacred Scriptures to con- 
tain nothing but idle stories, and all religion to be a de- 
vice of policy and priestcraft. But Marloe came to a very 
untimely end, as some have remarked, in consequence of 
bis execrable blasphemies. It happened, that be fell 
deeply in love with a low girl, and had for his rival a fel- 
low in livery, who looked more like a pimp than a lover. 
Marloe, fired with jealousy, and having some reason to 
believe that bis mistress granted the fellow favours, rushed 
upon him to stab him with his dagger : but the footman 
being quick, avoided the stroke, and catching hold of Mar r 
loe's wrist, stabbed him with bis own weapon ; and not* 
withstanding all the assistance of the surgery, be soon after 
died of the wound, before the year 1593." 

Marloe has found an apologist in Warton*, who can 
seldom conceal his abhorrence of the puritans. "Marlowe's 
wit and sprightliness of conversation had often the unhappy 
effect of tempting him to sport with sacred subjects ; more 
perhaps from the preposterous ambition of courting the 
casual applause of profligate and unprincipled companions, 
than from any systematic disbelief of religion. His scepti- 
cism, whatever it might be, was construed by the pre- 
judiced and peevish puritans into absolute atheism, and 
they look pains to represent the unfortunate catastrophe of 
his untimely death, as an immediate judgment from heaven 
upon his execrable impiety. 1 ' The story was certainly 
current at the time. It occurs not only in Beard's " The- 
atre of God's Judgments," but in a work which if we 
mistake not preceded it, Vaughan's " Golden Grove." 
Vaughan gives the place where the catastrophe happened, 
Deptford, and his antagonist's name, Ingram f, and adds, 

• Warton is often led to remarks of Moses a conjuror, were dreadful crimes 
the above kind from bis dislike of the in tbe eyes of Anthony Wood, who was 
puritans ; but Marloe has found an himself no conjuror, and on whose au- 
apologist in Dr. Berkenhout of a more thority bishop Tanner calls poor Mar- 
congenial kind. " Marloe," says this loe atheista et blasphemies horrendus." 
unprejudiced biographer, " seems to Berkenhout's u Biographia Literaria," 
have dared to reason on matters of re- which is disgraced by many such sea- 
ligion ; than which nothing could be a timents as these, 
greater crime, in the opinion of those f Aubrey says that his antagonist 
who did not dare to think for them- was Ben Jonsoft. Surely more au- 
selves. Posterity will hardly believe thority is necessary for such aii asser- 
that there ever was a time when free- tion. See, however, our account of 
thinking was deemed criminal. His Jonson, vol. X,IX. p. 142. 
blaspbem'iDg the Trinity, and calling 

832 M A R L O E. 

that Marloe « wrote a book against the Trinitie. ,, There 
is also in the British Museum (MSS. Harl. 6853/ 8vo. foL 
320) " An Account of the blasphemous and damnable 
opinions of Christ. Marley and three others who came to a 
sudden and fearful end of this life." * 

MARLORAT (August ink), an eminent protestant di- 
vine of the sixteenth century, and classed among the re- 
formers, was born in the dukedom of Lorrain in 1506. 
He was educated in a monastery of the Augustine friars, 
where he made great proficiency in his studies, and ap- 
pears to have conceived, from the licentious morals of the 
friars, a dislike to their religion, which be afterwards 
abandoned. Leaving the monastery he pursued his studies 
in France, and afterwards at Lausanne, where he made 
open profession of the protestant religion, and was admitted 
into orders. He was chosen pastor at Vevey, and then at 
Rouen in Normandy, where he contributed to the diffusion 
of the principles of the reformation. In 1561 he was pre- 
sent at the memorable conference held at Poissy between 
Beza and the cardinal of Lorrain, in which he distin- 
guished himself by his ability and zeal in defence of the 
protestant cause. The year following the civil wars broke 
out in France, and Rouen being besieged and taken, 
Montmorency, constable of France, threw Marlorat into 
prison, as a- seducer of the people. On this charge, of 
which no proofs were brought, he was condemned to be 
hanged, his heafl then to be set on a pole on the bridge of 
the city, and his goods and inheritance to be confiscated. 
He accordingly suffered this punishment Oct 30, 1562, in 
the fifty-sixth year of his age. His works were chiefly 
commentaries on the Holy Scriptures: 1. " Genesis, cum 
catholica expositione," 1562, fol. 2. " Liber Psalmorum* 
et Cantica, &c." 1562, fol. 3. " Jesaiae Prophetia," 1564, 
folio. 4. " Novum Testamentum," 1605, 2 vols, folio, and 
a book of Common Places. Translations from most of 
these were published in England during the Elizabethan' 
period. * 

MARMION (Shakerley), a dramatic writer, was born 
of an ancient family at Aynboe in Northamptonshire* about 
the beginning of January, 16Q2. He went to school at 
Thame in Oxfordshire, and was thence removed to Wad- 

» Warton's Hist of Poetry.— Biog. Dram.— -Phillips's Tbeatrum, by lir £• 
Brydges.— -Bibliographer, volt. II. and III.— Ellis's Specimen!. 
* Melchior Adam.— Croix da Maine fc da Verdiar,— 8e*» Iconei. " 

M A R M 1 O N. 3SS 

ham-college, Oxford, as a gentleman-commoner, and took 
his master of arts 9 degree in 1624. Wood says, that " he 
was a goodly proper gentleman, and had once in his pos- 
session seven hundred pounds per annum at least." The 
whole of this he dissipated, and afterwards went to serve 
in the Low Countries. Not being promoted there, after 
three campaigns, he returned to England, and was admit- 
ted in 1639, by sir John Suckling, into a troop raised for 
Charles I. in his expedition against Scotland, but at York 
he fell sick, and was obliged to return to London, where 
he died the same year. Marmion, although not a volu- 
minous writer, for he produced only four dramas, is Con- 
sidered by the author of the Biographia Dramatica as one 
of the best among the dramatic writers of his time. " Hit 
plots are ingenious," says that author, " his characters 
well drawn, and his larfguage not only easy and dramatic, 
but full of lively wit and solid understanding/' His plays 
are, 1. " Holland's Leaguer, an excellent comedy, as it 
hath bin lately and often acted with great applause, by 
the high and mighty prince Charles his servants, at the 
private house in Salisbury court," 1632, 4to. According 
to Oldys, in his MS notes on Langbaine, there was a tract 
in prose, published under the same title of " Holland's 
Leaguer," in the same year, from which this drama might 
possibly be taken. 2. " A fine Companion, acted before 
the King and Queen at Whitehall, and sundrie times with 
great applause at the private house in Salisbury-court, by 
the Prince his servants," 1633, 4to. 3. " The Antiquary, 
a comedy, acted by her Majesty's servants at the Cockpit," 
1641, 4to. This is also printed in Dodsley's Collection of 
Old Plays, vol. X. second edition. The Biographia Dra- 
matica, and other books, add to these, 4. " The Crafty 
Merchant, or the Souldier'd Citizen ;" which, as well 
as the rest, was a comedy ; but they all state that it was 
never printed, and neglect to tell where it is extant iti 
manuscript. He also published, 5. " Cupid and Psiche ; 
or an epic poem of Cupid and his Mistress, as it was lately 
presented to the Prince Elector." Prefixed to this are 
complimentary verses, by Richard Brome, Francis Tuckyr, 
Thomas N abbes, and Thomas Heywood. He wrote, be- 
sides these, several poems, which are scattered in differ- 
ent publications ; and Wood says that he left some things 
in MS. ready for the press, but what became of them is 
not known. 1 

1 Biog. Diam.— Ath. Ox. I. and II. 


MARMONTEL (John Francis), one of the most dis- 
tinguished French writers of the eighteenth century, was 
born in 1723, at Bort, a small town in Limosin. His fa- 
ther, who was in very moderate circumstances, and had a 
very large family, bestowed great pains on this, bis eldest 
son, and was ably assisted in the cultivation of his talents, 
by his wife, who appears to have been a woman of superior 
sense and information. Young Marmontel first studied the 
classics and rhetoric in the Jesuits' college of Mauriac, and 
at fifteen was placed by his father with a merchant at Cler- 
mont. As this, however, was very little to his taste, be 
applied for admission into the college of Clermont, and 
having been received into the philosophical class, main- 
tained himself by teaching some of the junior scholars* 
He afterwards went to Toulouse, and became teacher of 
philosophy in a seminary of the Bernard ines, where his 
abilities acquired considerable distinction. 

Encouraged by this, he was a candidate for- one of the 
prizes given by the academy of Floreal games at Toulouse ; 
but the ode which he wrote on this occasion being, rejected, 
he sent a copy of it to Voltaire, who not only returned it 
with high praise, but sent him a copy of his works. To a , 
young man like Marmontel, nothing could be more grati- 
fying than the praise and kindness of a man of such high 
rank in the literary world ; and eager to justify Voltaire** 
good opinion, he applied more closely to his studies, and 
obtained the prizes of several succeeding years. It is much 
to- his honour, that while his reputation increased, and his 
income became considerable, he devoted the latter to the 
maintenance of his father's family. 

By Voltaire's advice, be repaired to Paris in 1745 to 
try his fortune as a man of letters. His first attempts were 
©f the dramatic kind, which had various success, bat never 
enough to render him independent of other employment. 
His first tragedy, " Denys le Tiran," indeed, succeeded so 
well, as to give him a name, and introduce him into the 
higher circles, but this led him at the same time into a 
course of dissipation of which he afterwards repented, and 
which he relinquished, upon being promoted to the place 
of secretary to the royal buildings, by the interest of ma- 
dame Pompadour. 

We find him afterwards connected with D'Alembert and 
^Diderot, in the compilation of the Encyclopedic, which is 
supposed to have had no small share in producing the 


French revolution. Of this, too, however, he lived to re- 
pent, as his attachments were to the royal cause, although 
he held that changes to a certain degree were necessary. 
He afterwards became a contributor to the u Mercure 
Francois," and it was in this publication that he wrote his 
"Tales." In 1758 he became sole editor of the " Mer- 
cure/' which he very greatly improved ; but having in a 
gay party repeated a satire on the duke D'Aumont, which 
was not his own writing, and having refused to give up th$ 
author, he was sent to the Bastille, and lost his situation 
in the Mercure. His confinement, however, was short, and 
the reputation his "Tales" acquired in every part of Eu- 
rope, procured him riches -atid distinction. After gaining 
the pri^e of the French academy, by his " Epitre aux 
Poetes," though Thomas and Delille were his competitors, 
be was admitted into that academy in 1763, as successor 
to Marivaux, and his fame was afterwards completely esta- 
blished by his " Belisarius," and his " Les Incas," both 
which acquired an uncommon degree of popularity. 

After the death of D'Alembert in 1783, he was elected 
perpetual secretary to the French academy, where his em- 
ployment was to compose eloges on the deceased mem- 
bers, and other pieces to be read in the academy, both 
in prose and verse. N Under the ministry of Lainoignon, 
keeper of the seals, he was solicited to draw up a memoir 
on national education, which was a very elaborate compo- 
sition ;Jbut the commencement of the revolution prevented 
the progress of this undertaking. 

As the revolution advanced, be withdrew himself from 
all share in those proceedings which ended in scenes of 
blood and violence, and retired to a distant part, where he 
employed his time in the education of his children, and in 
the composition of some works which have added consider- 
ably to his reputation. In 1797 he was once more called 
into public life, by being elected a representative in the 
national assembly ; but, after this assembly was dissolved, he 
again retired to his cottage, where he died of an apoplexy, 
Dec. 1799, in the seventy-seventh year of his age; 

He was fifty-four before he married ; but this step, 
there is every reason to think, added much to his felicity, 
and secured the regular habits of his life. His reputation 
as a writer, although it was gradually augmented by his 
various publications, his plays, operas, poems, eloges, ,and 
other compositions on miscellaneous subjects, rests now 


principally on his u Tales," in this country, and on bis 
Belisarius and Incas on the continent. His " Tales" have 
never been surpassed for lively and characteristic dialogue 
and sentiment, and have been such universal favourites, 
that there is no European language into which they have 
not been translated. They speak, indeed, to the passions 
of general nature, but the author's imagination is not always 
under the strictest guidance of his judgment, and they are 
not among the books which we should recommend to young 
* readers. Of this the French themselves appear sensible, 
and they are of opinion that the <c New Tales," which be 
wrote at a more advanced period of life, better deserve 
the epithet " Moral." So valuable, however, have they 
appeared to dramatic writers, that they have formed not 
only the plot, but much of the dialogue of some very fa- 
vourite pieces, both on the English and French stage. 
Since his decease, his " Life" written by himself has been 
published and translated into English. Of his former works, 
the best French edition is that of 1787, 32 vols. 8vo.* 

MARNIX (Philip de), seigneur du Mont, sainte Alde- 
gonde, by which last name he is recorded by some bio- 
graphers, was born in 1538, at Brussels, of noble parents, 
who were originally of Savoy. He was Calvin's disciple at 
Geneva, and appointed ecclesiastical counsellor to Charles 
Louis, elector palatine; but William, prince of Orange, 
invited him back again some time after, and employed him 
usefully in affairs of the utmost importance. Sainte Aide- 
gonde was afterwards consul at Antwerp, which city he 
defended against the duke of Parma, in 1584, and died at 
Leyden, December 15, 1598, aged sixty, while he was em- 
ployed in a Flemish version of the Bible. He left " Con- 
troversial Theses," Antwerp, 1580, 8vo ; " Circular Epis- 
tles to the Protestants ;" *' Apologies;" a " Portrait of dif- 
ferent Religions," in which he ridicules the church of 
Rome, Leyden, 1603, and 1605, 2 vols. 8vo ; and other 
works. Sainte Aldegonde drew up the form of the cele- 
brated confederacy, by which several lords of the Nether- 
lands engaged to oppose the odious tribunal of the inquisi- 
tion, in 1566. f / 

MAROLLES (Michel de), an industrious French trans- 
lator, was born in 1600. He was the son of Claude de 

1 Life aa above.—- Diet. Hist. — Biograpbie Moderne. 
S Gen. Diet, in art. Aldegonde.— Moreri. 


Marolles, a military hero, but entered early into the ec- 
clesiastical state, and by the interest «f his father, obtained 
uyo abbeys. He early conceived an extreme ardour for 
study, which never abated ; for from 1610, when he pub- 
lished a translation of Lucan, to 1681, the year of his 
death, he was constantly employed in writing and printing. 
He attached himself, unfortunately, to the translating of 
ancient Latin writers; but, being devoid of all classical 
.taste and spirit, they sunk miserably under his hands, and 
especially the poets. If, however, he was not the most 
elegant, or even the most faithful of translators, he. ap- 
pears to, have been a man of considerable learning, and 
discovered all his life a love for the arts. He was one of 
the first who paid any attention to the collection of prints, 
and formed a series amounting to about an hundred thou- 
sand, which made afterwards one of the ornaments of 
the king's cabinet. There are by him translations of 
" Plautus," "Terence," "Lucretius," "Catullus," "Vir- 
gil," "Horace,'' V Juvenal," " Persius," "Martial" (at 
the head of which Menage wrote " Epigrammeg- contre 
Martial"); also "Statius," "Aurelius Victor," "Ammianus 
Marcellinus," " AthenaBus," &c He composed " Me- 
moirs of bis own Life," which were published by the abb6 
Goujet, in 1775, in 3 vols. 12mo. They contain, like 
such publications in general, some interesting facts, but 
many more which are trifling. His poetry was never much 
esteemed. He said once to Liniere, " My verses cost me 
very little," meaning little trouble. " They cost you quite 
as much as they are worth," replied Liniere. 1 

MAROT (John), a French poet, was born near Caen, 
in Normandy, in 1463, with a strong inclination to the 
belles lettres and poetry, which he happily cultivated, al- 
though his education was* much neglected. He was but in 
low circumstances, when his abilities and good behaviour 
recommended him to Anne of Bretagne, afterwards queen 
of France; a princess who greatly encouraged and patro- 
nized letters. She shewed a particular regard to Marot, 
by making him her poet ; and by commanding him to at- 
tend Louis XII. to Genoa and Venice, that he might draw 
up a relation of those travels. He was afterwards in the 
service of Francis I. and died in 1523. He was a tolerable 
poet, but infinitely exceeded by his son Clement. His 

1 Niceron, vol. XXXIII.— Moreri.—Biog, Gall ica,— Diet. Hist. 

Vol. XXI. Z 

338 M A R O T. 

poems are to be found iu the later editions of the works of 
Clement Marot. 1 

MAROT (Clement), son of the preceding, was born 
at Cahors, in Querrf, about 1496. In his youth he was 
page to seigneur Nicholas de Neusville, secretary of state ; 
and afterwards to princess Margaret, the king's sister, 
and the duke of Alen$on's wife. He followed the duke to 
the army in 1521, and was wounded and taken prisoner at 
the battle of Pavia. While Francis I. was Charles the Fifth's 
prisoner in Spain, Marot was imprisoned at the instigation 
of Dr. Bouchard, who accused him of being a protestant ; 
but in an epistle to that doctor, he assured him that be 
was orthodox, and a very good catholic. After his release 
he retired to his old mistress, the duchess of Aiengon, who 
was then become queen of Navarre, by her marriage with 
John d'Albret. In 1536 he obtained leave of Francis I. to 
return j but, being suspected for a follower of the new opi- 
nions, he was obliged to make his escape to Geneva, where, 
whatever his religious principles might be, his moral con- 
duct was highly exceptionable. After remaining here some 
years, he went into Piedmont, where he died at Turin, in 
1544,' in his forty-ninth year; and as some say, very poor. 

Marot, according to an expression of the sieur de.Vau- 
privas, was the poet of the princes, and the prince of poets, 
during his time in France. It is agreed on all hands, not 
only that the French poetry had never before appeared 
with the charms and beauties with which he adorned it, but 
that, even during the sixteenth century, there appeared 
nothing that' .could be compared with. the happy turn, the 
native graces, and the wit, that was every-where scattered 
through his works, and which compose wbat is called the 
Marotic style. This has had many imitators, particularly La 
Fontaine and Rousseau. We find, by the judgments which 
have been collected upon Marot, that the French poets 
are obliged to him for the rondeau ; and that to him they 
likewise owe, in seme measure, the modern form of the 
sonnet and madrigal, and of some other of the smaller 
forms of poetry. His works, however, are highly censure- 
able on the score of indecency: The wonder is, that, with 
such libertine propensities, he should employ his genius 
on a translation of the Psalms. Of these he first trans- 
lated thirty, which he. obtained a privilege to publish, 

1 Niceron, vol. XVI. — MbreNt 

. M A R Q T. - 339 

•bout 1540, and dedicated them to Francis I. His trans- 
lation was censured by the faculty of divinity at Paris, who 
carried matters so far as to make remonstrances and com- 
plaints to that monarch. The king, who had a great value 
for Marot on account of his genius, put them off with de- 
lays, testifying how acceptable this specimen was to him, 
and desiring to see the whole finished. However, after 
several remonstrances had been made to the king, the pub- 
lication of them was prohibited ; which, as usually happens 
in such cases, made them sell faster than the printers could 
work them off. After he had retired to Geneva, he translated 
twenty more Psalms, which in 1543 were printed there 
with the other thirty;, together with a preface written by 
Calvin. Marot's works have been collected and printed 
several times, and in various beautiful forms. Two of the 
best editions are those of the Hague, 1700, 2 vols. 12mo; 
and 1731, 4 vols. 4to. ! 

MARSAIS (C^sar Chesneau du), a French gramma- 
rian of high reputation, was born at Marseilles, July 17, 
1676, and entered into the congregation of the oratory, 
but disgusted at the too great confinement of that institu- 
tion, soon quitted it, and went to Paris. There he mar- 
ried in 1704, and practised for a time with some success 
as an advocate. Ere long, however, we find him quitting 
that profession, as not continuing to be advantageous, and 
separated from his wife, on finding her temper intolerable. 
He then undertook the care of educating pupils in several 
great families; among others, that of the president des Mai- 
sons, of the Scottish adventurer Law, and the marquis de 
Beau Fremont. Some of these pupils did great honour to 
his, care of their principles and learning. Still he was not 
fortunate enough to obtain any permanent provision ; and 
undertook a kind of academy, which did not succeed; and 
he was for a considerable time reduced to go about giving 
lessons at private houses, and subsisting in a very straitened 
and precarious manner. At length, the persons who con* 
ducted the Encyclopedia, engaged him to bear a part in 
that great work, to which the articles on the subject of 
grammar, furnished by him, proved a most important ac- 
cession.. They are distinguished by a sound and luminous 
philosophy, an extent of learning by no means common, 
great precision in the rules, and no less accuracy in the 
application of them. 

1 Niceron, vol. XVI. — Gen. Diet— Moreri. 

Z 2 

3*a MAR8AIS, 

He had now struggled for the chief part of his life with 
adverse circumstances; when the count de Lauragais, 
struck with his merit, and affected by his situation, settled 
upon him an annuity of a thousand livres. He died June 
II, 1756, at the age of eighty* Du Marsais had been 
considered during his life as sceptical, but is said to have 
returned to a tense of religion before his death. Several 
anecdotes were circulated respecting his indifference to 
religion, which materially injured his fortune. It was even 
said, that being called upon to educate three brothers in a 
great family, he asked the parents in what religion they 
would have them brought up ? A story of little probability, 
but which passed sufficiently current to injure him in the 
minds of many respectable persons. His disposition was 
mild and equal, his understanding clear and precise ; and 
his manners had a kind of simplicity which occasioned him 
to be called the Fontaine of philosophers. Fontenelle said 
of him, " C'est le nigaud le plus spiritual, & l'homme 
d'esprit le plus nigaud que je connoisse," that is, " He is 
for a simpleton" the most ingenious, and for a man of ge- 
nius the most of a simpleton of any one I know." As his 
own character was so natural, so also was he an ardent ad- 
mirer of nature, and an enemy to all affectation ; and his 
precepts are said to have had great effect in teaching the 
celebrated actress le Couvreur, that simple and natural 
style of declamation which made her performance so pa- 
thetic, and raised, her reputation to so great a height. 

The principal works of du Marsais are, 1. " An Expla- 
nation of the Doctrine of the Gallican church, with respect 
to the pretensions of the court of Rome," 1 2mo. This 
esteemed work was undertaken by the desire of the presi- 
dent des Maisons, and was not published till after the death 
of the author. 2. " Explanation of a reasonable Method 
of learning the Latin language," 1722, 12mo. This work, 
which was most highly commended by d'Alembert and 
others, was long very scarce, even in France. 3. " A 
treatise on Tropes," 1730, 8vo, and 1731, 12mo; a tract 
much and justly admired for its original conceptions and 
logical precision. 4. " Les veritables Principes de la 
Grammaire," &c. 1729, 4to ; only the preface to an in- 
tended Latin grammar. 5. " The Abridgment of Father 
Jouvenci's Mythology ," disposed according to his method, 
1731, 12mo. 6. "Logic," or reflections on the opera- 
tions of the mind ; a very short work, in which is 90m- 

M A R S A I S. $41 


pressed almost the whole art of reasoning. It was re- 
printed at Paris, in 1762, in 12 mo, with the articles which 
he furnished for the Encyclppedia. At length, his whole 
irorks were collected by Duchoaal and Millon, and pub- 
lished at Paris, 1797, 7 vols. 8vo. In 1804 the institute 
of France proposed his eloge as a prize essay, and the 
prize was gained by Degerando, who published it in 1805. 
That prefixed to his works was by D'Alembert, with whoip, 
as well as with Voltaire, he was at one time too much con- 
nected for his reputation. * 

MARSH (Narcissus), an exemplary Irish prelate, was 
descended from a Saxon family, formerly seated in Kent, 
whence his great-grandfather removed ; and was bprn at 
Hannington, in Wiltshire, Dec. 20, 1.638. He received 
the first rudiments of learning in bis native place ; and 
being there well fitted for the university, wps admitted of 
Magdalen-hall, in Oxford, in 1654. He became B. A, <in 
1657,masterin 1 6 60, bachelor of divinity in 1667, and doctor 
in 1671. In the mean time he was made fellow of Exeter- 
college, in 1658; afterwards chaplain to Dr. Seth Ward, 
bishop of Exeter, and then to chancellor Hyde, earl of 
Clarendon. In 1673, he was appointed principal of 
Alban-hall, Oxford, by the duke of Ormond, chancellor 
of that university ; and executed the duties of his office 
with such zeal and judgment, that, according to Wood* 
" he made it flourish more than it had done many years 
before, or hath since his departure." In 1678 he was re- 
moved by the interest of Dr. John Fell, together with that 
of the duke of Ormond, then lord-lieutenant of Ireland, 
to the dignity of provost of Dublin-college. He was 
promoted to the bishopric of Leighlin and Ferns in 1633, 
translated to the archbishopric of Cashell in 1690, thence 
to Dublin in 1699, and then to Armagh in 1703. After 
haying lived with honour and reputation to himself, and 
benefit to mankind in general, he died Nov. 2, 1713, aged 
seventy- five, and was buried in a vault in St. Patrick's 

Dr. Marsh appears to have employed the greater part of 
his life and income in acts of benevolence and utility. 
While he presided over the see of Dublin, he built a noble 
library, and filled it with a choice collection of books; 
having for that purpose bought the library of Dr. Stilling* 

1 Diet* Hilt— Bioj. Uuiversellt hi Dumartaii**— Moreri. 

542 "M A RSR. 

fleet, late bishop of Worcester,* to which he added his owft. 
collection ; and to make it the more useful to the public, 
he settled a handsome provision on a librarian and sub- 
librarian, to attend it at certain hours. This prelate also 
endowed an alms-house at Drogheda, for the reception of 
twelve poor clergymen's widows, to each of whom he as- 
signed a lodging, and 20/. per* annum. He likewise re- 
paired, at his own expence, many decayed churches within 
his diocese, and bought-in several impropriations, which 
he restored to the church. Nor did he confine his good 
actions to Ireland only ; for he gave a great number of 
manuscripts in the oriental languages, chiefly purchased 
out of Golius's collection, to the Bodleian library. He 
was a very learned and accomplished man. Besides sacred 
and .profane literature, he had applied - himself to mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy : he was deep in the know- 
ledge of languages, especially the oriental ; he was also 
skilled in music, the theory as well as the practice ; and 
he frequently, in the earlier part of his life, had concerts 
of vocal and instrumental music for his own amusement, 
both at Exeter-college and Alban-hali. Dean Swift must 
have been under the influence of the most virulent spleen, 
when be wrote of such a man as Dr. Marsh, the gross cari- 
cature published in his works. As an antidote, we would 
recommend a letter from this excellent prelate, published 
in " Letters written by eminent persons," &c. 1813, 3 
V0I9. 8vo. 

The few things he published were, 1. " Manuductio ad 
Logicam," written by Philip de Trieu : to which he added 
the Greek text of Aristotle, and some tables and schemes. 
With it he printed Gassendus's small tract " De demon- 
stratione," and illustrated with notes, Oxon. 1678. 2. 
" Institutiones logicce, in usum juventutis academics, 
Dublin, 1681." 3. " An introductory essay to the doc- 
trine of sounds, containing some proposals for the improve- 
ment of acoustics." Presented to the royal society in 
Dublin, March 12, 1683, and published in the Philoso- 
phical Transactions of the royal society of London. 4. ** A 
Charge to his clergy of the diocese of Dublin, 169*, 4to.* 

MARSHAL (Andrew), a late eminent anatomist and 
physician, was born in Fifeshire, in 1742, at Park-hill, a 
large farm on the side of the Tay, neat* Newburgh, held 

1 J Biog. Brit.— Ware's Ireland, by Harris, ' 


l>y his father, Mr. John Marshal, of the earl of Rothes. 
His father bad received a classical education himself; and 
being desirous that his son should enjoy a similar advan- 
tage, sent him first to the grammar-school at Newburgb, 
and afterwards to that of Abernetby, then the most cele- 
brated place of education among the Seceders, of which 
religious sect he was a most zealous member. Here he 
was regarded as a quick and apt scholar. From his child- 
hood he had taken great delight in rural scenery. One 
day, while under the influence of feelings of this kind, 
being then about fourteen years old, he told his father that 
he wished to leave school, and be a farmer, but he soon 
shewed that it had not arisen from any fondness for ordi- 
nary country labours. In the following harvest-time, for 
instance, having been appointed to follow the reapers, and 
bind up the cut corn into sheaves, he would frequently lay 
himself down in some shady part of the field, and taking 
a book from his pocket, begin to read, utterly forgetful of 
his task. About two years after, however, he resumed his 
{studies, with the intention of becoming a minister; and 
soon after, be was admitted a student of philosophy at 
Abernethy; and next became a student of divinity, In 
his nineteenth year he went to Glasgow, and divided his 
time between teaching a school, and attending lectures in 
the university. The branches of learning which he chiefly 
cultivated were Greek and morals. At the* end of two 
years passed in this way, he became (through the interest 
of the celebrated Dr. Reid, to whom his talents and dili- 
gence had recommended him), tutor in a gentleman's fa- 
mily, of the. name of Campbell, in the Island of Islay. 
He remained here four years, and removed to the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, with Mr. Campbell's son, whom the 
following year he carried back to his father. Having 
surrendered his charge, he returned to Edinburgh, where 
he subsisted himself by reading Greek and Latin privately 
with students of the university ; in the mean time taking 
no recreation, but giving up all his leisure to the acqui- 
sition of knowledge. He still considered himself a student 
of divinity, in which capacity he delivered two discourses 
in the divinity-hall ; and from motives of curiosity began in 
1769 to attend lectures on medicine. While thus em- 
ployed, be was chosen a member of the Speculative society, 
where, in the beginning, of 1772, he became acquainted 
with lord Balgonie, who was so much pleased with the dig- 


play which he made of genius and learning id that society, 
that he requested they should read together; and in the 
autumn of the following year made a proposal for their 
going to the Continent, which was readily accepted. 
They travelled slowly through Flanders to Paris, where 
they stayed a month, and then proceeded to Tours, where 
they resided eight months, in the house of a man of letters, 
under whose tuition they strove to acquire a correct know- 
ledge of the French, language and government They be- 
came acquainted here with several persons of rank, among 
Whom were a prince of Rohan, and the dukes of Choiseul 
and Aguiloti, at whose seats in the neighbourhood they 
were sometimes received as guests. An acquaintance with 
such people would make Marshal feel pain on account of 
his want of external accomplishments ; and this, probably, 
was the reason of his labouring' to learn to dance and to 
fence while he was at Tours, though he was then more 
than thirty years old. He returned to England in the 
summer of 1774 ; and proceeded soon after to Edinburgh, 
where he resumed the employment of reading Latin and 
Greek with young men. Hitherto he seems to have formed 
no settled plan of life, but to have bounded his views 
almost entirely to the acquisition of knowledge, and a pre- 
sent subsistence. His friends, however, had tyeen induced 
to hope that he would at some time be advanced to a profes- 
sor's chair ; and it is possible that he entertained the sam£ 
hope himself. In the spring of 1775, this hope appeared 
to be, strengthened by his being requested by Mr. Stewart^ 
the professor of humanity at Edinburgh, to officiate for 
him, as he was then unwell : Marshal complied, but soon 
after appears to have given up all hopes of a professorship, 
and studied medicine with a determination to practise it. 
In the spring of 1777, he was enabled by the assistance of 
a friend, Mr. John Campbell of Edinburgh, to come to 
London for professional improvement; and studied ana- 
tomy under Dr. W. Hunter, and surgery under Mr. J. 
Hunter. After he had been here a twelvemonth, he was 
appointed surgeon to the 83rd, or Glasgow regiment, 
through the interest of the earl of Leven, the father of his 
late pupil, lord Balgonie. The first year after was passed 
with his regiment, in Scotland. In the following he ac- 
companied it to Jersey, where be remained with it almost 
constantly till the conclusion of the war in the beginning 
of 1783, when it was disbanded. In this situation he 



tenjoyed, almost for the first time, the pleasures best suited, 
to a man of independent mind. His income was more than 
sufficient. for his support; his industry and knowledge ren- 
dered him useful ; and Jiis character for integrity and ho- 
nour procured him general esteem. From Jersey he came 
to London, seeking for a settlement, and was advised by 
Dr. D. Pitcairn (with whom he had formed a friendship 
while a student at Glasgow) to practise surgery here, 
though he had taken the degree of doctor of physic the 
preceding year at Edinburgh ; and to teach anatomy at St. 
^Bartholomew's hospital, it being at the same time pro- 

?osed, that the physicians to that hospital (of whom Dr. 
itcairn was one) should lecture on other branches of me- 
dical learning. He took a house, in consequence, in the 
neighbourhood of the hospital ; and proceeded to prepare 
for the execution of his part of the scheme. This proving 
abortive, he began to teach anatomy, the following year, 
at his own house ; and at length succeeded in procuring 
annually a considerable number of pupils, attracted to him 
solely by the reputation of his being a most diligent and 
able teacher. In 1788 he quitted the practice of surgery, 
and commenced that of medicine, having previously be- 
come a member of the London college of physicians. In 
the ensuing year a dispute arose between John Hunter 
and him, which it is proper to relate, as it had influence 
on his after-life. When Marshal returned to London, he 
renewed his acquaintance with Mr. Hunter, who thought 
so well of him, that he requested his attendance at a com- 
mittee of his friends, to whose correction he submitted his 
work on the venereal disease, before it Was published. He 
became also a member of a small society, instituted by Dr. 
Fordyce and Mr. Hunter, for the improvement of medical 
and surgical knowledge. Having mentioned at a meeting 
of this society, that, in the dissection of those who had 
died insane, he had always found marks of disease in the 
head, Mr. Hunter denied the truth of this in very coarse 
language. The other members interfering, Mr. Hunter 
agreed to say, that his expressions did not refer to Dr. 
Marshal's veracity, but to the accuracy of his observation* 
Marsha), not being satisfied with this declaration, at the 
next meeting of the society demanded an ample apology ; 
but Mr. Hunter, instead of making one, repeated the offen- 
sive expressions; op which Marshal poured some water 
oter his head out of a bottle which had stood near them. 


A scuffle ensued, which was immediately stopped by the 
other members, and no father personal contention between* 
, them ever occurred. But Marshal, conceiving that their 
common friends in the society had, from the superior rank 
of Mr. Uunter, favoured him more in this matter than jus- 
tice permitted, soon after estranged himself from them. 
He continued the teaching of anatomy till 1800, in which 
year, during a tedious illness, the favourable termination 
of which appeared doubtful to him, he resolved, rather 
suddenly, to give it up. While he taught anatomy, almost 
the whole of the fore-part of the day, during eight months 
in the year, was spent by him in his dissecting and lecture 
rooms. He had, therefore, but little time for seeing sick 
persons, except at hpurs frequently inconvenient to them; 
and was by this means prevented from enjoying much me- 
dical practice ; but as soon as he had recovered his health, 
after ceasing to lecture, his practice began to increase* 
The following year it was so far increased as to render it 
proper that he should keep a carriage. From this time to 
within a few months of his death, an interval of twelve 
years, his life flowed on in nearly an equable stream. He 
had business enough in the way he conducted it to give 
him employment during the greater part of the day; and 
his professional profits were sufficient to enable him to live 
in the manner he chose, and provide fur the wants of sick- 
ness and old age. After having appeared somewhat feeble 
for two or three years, he made known, for the first time, 
in the beginning of last November, that he laboured under 
a disease of bis bladder, though he must then have been 
several years affected with it. k His ailment was incurable, 
and scarcely admitted of palliation. For several months he 
was almost constantly in great pain, which he bore man- 
fully. At length, exhausted by his sufferings, be died on 
the 2nd of April, 1813, at his house in BartlettV buildings, 
Holborn, being then in the seventy-first year of bis age. 
Agreeably to his own desire, his body was interred in the 
church -yard of the parish of St. Pancras. His* fortune, 
amounting to about 80001. was, for the most part, be- 
queathed to sisters and nephews. 

Though' Dr. Marshal's genius, with the assistance of 
great industry, enabled him to attain a very consider- 
able proficiency in many different parts of learning, it was 
not equally well adapted for every purpose of a literary 

M A'R S H A L. 347 

man. It was better fitted to acquire than digest, to heap 
tip than arrange/ to make a scholar than render its posses- 
sor a philosopher; and hence he often appeared to less 
advantage in conversation than other* persons of much in- 
ferior possessions. The successful exertion of his talents 
had given him a confidence in them, which otherwise would 
have been justly regarded as presumptuous. At the age 
of forty-one, with little previous knowledge of the subject, 
he began to prepare for being a teacher of anatomy in 
London, and, in the following year, actually gave a course 
of lectures upon it. These lectures were not superficial : 
they were, on the contrary, remarkable for minuteness of 
description and copiousness of illustration. When he 
could derive assistance from his other studies, as while 
speaking of the uses of the bones and muscles, he was par- 
ticularly full and instructive. In his lectures, however, 
his want of a methodical mind would not unfrequently ap- 
pear ; for he often seemed to be seeking for a thought 
which was not readily to be found, and sometimes con- 
fessed that what he said was not so clear, from want of 
proper words, as he wished it to be. Though he began 
thus late to cultivate anatomy, it was ever after a favourite 
pursuit with him, particularly that part which relates to the 
ascertaining the seats of diseases. He kept in his house, 
for many years after ceasing to lecture, at no inconsider- 
able expense, a person for the purpose of assisting him in 
anatomical inquiries. 

' He had probably never, without aid, conducted a pa- 
tient through an acute and dangerous disorder, before he 
was appointed surgeon to the Glasgow regiment, at which 
time he was nearly thirty-six years of age, He must, there- 
fore,, have less readily acquired the faculty of distinguish- 
ing diseases as they occur in nature, than if he had entered 
upon the exercise of medicine at an earlier period of life ; 
and it was probably, in part, owing to this circumstance, 
that, even in his later years, he was slower in the exami- 
nation of the sick, and more distrustful of his opinion re- 
specting their ailments, than many physicians of much 
less talent and experience. A strong conscientiousness, 
however, contributed greatly to the production of these 
effects. That he might be the less liable to err, he took 
upon the spot short notes of the states of his patients; these 
formed the bases of entries which he afterwards made in 
bis Case Book, an employment which for many years oc~ 


cupied nearly three hours every evening. His practice ill 
the army is said to have been bold ; that it was successful, 
is evident from a fact related in his inaugural dissertation, 
but modestly ascribed by him to the excellent regulations 
established by bis colonel, that, in the regiment in which 
he served, consisting of about 1000 men, and, from being 
hastily formed, containing more than the usual proportion 
of persons unfit for a military life, only sixteen died of 
disease in the course of nearly four years, and of these, 
four were not under the management of their own officers 
at the time of their decease. In London, from having 
patients to operate upon for the most part originally less 
strong than soldiers, and afterwards rendered still weaker 
by long residence in impure air, his mode of treating dis- 
eases was necessarily different, and during the last eight 
years of his life, it was somewhat too inert. 

Dr. Marshal's many amiable qualities placed him high 
in the estimation of those who knew him well ; but unfor- 
tunately the alloy mixed with them way considerable. His 
temper was extremely irritable ; and, when be had once 
taken offence, he seldom returned to his former state with 
respect to the person who Jiad given it, if an equal or su- 
perior, though he might afterwards discover that his re- 
sentment was without sufficient cause. He seemed to be 
afraid, in this case, that a confession of error would be 
attributed to some base motive : for when he found that 
he bad taken offence improperly with persons beneath him, 
with his servants for instance, he was very ready to avow 
bis fault, and atone for it He was, besides, of a melan- 
choly disposition ; and, < like other men of this tempera- 
ment, frequently believed, that persons of the most ho- 
nourable conduct were conspiring to betray and to ruin him. 
From the nature of his early pursuits, these parts of his 
character seem not to have exhibited themselves very 
strongly before he returned to London in 1783 ; but when 
he came to mix and jostle in this great city with a crowd 
of persons intent on their own concerns, and little regard- 
ful of those of others, when he found himself neglected by 
some on whom he fancied he had claims for assistance, and 
experienced unexpected opposition from others, tbey be- 
came very conspicuous, and often rendered him miserable* 
The causes of irritation, indeed, ceased in a great mea- 
sure with his lecturing, and, the remainder of his life was 
passed with comparative tranquillity; but he was now 


almost without a friend to whom he could freely communi- 
cate his. thoughts, and, from long disuse, with little relish 
or fitness for the pleasures of society. In this desolate state 
his chief amusement consisted in reading the ancient clas- 
sics, after he had closed his professional labours for the 
day. He generally carried one of these to bed, and read 
it there till he composed himself for sleep. The Greek 
authors were more frequently used by him in this way than 
the Latin; and of the former, Plato more frequently than 
any other. 

It is not known that he ever published any literary works 
besides an " Essay on Composition," when at Edinburgh ; 
an " Essay on Ambition," written also very early in life ; a 
translation of the three first books of Simson's " Conic Sec- 
tions," apparently undertaken at the suggestion of a book- 
seller ; and a treatise on the " Preservation of the Health 
of Soldiers." He had, indeed, meditated a variety of 
•ther publications, principally on physiology and patho- 
logy ; but, hiving pursued a subject with great keenness 
till be had gained what he wanted, he could not bring him- 
self to be at the trouble of preparing for the eye of the 
world what he had acquired, more especially as new objects 
of research presented themselves in quick succession. A 
paper upon Hernia, illustrated by drawings taken nearly 
20 years ago, and another upon the appearances of the 
brain in mania, drawn up from dissections made more thau 
20 years ago, were left in a state fit for publication; and 
the latter has just been published under the title of " The 
Morbid Anatomy of the Brain, in Mania and Hydrophobia," 
by Mr. Sawrey, formerly assistant-lecturer to Dr. Marshal. 
To this volume, in 8vo, is prefixed a life of Dr. Marshal, 
/rom which the above particulars are taken, but to which 
we may refer as containing many more of considerable in- 
terest. 1 

MARSHALL (Nathanael), a celebrated preacher at 
the beginning of the last century, was of Emanuel college, 
Cambridge, where he took his degree of D. D. in 1717. 
He was . lecturer at Aldermanbury church, and curate of 
Kentish-town, in Jan; 1715, when, at the recommendation 
of the princess of Wales, who was pleased with his man- 
ner of preaching, he was appointed one of the king's chap- 

* Life at above, the tubstance of which was origioally published in the Gent, 
Mag>. vol. LXXXIfl. 


lains ; in 1717, he was rector of the united parishes of St. 
Vedast and St. Michael-le-Querne, London ; and, in Feb. 
1731, rector of St. Vedast, lecturer of St. Lawrence Jewry, 
and St. Martin Ironmonger-lane, prebendary of Windsor, 
and king's chaplain. These dates and preferments are 
collected from his title-pages. He died Feb. 4, 1729. His 
principal publications are, " The genuine Works of St. 
Cyprian," 1717, folio; " A Defence of our Constitution in 
Church and State," &c. 1717, 3vo, (on which Dr. Sykes 
published some " Remarks ;" and which was also replied to 
by Matt. Earbury in a tract added to his " Serious Admo- 
nition to Dr. Kennett." Dr. Marshall's " Sermons on se- 
veral occasions" appeared in 1730, 3 vols. 8vo, to which 
another was added in 1750. These were posthumous, and 
inscribed to queen Caroline by the author's widow, who 
was left with eight children, the eldest of whom was 
preacher at St. John's chapel, Bedford-row* which he 
opened Feb* 10, 1722. He died Aug. 23, 1731. Bishop 
Clayton, in his " Letters to his Nephew," recommends 
Dr. Marshall's Sermons, as preferable to Sherlock's and 
Atterbury's for pathos, and for lively and warm applica- 
tions. l 

MARSHALL (Thomas), an English divine, was born 
at Barkby in Leicestershire, about 1621, and educated 
there in grammar learning, under the vicar of that town. 
He was entered of Lincoln college, Oxford, in 1640 ; and, 
about the same time, being a constant hearer of archbishop 
Usher's sermons in All-hallows church in that university, 
he conceived such a high opinion of that prelate, as to wish 
to make him the pattern of bis life. Soon after, Oxford 
being garrisoned upon the breaking out of ttie civil wars, he 
bore arms for the king at his own charge ; and therefore, 
in 1645, when he was a candidate for the degree of bache- 
lor of arts, he was admitted to it without paying fees. 
Upon the approach, of the parliamentary visitors, who 
usurped the whole power of the university, he went abroad, 
and became preacher to the company of English merchants 
at Rotterdaih and Dort. In 1661, he was created bachelor 
of divinity; and, in 1668, chosen fellow of his college, 
without his solicitation pr knowledge. In 1669, while be 
was at Dort in Holland/-he was made doctor of divinity at 
Oxford; and, in 1672, elected rector of his college, in 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. — Cole's MS Athene in Brie. Mus. 


the room of Dr. Crew, promoted to the bishopric of Ox- 
ford. He was afterwards appointed chaplain in ordinary 
to his majesty, rector of Bladon near Woodstock in Ox- 
fordshire, in May 1680, and was installed dean of Glou- 
cester on April 30, 1681. He resigned Bladon in the year 
1682. He died at Lincoln-college in 1685. By his will 
he gave to the public library at Oxford all such of his 
books, whether manuscript or printed, as were not then 
it) the library, excepting such only as he had not other- 
wise disposed of, and the remaining part to Lincoln-college 
library ; in which college also he fitted up the common. 
room, and built the garden -wall. 

He produced some writings; as, 1. u Observationes in 
Evangeliorum versiones perantiquas duas, Gothicas scilicet 
& Anglo- Saxonicas," &c. Dordrecht, 1665. 2. " The Ca- 
techism set forth in the book of Common Prayer, briefly 
explained by short notes, grounded upon Holy Scripture,'" 
Oxf. 1679. These short notes were drawn up by him at 
the desire of Dr. John Fell, bishop of Oxford, to be used 
by the ministers of his diocese in catechising their children. 
3. " An Epistle for the English reader, prefixed to Dr. 
Thomas Hyde's, translation into the Malayan language of 
the four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles," Oxf. 1677, 
>. He took a great deal of pains in completing " The Life 
of Archbishop 'Usher," published by Dr. Richard Parr, 
sometime fellow of Exeter college, Lond. 1686. Wood 
tells us, " that he was a person very well versed in books, 
a noted critic, especially in the Gothic and English-Saxon 
tongues, a painful preacher, a good man and governor, 
and one every way worthy of his station in the church ; 
and that he was always taken to be an honest and conscien- 
tious puritan." Dr. Hickes, in " The Life of Mr. John 
Kettlewell," p. 3, styles him " a very eminent person in 
the learned world ; and observes, that what he has pub- 
lished shewed him to be a great man." Dr. Thomas Smith 
styles him also a most excellent man, " vir prastantissi- 
rnus," and adds, that he was extremely; well skilled in the 
Saxon, and in the Eastern tongues, especially the Coptic ; 
and eminent for his strict piety, profound learning, and 
other valuable qualifications. 1 

MARSHAM (Sir John), a very learned English writer, 
was the second son of Thom&s Marsham, esq. alderman of 

1 A«h. Ox. vol. If.— Geo. Diet.— Bicg. Brit, vol. VI. p. 4076, note N. N. 

352 M A R S H A M. 

London, and born in the parish of St. Bartholomew's, Aug. 
23, 1602. He was brought up at Westminster school, and 
sent thence, in 1619, to St. John's college in Oxford, where 
betook, in due time, bis degrees in arts. In 1625, he 
went to France, and spent the winter at Paris; in 1626 
and 1627, he visited most parts of that kingdom, and of 
Italy, and some parts of Germany, and then returned to 
London. In 1629, he went through Holland and Guelder- 
land, to the siege of Boisleduc ; and thence by Flushing to 
Boulogne and Paris, in the retinue of sir Thomas Ed- 
mondes, ambassador extraordinary, who was sent to take 
the oath of Louis XIII. to the peace' newly concluded be- 
tween England and France. During his residence in Lon- 
don, he studied the law in the Middle Temple ; and, in 
1638, was sworn one of the six clerks in chancery. Upon 
the breaking out of the civil wars, be followed the king and 
the great seal to Oxford; for which he was deprived of 
his place by the parliamentarians, and suffered a vast loss 
by the plundering of bis estate. After the surrender of 
the garrison at Oxford, and the ruin of the king's affairs, 
he returned to London ; and, having compounded for his 
estate, he betook himself wholly to retirement and study. 
In the beginning of 1660, he served as a burgess for the 
city of Rochester,- in the parliament which recalled Charles 
the Second ; about which time, being restored to his place 
in chancery, he had the honour of knighthood conferred 
upon him, and three years after was created a baronet. 
He died at Bushy-hall in Hertfordshire, in May 1685 ; and 
his body was interred at Cuckstone near Rochester, where 
he had an estate. By Elizabeth his wife, daughter, of sir 
William Hammond of St. Alban's, in East Kent, he left 
two sons ; sir John Marsham, of Cuckstone, bart. and sir 
Robert Marsham, of Bushy-hall, knt. both of them studious 
and learned men, and the ancestors of the Romney family. 
Sir John Marsham was a very accomplished gentleman, 
and had acquired a critical knowledge of history, chrono- 
logy, and languages. He published in 1649, 4to, " Dia- 
triba chronologica ;" in which he examines succinctly the 
principal difficulties which occur in the chronology of the 
Old Testament* The greatest part of this was afterwards 
inserted in another work, entitled " Canon chronicus, 
jEgyptiacus, Ebraicus, Graecus, & disquisition es," Lond. 
1672, folio. The principal object of this is to reconcile 



the Egyptian dynasties. The Egyptians, as is well known, 
pretended to excessive antiquity, and had framed a list of 
thirty successive dynasties, which amounted to a number 
of years (36,525) greatly exceeding the age of the world. 
These were rejected as fabulous by some of the ablest chro- 
nologers ; but sir John Marsham first conjectured that 
these dynasties were not successive, but collateral ; and 
therefore without rejecting any, be endeavoured to recon- 
cile the entire series in this manner, to the scripture chro- 
nology. The attempt, which was highly ingenious, gained 
him great reputation, and many contemporary as well as 
succeeding authors, have been liberal in their praises. Mr. 
Wotton represents him as the first " who has made the 
Egyptian antiquities intelligible : that most learned gentle* 
man," says he, " has reduced the wild heap of Egyptian 
dynasties into as narrow a compass as the history of Moses 
according to the Hebrew account, by the help of a table 
of the Theban kings, which he found under Eratosthenes's 
name in the Chronography of Syncellus. For, by that ta- 
ble, he, I. Distinguished the fabulous and mystical part of 
the Egyptian history, from that which seems to look like 
matter of fact. 2. He reduced the dynasties into colla- 
teral families, reigning at the same time in several parts of 
the country ; which, as some learned men saw before, was 
the only way to make those antiquities consistent with 
themselves, which, till then, were confused and incoherent." 
Dr. ShU ck ford, after having represented the foundation of 
sir John Marsham' s Canon with regard to Egypt, says that, 
" upon these hints and observations, be has opened to us 
a prospect of coming at an history of the succession of the 
kings of Egypt, and that in a method so natural and easy, 
that it must approve itself to any person who enters truly 
into the design and conduct of it." Afterwards, having 
given a view of sir John's scheme, from the beginning of 
the reigns of the Egyptian kings down to his Sesostris, or 
Sesac, be observes, that, "if the reader will take the 
pains thoroughly to examine it, if he will take it in pieces 
into all its parts, review the materials of which it is formed, 
consider how they lie in the authors from whom they are 
taken, and what manner of collecting and disposing them 
is made use of, he will find that however in some lesser 
points a variation from our very learned author may be de- 
fensible, yet no tolerable scheme can be formed of the 
Vol. XXI. A a 


354 MARS HA TV*. 

ancient Egyptian history, that is not in the main agreeing 
with him. Sir John Marsham has led us to a clear and 
natural place for the name of every Egyptian king, and 
time of his reign," &c. But although sir John Marsham' s 
system has been followed by some, it has been strenuously 
opposed by other writers, who have represented it as not 
only false, but even prejudicial to revelation. 

The " Canon Chronicus" was reprinted at Leipsic, in 
1676, in 4to, and at Franeker, 1696, in 4to, with a pre- 
face before each edition, in which the editor, Menckenius, 
endeavours to confute his author ; who thought, as Spen- 
cer and others have done, that the Jews derived part of 
their ceremonies from the Egyptians. The edition of 
Leipsic pretends, in the title-page, to be much more cor- 
rect than that of London, which is infinitely more beauti- 
ful ; but its only merit is, that it is more correct than that 
of Franeker. Sir John Marsham wrote the preface to the 
first volume of Dugdale's " Monasticon Anglicanum,'* 
which was printed at London, 1655, in folio. He left be- 
hind him at his death unfinished, 1. " Canonis chronici 
liber quintus : sive, Imperium Persicum." 2. " De pro- 
vinciis & legionihus Romania." 3. " De re numeraria," 
&c. We are likewise in some measure obliged to him for 
the "History of Philosophy," by his very learned n&- m 
phew, Thomas Stanley ^ esq. which excellent work was un- 
dertaken chiefly at his instigation, as we are told by Mr.* 
Stanley himself, in the dedication of it, " to his honoured 
uncle sir John Marsham." 1 

MARSIGLI (Lewis Ferdinand), an Italian, famous for 
letters as well as arms, was descended from an ancient and 
noble family, and born at Bologna in 1658. He was edu- 
cated with great care, and instructed in all the arts and 
sciences by the best masters in Italy ; learning mathematics 
of Borelli, anatomy of Malpighi, &c. He went to Con- 
stantinople in 1679; and, as he had destined himself for 
the military profession, he contrived to take a view of the 
Ottoman forces, and made other observations of a like 
nature. He examined at the same time, as a philosopher, 
the Thracian Bosphorus, and its currents. He returned to. 
Italy in 1680; and, the Turks soon after threatening an 

* Gen. Diet. — Biog. Brit. — Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Wotton'g Reflections upon an- 
cient and modern Learning, chap. IX. — Shuckford's Sacred and Profane HisU 
vol. HI. Book 2. 


irruption into Hungary, he went to Vienna, to offer bis 
service to the emperor Leopold II. which was readily ac- 
cepted. Discovering great knowledge in fortifications and 
in the science of war, be had. the pommand of a company 
conferred on him, in 1683 ; and the same year, after 
a very sharp action, fell unfortunately into the hands of 
the Tartars. He was sold by them- to two Turks, with 
whom he suffered great hardships ; but at length, convey- 
ing intelligence of his situation to his friends, who bad 
believed him dead, be was redeemed, and returned to 
Bologna towards the latter end of 1684. He went again 
into Germany, was employed by the emperor in several 
military expeditions, and made a colonel in 1689. A re- 
verse of fortune afterwards overtook him. In the general 
war which broke out in 1701, on account of the Spanish 
succession, the important fortress of Brisac surrendered to 
the duke of Burgundy, Sept. 6, 1703, thirteen days after 
the trenches were open : and it being judged that the 
place was capable of holding out much longer, the conse- 
quence was, that count d'Arco, who commanded, lost his 
head ;' and Marsigli, who was then advanced to be a mar- 
shal, was stripped of all his honours and commissions, and 
had his sword broken over him. This sentence was exe- 
cuted on Feb. 1 8 following.' He afterwards attempted to 
justify the -surrender before the emperor; but, not being 
able to get admittance, he published a memorial, the pur- 
port of which was to shew, that long before the siege of 
Brisac, it had been represented and proved, that the place 
could not be defended for any long time. It was in fact 
the general opinion that d'Arco and he had been sacrificed, 
to exculpate the prince of Baden, who had posted a nu- 
merous artillery in a bad situation, and with a very weak 
garrison. When Marsigli went afterwards into France, 
and appeared at court without a sword, the king presented 
him with that which he himself wore, and assured him of 
his favour. 

Released now from public concerns, he returned to his 
studies ; and it was his peculiar good fortune, that amidst 
the hurry , and noise, and fatigue of war, he had made all 
the- advantages which the most philosophic man could have 
made, who had travelled purely in quest of knowledge;' 
had determined the situation of places by astronomical 
methods, measured the course and swiftness of rivers, 

A 4 % . 

356 M A R S I G LI 

studied the fossils, the vegetables, the animals of each 
country, made anatomical and chemical experiments, and 
done, in short, every thing which a man of science could 
do, and with such a fund of knowledge, knew how to fill 
up his time in the most agreeable as well as honourable 
manner. While at Marseilles, he was called by pope Cle- 
ment XL in 1709, and invested with a military commission. 
Returning soon after to Bologna, he began to execute a 
design which he had long been meditating. He had a 
rich collection of every thing that might contribute to the 
advancement of natural knowledge : instruments proper 
for astronomical and chemical experiments, plans for for- 
tifications, models of machines, &c. &c. All these he 
presented to the senate of Bologna, by an authentic act, 
dated Jan. II, 1712; forming, at the same time, a body 
out of them, which he called " The institute of the arts 
and sciences at Bologna." He afterwards founded a print- 
ing-house, and furnished it with the .best types for Latin, 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic. He presented this to the 
Dominicans at Bologna, in 1728, on condition that all the 
writings 5 of the " Institute, &c." should be printed there at 
prime cost.* It was called "The printing-house of St. 
Thomas of Aquinas." 

Having executed these munificent designs, he returned 
to Marseilles in 1728, for the sake of finishing some philo- 
sophical observation^ upon the sea, which he had formerly 
begqn there : but was interrupted by the stroke of an 
apoplexy in 1729, which occasioned the physicians to send 
him back to his native air, where he died Nov. I, 1730. 
He was a member of the academy of sciences at Paris, of 
the royal society at London, and of that of Montpelier. 
IJis writings are numerous and valuable, in French, Italian, 
and Latin, and upon philosophical subjects. The princi- 
pal are, 1 . " Observations concerning the Thracian Bospho- 
rus," Rome, 1681, 4to. 2. " Histoire Physique de la Mer," 
Amst. 1725, fol. 3. " Danubius Pannonico-roysicus," a 
description of the Danube in its Hungarian and Turkish 
course, 1726, 6 vols, atlas folio. It commences with geo- 
graphical and hydrographical observations ; from thence it 
proceeds to the history and antiquities of all the places 
washed by its stream; to the mineralogy, zoology, and 
botany of its borders, and concludes with meteorological 
and physical remarks. He published also " A Dissertation 
•n the Bologtiian Phosphorus " " Memoir concerning the 


Flowers of Coral ;" <c Dissertation an the Generation of 
Fungi ;'■ " On Trajan's Bridge." l 

MARSOLLIER (James), a French historian of some 
credit, was born at Paris in 1647. He took the habit of a 
canon regular of St. G6nevieve, and was sent to regulate the 
chapter of Usez, where he was made provost. This office 
he resigned in favour of the abbe* Poncet, who was after- 
wards bishop of Angers. Some time after, he was made 
archdeacon of Usez, and died in that city Aug. 30, 1724, 
At the age of 78. Marsollier published several histories, 
which are still read by his countrymen with some pleasure : 
the style, though occasionally debased by low and familiar 
expressions, being in general rather lively and flowing. 
There are extant by him, 1. "A History of Cardinal Xi- 
menes," in 1693, 2 vols. 12mo, and since frequently re- 
printed. The only fault found with this work is, that the 
author gives up his attention to the public man so much, 
as almost to forget his private character. 2. " A History 
of Henry VII. King of England;" reprinted in 1727, in 
2 vols. 12 mo. Some consider this as the master- piece of 
the author. 3. " The History of the Inquisition and its 
origin," 1693, 12 mo. A curious work, and in some re- 
spects a bold one. 4. " Life of St. Francis de Sales,' 1 2 
vols. 12 mo. 5. " The Life of Madame de Chantal," 2 vols, 
12mo. 6. " The Life of Dom Ranc6, abbe* and reformer 
of La Trappe," 1703, 2 vols. 12mo. Some objections have 
been made to the veracity of this history, but the jour- 
nalists de Trevoux seem disposed to prefer it upon the 
whole to Maupeoii's life of Ranc6. 7. " Dialogues on 
many Duties of Life," 1715, 12mo. This is rather ver- 
bose than instructive, and is copied in a great degree from 
Erasmus. 8. " The History of Henry de la Tour d'Au- 
vergne, duke of Bouillon," 3 vols. 12 mo. Not much 
esteemed. 9. " An Apology for Erasmus," 12mo; whose 
catholic orthodoxy the author undertakes to prove from 
passages* in his works. 10. "A History of Tenths, and 
other temporal Goods of the Church," Paris, 1689, 12mo. 
This is the most scarce, and at the same time the most 
curious, of all the works of Marsollier. 9 
* MARSTON (John), an English dramatic author, who 
lived in the time of James I. and wrote eight plays. Wood 

« 1 Fabroni Vitae Italorum, vol. V. — Eloge by FonteneMe. — Moreri. — Niceron, 
Vol. XXVI.j—Memoirs of Literature, vol*. VII. and tX. — Republic of Letters, 
vols. IV. andX. 2 Niceron, vol. VII. — Diet. Hist. — Moreri. 




says, " that he was a student in Corpus-Christi college, 
Oxford ; but where he was born, or from what family de- 
scended, is not known." When he left Oxford, he was 
entered of the Middle Temple, of which society he was 
chosen lecturer in the 34th of Elizabeth; but much more 
of his personal history is not known. He lived in friend- 
ship with Ben Jonson, as appears by his addressing to him 
his " Malecontent," a tragi-comedy, in 1604 ; yet we 6nd 
him afterwards glancing with some severity at Jonson, on 
account of. his " Catiline and Sejanus," in his " Epistle 
prefixed to " Sophonisba," another tragedy. " Know, 
says he, " that I have not laboured in this poem, to relate 
any thing as an historian, but to enlarge every thing as & 
poet. -To transcribe authors, quote authorities, and to 
translate Latin prose orations into English blank verse, 
hath in this subject been the least aim of my studies. 9 ' 
Langbaine observes, and with good reason, " that none, 
who are acquainted with the works of Ben Jonson; can 
doubt that he is meant here, if they will compare the ora- 
tions in Sallust with those in his Cataline." Jonson appears 
to have quarrelled with him and Decker, and is supposed 
to have ridiculed both in his " Poetaster." 

Marston contributed eight plays to the stage, which 
were all acted at the Black-Friars with applause ; and one 
of them, called '« The Dutch Courtezan," was once re- 
vived since the restoration, under the title of " The Re- 
venge, or a Match in Newgate." In 1633, six of this au- 
thor's plays were collected, and published in one volume, 
dedicated to the lady viscountess Falkland. Besides his 
dramatic poetry, he wrote three books of satires, en- 
titled, '« The Scourge of Villainy," which were printed at 
London in 1599, and reprinted in 1764, by the rev. John 
Bowie. We have no account when Marston died ; but be 
was certainly living in 1 633. As a specimen of his poetry, 
Mr. Dodsley has republished the " Malecontent," in his 
Collection of Old English Plays, vol. IV. Marston was a 
chaste and pure writer, avoiding all that obscenity, ribal- 
dry, and scurrility which too many of the play wrighjts of 
that time, and much more so in periods since, have made 
the basis of tfyeir wit, to the great disgrace of the age. He 
abhorred such writers, and their works, and pursued so 
opposite a practice in his performances, that " whatsoever 
even in the spring of his years, he presented upon the 

M A R S T O N. 359 

public and private theatre, in his autumn and declining 
age he needed not be ashamed of." 1 

MARSY (Francis Maria de), a Latin poet, and mis- 
cellaneous writer, was born at Paris, and entered early 
into the society of Jesuits, where he displayed and culti- 
vated very excellent literary talents. When he was hardly 
twenty, he published some Latin poems which gained him 
credit. His religious opinions being soon found too bold 
for ihe society to which he belonged, he was obliged to 
quit it ; and having published in 1754, an "Analysis of 
Bayle," in 4 vols. 1 2 mo, he fell into still greater and per- 
haps more merited disgrace. His books were proscribed 
by the parliament of Paris, and himself shut up in the 
Bastile. This book contaius a compilatipn of tfre most 
offensive matter contained in the volumes of Bayle, and 
has since been republished in Holland, with four additional 
volumes. Having, for a time, regained his liberty, he 
was proceeding in his modern history (a work of which he 
had already published some volumes), when he died sud- 
denly in December 1763. Besides the analysis of Bayle, 
already mentioned, he published, 1. " The History of 
Mary Stuart," 1742, 3 vols. 12 mo, a correct and elegant 
work, in which be was assisted by Fr£ron. 2. " Memoires 
de Melvill," translated from the English, 1745, 3 vols. 
12mo. 3. "Abridged Dictionary of Painting and Archi- 
tecture," 2 vols. 12mo. 4. " Le Rabelais moderne," or 
the works of Rabelais made intelligible to readers in gene- 
ral, 1752, 8 vols. 12mo. This is by no means executed 
in a manner either satisfactory, to the reader, or creditable 
to the author. Some of the obscurities are removed or 
explained, but all that is offensive to decency is left. 

5. "The Prince," translated frpm father Paul, 1751. 

6. " The Modern History, intended to serve as a continu- 
ation of Rollin's Ancient History," in 26 vols. 12mo. 
This is written with regularity, but little elegance. The 
abbe* Matsy has since had a continuator in Richer, who has 
written with less order, but more profundity of research, 
especially respecting America and Russia. 7. " Pictura,'* 
in 12mo, 1756. This poem on painting, is considered as less 
learned in the art, and in that respect lejss instructive, thaa 
that of du Fresnoy ; but he has shown himself a more pure 
and original Latin poet. There is also a poem in Latin by 

% Langbaine. — Biog. Dram. — PhilHpi's Theatrum by sir £. Brydges.— D»I S . 
gaeli's Quarrels, toI. III. — Gibber's Lircs. 

860 M A R S Y. 

this author, on tragedy. The opinion of his countrymen 
is, that his fame rests principally on these Latin poems, 
and that there was nothing brilliant in his literary career 
afterwards. 1 

MARTEL (Francis), a French surgeon under Henry 
IV*. in whose service he was employed about 1590, attended 
that prince in the wars of Dauphiny, Savoy, Languedoc, 
and Normandy; and at Mothe-Frielon saved his life by 
bleeding him judiciously, in a fever brought on by fatigue. 
In consequence of this, he gained the full confidence of 
the king, and was made his chief surgeon. He was the 
author of a work entitled " L'Apologie pour les Chirur- 
giens, contre ceux qui publient qu'ils ne doivent se m£ler 
de remettre les os rompus et d£mis." He wrote also, 
" Paradoxes on the practice of Surgery," in which some 
modern improvements are anticipated. His works are 
printed, with the surgery of Philip de Flesselle, at Paris, 
in 1635, 12mo.* 

MARTELLI (Lewis), a Florentine poet, born about 
1500, wrote verses serious and grotesque. The former 
were published in 8vo, at Florence, in 1548; the latter 
appear in the second volume of "Poesie Bernesche." He 
was also a celebrated dramatic writer. He died in 1527, 
when he was no more than twenty-eight years old. His 
brother Vincent was also a poet, aud left some " Rime," 
or lyrics, which were much esteemed. He died in 1556, 
£nd his poems and letters appeared in 1607.* 

MARTELLI {Peter James), an eminent Italian poet, 
was born at Bologna in 1665, and was educated at the 
Jesuits' school, and at the university of his native city, 
after which he devoted himself to the study of classical 
literature, and having obtained the post of one of the 
secretaries to the senate of Bologna, was enabled to follow 
his studies without much interruption. After publishing a 
serious poem, entitled " Gli Ocche di Gesu," The Eyes of 
Jesus, he produced a tragedy called * La Morte di Nerone," 
which with several of his other pieces was acted with 
great applause. In 1707 he was appointed professor of the 
belles lettres in the university of Bologna, and soon after • 
was mAde private secretary to Aldrovandi, who had been 
nominated delegate to pope Clement XI. At Rome, where 
he contracted an intimacy with many jpen of high literary 

. * Necrotic poor an. 1768.— Diet. Hist * Eley, Diet. Hist de Medicine. 
* Tiraboschi.— -Gioguene Hist Litt. D'Julie. 


reputation, be published a whimsical dialogue, " Del 
Volo," On Flying, in which he endeavoured to prove that 
men and heavy bodies might be supported in the air, and 
also wrote several discourses in verse concerning the art of 
poetry. When he accompanied Aldrovandi, whp was ap- 
pointed the pope's legate at tfce courts of France and 
Spain, he wrote at Paris his opinions " On "ancient and 
modern Tragedy," in the form of dialogues; and on his 
return to Rome, he published his tragedies in three vo- 
lumes, and was reckoned to have conferred a great benefit 
on Italian literature, although his style is often too turgid 
and florid for a model. He also began a poem " On the 
Arrival of Charlemagne in Italy, and his Accession to the 
Western Empire," which he. never finished. He died in 
172.7, at the age of sixty-two, leaving the character of a 
man of amiable manners and social qualities. His princi- 
pal works, " Versi et Prose," were printed at Bologna in 
1729, 7 vols. 8vo. ! 

MARTENNE (Edmund), a benedictine of the congre- 
gation of St. Maur, was born in 1654, at St. Jean-de- 
Losne, in the diocese of Langres. Among his brethren, 
so highly famous for arduous efforts in literature, he was 
distinguished for his very laborious researches, no less than 
for his eminent virtues. The vast extent of his learning 
did not interfere with the simplicity of his manners, any 
more than his great attachment to study, with his attention 
to monastic duties. He died of an apoplexy in 1739, at 
the age of 85. His principal works are, 1. " A Latin 
Commentary on the monastic rules of St. Benedict," a 
work of curious research on that subject, Paris, 1690, 4to. 
2. "Deantiquismonachorum ritibus," Lyons, 1690, 2 vols. . 
4to. Many curious points of history, besides the concerns 
of the Monks, are illustrated by these volumes. 3. A ' 
Latin treatise, " on the ancient Ecclesiastical Rites, and 
on the Sacraments," Rheims, 1700 and 1701, 3 vols. 4to, 
4. A Latin treatise on the Discipline of the Church. 5. 
"Thesaurus anecdotorum novus," 1717, 5 vols, folio, a 
valuable collection of ecclesiastical documents. 6. " Voy- 
age Literaire de deux Benedictins," Paris, 1717, 4to. 
7. " Veterum Scriptorum et Mohumentorum Ecclesiasti- 
corum, et dogmaticorum, amplissima collectio," 1724, 9 
vols, folio. In this he was assisted by Durand. All these 
works are full of learned labour; but the author is content 

1 Fabroni Vibe Italorum, vol V. 

36S M A R T E N N E. 

to amass, without giving much grace to the materials he 
compiles^ 1 

MARTENS, or MARTINUS (Thierry, or Theodore), 
an eminent printer, was born at A lost, in Flanders, in 1454. 
He began printing in 1473, and died in 1534. He is ce- 
lebrated as the person who first introduced the art of 
printing into the Netherlands ; having exercised this useful 
and noble art nearly sixty years at Alost, Louvain, and 
Antwerp. He was an author as well as a printer ; and 
wrote Latin hymns in honour of the saints, a dialogue on 
the virtues, and other pieces ; but he is more renowned for 
the many beautiful editions of other men's works which issued 
from his presses. He was highly esteemed by the learned 
men of the period in which he lived, and enjoyed the 
friendship of Erasmus, who lodged in his house. He em- 
ployed the double anchor as a sigu of the books that were 
printed at his office. 8 


MART1ALIS (Marcus Valerius), an ancient Latin 
poet, and the model of epigrammatists, was born at Bilbi- 
lis, now called Bubiera, a town of the ancient Celtiberia 
in Spain, which is the kingdom of Arragon. He was born, 
as is supposed, in the reign of Claudius, and went to 
Home when he was about twenty-one. He was sent thi- 
ther with a viev\ of prosecuting the law ; but soon forsook 
that study, and applied himself to poetry. He excelled 
so much in the epigrammatic style, that he soon acquired 
reputation, and was courted by many of the first rank at 
Home. Silius Italicus, Stella, and Pliny the younger, 
were his friends and patrons. Stertinius, a noble Roman, 
had so great an esteem for his compositions, that he placed 
bis statue in his library, while he was yet living; and the 
emperor Verus, who reigned with Antoninus the philoso- 
pher, used to call him his Virgil, which was as high an 
honour as could well be paid to him. We learn also from 
Pliny and Tacitus, as well as from several passages in his 
own writings, that he had honours and dignities bestowed 
upon him by some of the emperors. Domitian, whom it 
must be confessed he has flattered not a little, made him 
a Roman knight, and gave him likewise the " Jus triutn. 
liberorum," the privileges of a citizen who had three chil- 
dren. He was also advanced to the tribunate. But though 
he was so particularly honoured, aaid had so many great and 
noble patrons, who admired him for his wit and poetry, it 

l Moreri.— Dupin.— Diet Hist. * ftfarcband's Diet Hist, 


does not appear that he made his fortune among them. 
There is reason to think that, after the death of Domitian, 
his credit and interest declined at Rome; and if he had 
still remaining among the nobles some patrons, such as 
Pliny, Cornelius Priscus, &c. yet the emperor Nerva took 
but little notice of him, and the emperor Trajan none at 
all. Tired of Rome, therefore, aftejr he had lived in that 
city about four and thirty years, and grown, as himself 
tells us, grey-headed, he returned to his own country 
Bilbilis, where he took a wife, and had the happiness to 
live with her several years. He admired her much, as 
one who alone was sufficient to supply the want of every 
thing he enjoyed at Rome. She appears to have brought 
him a very large fortune; for, in one of bis epigrams 
he extols the magnificence of the house and gardens}, 
he had received from her, and says, " that she had made 
him a little kind of monarch." About three years after he 
bad retired into Spain, he inscribed his twelfth book of 
Epigrams to Priscus, who had been his friend and bene- 
factor ; and is supposed to have died about the year 100. 
As an epigrammatist, Martial is eminently distinguished, 
and has been followed as a model by all succeeding wits. 
All his efforts, however, are not equally successful, and 
many of his epigrams are perhaps unjustly so called, being 
merely thoughts or sentiments without applicable point. 
He offends often by gross indelicacy, which was the vice 
of the times ; but his style is in general excellent, and his 
frequent allusion to persons and customs render his works 
very interesting to classical antiquaries. 

His works' were first printed at Venice^ as is supposed in 
1470, then at Ferrara in 1471, Rome 1473, and Venice 
1475. These are the most rare and valuable editions. 
The more modern and useful are: thai of Aldus, 1501 ; by 
Raderus, 1627, fol.;. by Scriverius, 1619, 12mo; the Vari- 
orum of 1670; and the Bipont edition of 1784, 2 vols. 8vo. 
A strange absurdity occurs in the Delphin edition, 1680, 
4to, where all the indelicate epigrams are omitted in the 
body of the work, but carefully collected at the end ! 
This has, however, been followed and perhaps exceeded 
by Smids, in the Amsterdam edition of 1701, who, having 
ornamented his edition with engravings, places the more 
indelicate ones at the end of the volume. 1 

1 CrosiasVi Latin poets. — Poet. Lat. — Dibdia's Classics and Bibl, 
$peneeriana. — Saxii Onomasticon. 



MARTIAL (D'auvergne), a French poet of the fif- 
teenth century, was procurator in parliament, and notary 
of the ch&telet at Paris, where also he was born ; and died 
in 1508, regarded as one of the most pleasing men and 
easy writers of his age. He wrote, 1. " Arrets 1' Amour," 
Love-causes, the thought of which was taken from the 
Troubadours of Provence, but handled with great skill 
and eloquence. The introduction and the close are in 
verse ; the rest in prose. 2. *« Vigiles de lamort du Roi," 
an historical poem on the death of Charles VII.; in which, 
in the form of the Romish office, entitled Vigils, he recites 
the misfortunes and the glorious acts of his hero ; and 
displays his honest love of virtue and hatred of vice. 3* 
*' L'Amant rendu Cordelier de Inobservance d'Amour ;" a 
noem of 234 stanzas, reviling the extravagances produced 
*>y the passion of love. 4. " Devotes louanges a la Vierge 
Marie," in 8vo, an historical poem on the life of the vir- 
gin Mary ; a legend in bad verse, filled with the fables 
which were at that time believed. l 

MARTIANAY (John), a Benedictine monk, who dis- 
tinguished himself by an edition of St. Jerome, was born 
at St. Sever, a village in Gascony, in 1647. He entered 
into the congregation of St. Maur at twenty years of age; 
and applied himself to the study of the Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew languages. He read lectures upon the holy scrip- 
tores in several monasteries, at Aries, at Avignon, at Bour- 
deaux : in the last of which places he accidentally met 
with father Pezron's book called " The antiquity of time 
re-established ;" " L'Antiquit£ du temps fetablie." The 
authority of the Hebrew text, and the chronology of the 
Vulgate, being attacked in this work, Martianay resolved 
to defend them in two or three pieces, published against 
Pezron and Isaac Vossius, who maintained the Septuagint 
version. This monk died of an apoplexy in 1717, after 
having spent fifty years in a scrupulous observance of all 
the duties belonging to his order, and in writing more than 
twenty works, of which the most distinguished is his edi- 
tion of the works of St. Jerome, in 5 vols, folio ; the first 
of which .was published at Paris in 1693, the secbnd in 
1699. In his notes on these two volumes he criticized 
{several learned men, as well papists as protestants, 
with much severity, and even contumely; which pro- 

* Xiceron, vols. IX. and X. — Diet. HisL 


voked Le Clerc, who was one of them, lo examine the 
merits of this edition and of the editor. This he did in a 
volume published in 1 2 mo, at Amsterdam, in 1700, with 
this title, " Qusstiones Hieronymiauae, in quibus expen- 
ditur Hieronymi nupera editio Parisina, &c." in which he 
endeavours to shew that Martianay, notwithstanding the 
indecent petulances he had exercised towards pther critics, 
had none' of the requisites to qualify him for an editor of 
St Jerome ; that he had not a competent skill either in 
the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, or in the an- 
cient interpreters of scripture, or in profane authors, or 
in the science of manuscripts, for this work. Martianay 
published the third volume in 1704, the fourth in 1705, 
and the fifth in 1706; and Le Clerc published, in the 
seventeenth tome of his " Bibliotheque choisee," some 
copious remarks upon these three last volumes, in order 
to confirm the judgment hq had passed on the two first. 
Nevertheless, Martianay's edition of Jerome was by many 
thought the best, even after the appearance of Vallarsius's 
edition. ' 

MARTIGNAC (Stephen Algai, sieur de), seems to be 
one of the first French writers who practised the plan, so 
little approved in England, of translating the ancient clas- 
sical poets into prose. He gave in this way, versions of, 
J. Terence. 2. Horace. 3. Juvenal and Persius. 4. Vir- 
gil. 5. Ovid, entire, in 9 vols. 12 mo. These translations 
are in general clear and exact, but want elegance, and 
purity of style. This laborious writer published also lives 
of the archbishops, &c. of Paris, of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, in 4to. He died in 1698, at the age of seventy. r 

MARTIN (Benjamin), an eminent optician, was born 
at Worplesdon, in Surrey, in 1704, and began life as a 
plough-boy at Broad-street, a hamlet , belonging to that 
parish. By some means, however, he contrived to learn 
reading, writing, and arithmetic, so as to be soon enabled 
to teach them to others. For some time he continued to 
assist in the farming business, but* as our authority states, 
" finding that he became a poor husbandman in proportion 
as he grew a learned one, he prudently forsook what in- 
deed he had no great inclination for," and having a strong 
inclination to mathematics and philosophical speculations, 
now entered upon such a course of reading and study a$ in 

1 Niceron, vol. I. — Moreri. 2 Moreii.— Diet. Hist. 

566 MARTIN. 

come measure supplied the want of a learned education, 
The historian of Surrey says that he first taught reading 
and writing at Guildford. It was probably some time after 
this that a legacy of five hundred pounds bequeathed to 
him by a relation encouraged his laudable ambition, and 
after purchasing books, instruments, &c. and acquiring 
some knowledge of the languages, we find him, in 1735, 
settled at Chichester, where he taught mathematics, and 
performed courses of experimental philosophy. At this 
time he published his first work, " The Philosophical 
Grammar ; being a view of the present state of experi- 
mental physiology, or natural philosophy, &c." London, 
8vo. When he came up to London we have not* been 
able to discover, but after settling there he read lectures 
on experimental philosophy for many years, and carried 
on a very extensive trade as an optician and globe-maker 
in Fleet- street, till the growing infirmities of old age com- 
pelled him to withdraw from the active part of business. 
Trusting too fatally to what he thought the integrity of 
others, he unfortunately, though with a capital more than 
sufficient to pay all his debts, became a bankrupt. The 
unhappy old man, in a moment of desperation from this 
unexpected stroke, attempted to destroy himself; and the 
wound, though not immediately mortal, hastened his death, 
which happened Feb. 9th, 1782, at seventy-eight years 
of age. 

He had a valuable collection of fossils and curiosities of 
every species, which after his death were almost given v 
away by public auction. He was indefatigable as an artist, 
and as a writer he had a very happy method of explaining 
his subject, and wrote with clearness, and even consi- 
derable elegance. He was chiefly eminent in the science 
of optics ; but he was well skilled in the whole circle of the 
mathematical and philosophical sciences, and wrote useful 
books on every one of them ; though he was not distin- 
guished by any remarkable inventions or discoveries of his 
own. His publications were very numerous, and generally 
useful : some of the principal of them were as follow : 1. "The 
Philosophical Grammar," already mentioned. 2. "A new, 
complete, and universal system or body of Decimal Arith- 
metic," 1735, 8vo. 3. " The young student's Memorial 
Book, or Patent Library," 1735, 8vo. 4. " Description 
and use of both the Globes, the Armillary Sphere and Or- 
rery," 1736, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. " Elements of Geometry," 

MARTIN. 361 

1739, 8vo. 6. " Memoirs of the Academy of Paris/' 1740, 
S vols. 8vo. 7. " Panegyric of the Newtonian Philosophy,** 
1754. 8. u On the new construction of the Globes," 1755. 
9. " System of the Newtonian Philosophy," 1759, 3 vols; 
8vo. 10. " New Elements of Optics," 1759. 1 1. « Ma- 
thematical Institutions, viz. arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
and fluxions," 1759. 12. "Natural History of England, 
with a map of each county,*' 1759^ 2 vols. 8vo. 13. 
" Philology and Philosophical Geography," 1759. 14. 
"Mathematical Institutions," 1764, 2 vols. 15. " Bio- 
graphia Philosophica, or Lives of Philosophers," 1764, 
8vo. 16. " Introduction to the Newtonian Philosophy," 
1765.' 17. " Institutions of Astronomical Calculations," 
two parts, 1765. 18. " Description and use of the Air 
Pump," 1766. 19." Description of the Torricellian Ba- 
rometer," 1766; 20. " Appendix to the Description and 
Use of the Globes," 1766. 21. " Philosophia Britannica," 
1778, 3 vols. 22. " Philosophical Magazine." This when 
complete consists of 14 volumes, but there are parts sold 
separately, as " The Miscellaneous Correspondence," 4 
vols. It was discontinued for want of encouragement, 
which, however, it appears to have deserved, as it afforded 
a very correct state of scientific knowledge at that time. 1 

MARTIN (David), a protestant divine, was born at ' 
Revel, in Languedoc, in 16 39, but settled in Holland 
after the revocation of the edict of Nantes. He was at 
once a good theologian, and a good philosopher, in both 
of which capacities he gave lectures at Utrecht, when he 
was settled as a pastor in that city. Though he was much 
absent from France, he retained a critical and accurate 
knowledge of its language, and when the French academy 
announced the second edition of their dictionary, he trans- 
mitted to them some remarks which were received with 
applause* He died at Utrecht, of a violent fever, in 1721. 
He was universally regretted in that place, from his pro- 
bity, modesty, and excellence of character ; his heart was 
affectionate and compassionate, and he delighted in doing 
good offices without being solicited, and without expecting 
even gratitude in return. He published, 1. " A History 
of the Old and New Testament," in 2 vols, fojio, printed 
at Amsterdam in 1707, with 424 fine plates. It is often 
called Mortier's Bible, trom the name of the printer; and 

1 Manning and BraVs H:st of Surrey.— Gent. Mag. for 1785,where is a very 
flno portrait of Mr. Marttu. — Pieseui btale of the Republic of Letters, vol. XVL 
pw 164.— HuUoq's Dictionary. 

368 MARTIN. 

the early impressions are distinguished by the absence of a 
little defect in the last plate, which arose from a fracture 
of thp plate after a few had been taken. 2. " Eight Ser- 
mous," 1708, 8vo. 3. " A treatise on Natural Religion, 
1713, 8vo. 4. "An Explanation of the 110th Psalm, 
against John Masson; J 715, 8vo. 5. " Two Dissertations, 
one in defence of the authenticity of the controverted text, 
1 John v. 7. the other in favour of the passage of Josephus, 
in which Christ is mentioned, 1722, 8vo. 6. "A Bible 
with short notes," Amsterdam, 1707, 2 vols. fol. 7. u A 
treatise on Revealed Religion, 9 ' in which he ably supports 
the divine inspiration of the sacred books; reprinted at 
Amsterdam in 1723, in 2 vols. 8vo. This useful and ju- 
dicious work has been translated into English. Martin 
wrote with ease, but not with a facility of style ; but his 
talents were considerable, his memory good, and his judg- 
ment sound. l 

MARTIN (Gregory), a learned popish writer, whose 
name is so much connected with some protestant writers of 
eminence as to deserve a brief notice here, was born at 
Max field, near Wiuchelsea, in Sussex, and was admitted 
one of the original scholars of St. John's college, Oxford, 
in 1557, by sir Thomas White, the founder. In 1564 he 
proceeded M. A. and was afterwards taken into the family 
of Thomas, duke of Norfolk, as tutor to his children, and 
particularly to Philip, earl of Surrey. Such had been 
Martin's reputation at college, that when the duke paid a 
visit to St. John's, one of the society, in a Latin address to 
his grace, introduced his name with this panegyric : " Habes, 
illustrissime dux, Hebreum nostrum, Graecum nostrum, 
poetam nostrum, decus et gloriam nostrum," implying 
that Martin was their best Hebrew and Greek scholar and 
poet, and an ornament to their college. Having embraced 
the Roman catholic religion, which he chose no longer to 
conceal, he went to the English cbllege at Douay in 1570, 
where he was ordained priest in 1573, and licentiate in 
.divinity in 1575. After a visit in the following year to 
Rome, he returned to Doway and taught Hebrew, and 
gave lectures on the Scriptures. When the college was 
removed to Rbeims, he undertook to translate the Bible 
into English from the Vulgate, and Dodd is of opinion 
that what is called " The Rheims translation," may be 

* Chaufepic— Burman Trajcct ErudiU— NiceroD, voL XXL 


Jf A R T I N. 369 

entirely ascribed to bim. It was not, however, published 
at one time. The New Testament appeared first atRheims 
and Antwerp, with Bmtow's notes, and the Old Testa* 
mem several years afterwards, with the editor, Dr. Worth- 
ington's notes. The New Testament, as we have noticed, 
under their respective articles, was answered by Fulk and 
Cartwright. Martin died Oct. 28, 1582, at Rheims. He 
published some other works, a list of which may be seen 
in Wood and Dodd, but is scarcely worth transcribing. 
Camden says that in 1584 a book of his appeared in which 
queen Elizabeth's gentlewomen were exhorted to serve her 
as Judith had served Holofernes. The catholic writers, 
however, deny this, and apparently with justice. * 

MARTIN (James), a learned Benedictine of the con- 
gregation of St. Maur, was born at Tanjaux in Upper Lan- 
guedoc, in 1694, and became a Benedictine in 1709. After 
having taught the learned languages in hifr native province, 
he removed to the capital in 1727. He was there re- 
garded as a man of a singular and violent temper ; rather 
whimsical as a scholar, and not always sufficiently prudent 
or modest as a writer ; yet he was one of the ablest au- 
thors produced by the congregation of St. Maur, and 
would have been excellent had he met with any judicious 
friend to correct the sallies of his too active imagination. 
His latter years were much embittered by the gravel and 
the gout, under the torments of which complaints be suf- 
fered, with great piety, a kind of lingering death, which 
did not dismiss him from his sufferings till 1751, when he 
was in his seventieth year. He wrote, 1. " A treatise on 
the Religion of the ancient Gauls," Paris, 1727, 2 vols. 4to* 
This book is much esteemed for the curious and learned 
researches of the author ; but contains some uncommon 
opinions, which have not been generally adopted by his 
readers. One point which he particularly labours, is to 
derive the religion of the ancient Gauls from that of the 
patriarchs. This subject has been more successfully handled 
lately by Mr. Maurice, with the aid of oriental knowledge; 
2. "History of the Gauls, &,c. from their origin to the 
foundation of the French monarchy," 1754, 2 vols. 4to, 
continued and published by his nephew de Brezillac, and 
much esteemed. 3. ".An Explication of several difficult 
Texts of Scripture," Paris, 1730, 2 vols. 4to. The fire* 

* Dodd's Church Hist— Ath. Ox. vol I.— Pits and Tanner. 

Vol. XXL B b 

370 MART I # N. 

the ingenuity, and the presumption of the author, are suf- 
ficiently manifest in this book ; which would be much more 
valuable if deprived of several discussions and citations 
about trifles, and some points by no means suited to a 
book of divinity. 4. " An Explanation of ancient Monu- 
ments, &c. with an examination of an edition of St. Jerom, 
and a treatise on Judicial Astrology/' Paris, 1739, 4to. 
Besides a vast scope of erudition, this book is adorned by 
many lively traits, and a very animated style. 5. " A 
Project for an Alphabetical Library/' containing much 
learning, and many misplaced witticisms. 6. " A Transla- 
tion of the Confessions of St Augustin," which is exact, 
and is accompanied with judicious notes. 1 
. MARTIN (Thomas), an eminent civilian, the son of 
Thomas Martin, was born at Cerne, in Dorsetshire, and ' 
educated at Winchester school, whence he was admitted 
fellow of New college, Oxford, in 1539. He applied him- 
self chiefly to the canon and civil law, which he likewise 
studied at Bourges, and was admitted doctor. On enter- 
ing upon practice in Doctors 9 Commons, he resigned his 
fellowship; and in 1555, being incorporated LL. D. at 
Oxford, he was made chancellor of the diocese of Win- 
chester. This he owed to the recommendation of bishop 
Gardiner, who had a great opinion of his zeal and abilities, 
• and no doubt very justly, as be found him a ready and 
useful assistant in the persecution of the protestants in 
queen Mary's time. Among other instances, he was joined* 
in commissioh with Story in the trial of archbishop Cran- 
mer at Oxford. His proceedings on that occasion may be 
seen in Fox's " Acts and Monuments" under the years 1555 
and 1556. His conduct probably was not very gross or 
tyrannical, as, although he was deprived of his offices in 
Elizabeth's reign, he was allowed quietly tq retire with 
jhis family to Ilfield in Sussex, where he continued . in pri- 
vacy until his death in 1584. He wrote two works against 
the marriage of priests; but that which chiefly entitles him 
to some notice here, was his Latin " Life of William of 
Wykehaaa," the munificent founder of New college, the 
MS. of which is in the library of that college. It was first 
published in 1597, 4to, and reprinted, without any cor- 
rection or improvement, by Dr. Nicholas, warden of Win- 
chester, in 1690, who does not seem to have been aware 

1 Diet. Hist.— Saxii Onoroast. 


• • • 

how much more might be recovered of Wykeham, as Dr. 
Lowth has proved. This excellent biographer says that 
Martin seems not so much to have wanted diligence in 
collecting proper materials, as care and judgment in di- 
gesting and composing them. But it is unnecessary to say 
much of what is now rendered useless by Dr. Lowth's work. 
Dr. Martin bequeathed, or gave in his life-time, several 
valuable books to New college library. ' 

MARTIN (Thomas), an English antiquary, was born at 
Thetford, in the school-house in St. Mary's parish (the 
only remaining parish of that town in Suffolk), March 8, 
1697. His grandfather, William, was rector of Stanton 
St. John, in Suffolk, where he was buried in 1677. His 
father William was rector of Great Livermere, and of St. 
Mary's in Thetford, both in the same county. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth, only daughter of Mr. Thomas Burrougb, 
of Bury St. Edmonds, and aunt to the late sir James Bur- 
rougb, master of Caius college, Cambridge : he died in 
1721, aged seventy-one, and was buried in Livermere 
chancel, where his son Thomas, not long before his death, 
placed a monument for him, and his mother, and their 
children, who were then all dead except himself, " now 
by God's permission residing at Pal grave." Thomas was 
the seventh of nine children. His school education was 
probably at Thetford. In 1715 he had been some time 
clerk to his brother Robert, who practised as an attorney 
there ; but it appears by some objections to that employ- 
ment in his own hand-writing, in that year, that be was 
very uneasy and dissatisfied with that way of life. As 
these give us the state of his mind, and the bent of his 
inclination at that early period, and may perhaps account 
for his succeeding unsettled turn and little application to 
his business, they may be worth preserving in his own 

Objections. — "First, my mind and inclinations are 
wholly to Cambridge, having already found by experience 
that I can never settle to my present employment 2. t 
was always designed for Cambridge by my father, and I 
believe am the only instance in the world that ever went 
to school so long to be a lawyer's clerk. 3. 1 always wished 
that 1 might lead a private retired life, which can never 

l Ath. Ox. vol. I. new edit, by Biisi.— Dodd's Ch. Hist —Pits and Bate.— 
Strype's Creamer, p. 53, 830, 352, 371— S73, 376.— Strype's Parker, p. 50ft 

B Bt 

372 MARTIN. 

happen if I be an attorney; but on the contrary, I. must 
have the care and concern of several people's business 
besides mine own, &c. 4. If I be a lawyer, the will of the 
dead can never be fulfilled* viz. of uiy sister Elizabeth, 
who left 10/. to enter me at college ; and aunt Burrough, 
to whom I have promised (at her earnest request) that I 
never wquld be a lawyer ; nay, my brother himself had 
promised her I never should. 5. It was always counted 
ruination for young persons to be brought up at home, 
and I'm sure there's no worse town under the sun for breed- 
ing: or conversation than this. 6. Though I should serve 
my time out with my brother, I should never fancy the 
study of the law, having got a taste of a more noble and 
pleasant study. Questions. But perhaps these questions 
may be asked me, to which I shall answer as follows : Why 
I came to my brother at all ? and have absented myself thus 
long from school ? Or why I have not spoke my mind be- 
fore this time ? Answers. 1. Though I am with my bro- 
ther, it was none of my desire (having always confessed an 
aversion to his employment), but was almost forced to it by 
the persuasion of a great many, ringing it in nay ears that 
this was the gain fullest employment, &c. ( ,ft<* Though I 
have lost some time in school learning, I have read a great 
deal of history, poetry, &c. which might have taken up 
as much time at Cambridge bad I kept at school. 3. I have 
staid thus long, thinking continual use might have made it 
easy to me ; but the longer I stay, the worse I like it. 

" Thomas Martin, 1 7 l 5." 
He was, however, by some means or other, kept from 
executing his favourite plan of going to Cambridge. In 
1722 he still probably resided at Thetford ; for, having 
married Sarah the widow of Mr. Thomas Hopley, and 
daughter of Mr. John Tyrrel, of Thetford, his first child 
was born there that year; in 1723 his second was born at 
Palgrave in Suffolk, as were the rest. This wife bore him 
eight children, a-nd died Nov. 15, 1731, ten days after she 
had been delivered of twins. He very soon, however, 
repaired this loss, by marrying Frances, the widow of Peter 
le Neve, Norroy king at arms, who had not long been 
dead, and to whom he was executor. By this lady be came 
into the possession of a very valuable collection of English 
antiquities, pictures, &c. She bore him also about as many 
children as his former wife (four of whom, as well as five 
of the others, arrived at manhood), and died, we believe, 



before him. He died March 7, 1771, and was buried, 
with others of his family, in Palgrave church-porch, where 
no epitaph as yet records the name of that man who has 
so industriously preserved those of others *, though Mr. 
Ives had promised his friends that he would erect a mo- 
nument for him, and had actually drawn up a plain inscrip- 
tion for it. 

Mr. Martin's desire was not only to be esteemed, but to 
be known and distinguished by the name of, w Honest Tom 
Martin of Palgrave t," an ambition in which his acquain- 
tance saw no reason not to gratify him ; and we have ob- 
served, with pleasure, several strokes of moral sentiment 
scattered about his rough church notes. These iVere the 
genuine effusions of his heart, not designed for the pub«- 
lie eye, and therefore mark his real character in that re- 
spect. Had he desired the appellation of wise and prudent, 
his inattention to his business, his contempt and improper 
use of monev, and his fondness for mixed and festive com- 
pany, would have debarred him, as the father of a nume- 
rous family, of that pretension. As an antiquary, be was 
most skilful and indefatigable ; and when he was employed 
as an attorney and genealogist, he was in his element. He 
had the happiest use of his pen, copying, as well as tra- 
cing, with dispatch and exactness, the different writing of 
every sera, and tricking arms, seals, &c. with great neat- 
ness. His taste for ancient lore seems to have possessed 
him from his earliest to his latest days. He dated all the 
scraps of paper on which he made his church-notes, &c. 
Some of these begin as early as 1721, and end but the 
autumn before his death, when he still wrote an excellent 
hand ; but he certainly began his collections even before 
the first mentioned period ; for he appears among the con- 
tributors to Mr. Le Neve's u Monumenta Anglicana," 
printed in 1719. The latter part of his life was be- 
stowed on the History of his native town of Thetford. His 

* Mr. Martin seems to have pre- 
saged that he might want this post- 
humous honour, as in a curious manu- 
script of church collections made by 
him, he had inserted the following 
pieces of poetry : 

When death shall have his due of me, 
This book my monument shall be. 

These tombs by me collected here in 

When dead, shall be my monumental 

Or in the old phrase : 
Thus many tombs from different rooms 

By me collected into one, 
When I am dead, shall be instead 
Of my own monumental stone. 

f He is thus called among the sub- 
senbers to Grey's Hu<jibras, 1744. 

374 MARTIN. 

abilities, and the opportunities be derived from the eollet- 
tions of Peter Le Neve, esq. Norroy king at arms, render 
it unnecessary to enlarge on this, which Mr. Blomefield, 
thirty years before this publication encouraged the pnblic 
to expect from his hands. The materials being left without 
the last finishing at Mr. Martin's death, were purchased by 
Mr. John Worth, chemist, of Diss, F. S. A. who enters 
tained thoughts of giving them to the publick, and circu- 
lated proposals, dated July 1, 1774, for printing them by 
subscription. Upon the encouragement he received, he 
had actually printed five sheets of the work, and engraved 
four plates. This second effort was prevented by the im- 
mature death of Mr. Worth, in 1775; who dying insol- 
vent, his library, including what he had reserved of the 
immense collections of Le Neve and Martin at their dis- 
persion on the death of the latter, being sold, with his 
other effects, for the benefit of his creditors, was purchased 
the same year by Mr. Thomas Hunt, bookseller at Harles- 
ton. Of him Mr. Gough bought the manuscript, with the 
undigested materials, copy -right, and plates. The first of 
these required a general revisal, which it received from 
the great diligence and abilities of Mr. Gough, who pub- 
lished it in 1779, 4to. 

Mr. Martin's collection of antiquities, particularly of 
such as relate to Suffolk, was very considerable, greater 
than probably ever were before, or will be hereafter, in 
the possession of an individual ; their fragments have en- 
riched several private libraries. His distresses obliged him 
to dispose of many of bis books, with his manuscript notes 
on them, to Mr. T. Payne, in his life-time, 1769. A cata*- 
logue of his library was printed after his death at Lynn, 
in 1771, in octavo, in hopes of disposing of the whole at 
once. Mr. Worth, above -mentioned, purchased the rest, 
with all his other collections, for six hundred pounds. The 
printed books he immediately sold to Booth and Berry of 
Norwich, who disposed of them by a catalogue, 1773. The 
pictures and lesser curiosities Mr. Worth sold by auction 
at Diss ; part of his manuscripts in London, in April 
1773, by Mr. Samuel Baker) and by a second sale there, 
in May 1774, manuscripts, scarce books, deeds, grants, 
pedigrees, drawings, prints, coins, and curiosities. ' 

MARTIN E (George), a physician, appears to have 
b?eu a native of Scotland, where he was born in 1702, and 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. * * 

M A R T I N E. 979 

entered upon the study of medicine at Edinburgh in 1720, 
whence he went to Leyden ; and, after prosecuting the 
same study there for some time, was admitted to his de- 
gree of M. D. in 1725. He then returned to Scotland, and' 
practised his art at St. Andrew's. In 1740, while about to 
publish his Commentaries on Eustachius, he was requested 
by lord Cathcart, to accompany him, as physician to the 
forces under his command on the American expedition* 
The difficulties of the voyage, and the change of climate, 
he bore with chearfulness, but the death of that much- 
loved commander greatly afflicted him. Soon after he was 
seized with a bilious fever, which proved fatal in 1743, in 
the forty-first year of his age. His first publication was* 
entitled. " Tractatus de similibus animalibus, et animal ium 
calore:" after which appeared his " Essays Medical and 
Philosophical," 1740,. 8 vo. He contributed also some pa- 
pers to the Edinburgh " Medical Essays," and to the 
" Philosophical Transactions." We find in Dr.Thomson's 
list of the fellows of the royal society the name of George 
Martini, M. D. elected in 1740, who was probably our 
author. Being possessed, when a student at Edinburgh, 
of the earliest edition of " Eustachius's Tables," he ap- 
plied himself diligently to correct and enlarge Lancisi's ex- 
planation of those tables, and compared the descriptions of 
the parts as delivered by authors with these figures, and 
carefully registered what he read upon the subject. Being 
at length furnished with many rich materials, he considered 
of repairing, in sooie measure, the loss of Eustachius's 
commentaries " De dissentionibus et controversies anato- 
micis," and was, as we have observed, about to publish his 
own Commentaries, when he went abroad. It fell at length 
into the hands of the first Dr. Monro of Edinburgh, who 
published it in 1755, under the title of " Georgii Martinii, 
M. D. in Bartholomsei Eustacbii Tabulas anatomicas Com- 
mentaria, n 8vo. Notwithstanding Albinus's explanation, 
Dr. Monro considers this work as indispensably necessary 
to those who are in possession of Eustachius's Tables. ' 

MARTINI (John-Baptist), known all over Europe by 

'the name of Padre Martini, was born at Bologna in 

1706, and entered into the order of the friars minor, as 

offering him the best opportunities for indulging his taste 

t Eloy, Diet. Hist, de Medicine. — Moreri. — Monthly Review, vol. XIV.— 
Works tf the Learned for 1741. 


for music, which be cultivated with so much success as to 
be regarded, during the last fifty years of his life, as the 
most profound harmonist, and the best acquainted with 
the history and progress of the art and science of music 
in Italy. All the great masters of his time were ambitious 
of becoming his disciples, and proud of his approbation ; 
and young professors within his reach never thought them- 
selves, or were thought by others, sufficiently skilled in 
counterpoint, till they had received lessons from this deep 
' theorist, and most intelligent and communicative in- 

No history of music had been attempted in Italy since* 
that of Bontempi appeared in 1695, till Martini, in 1757, 
published in 4to, the first volume of his " Storia Musica," 
upon so large a scale, that though the chief part of his life 
seems to have been dedicated to it, only three volumes 
were published before his decease in 1783, a circumstance 
which Dr. Burney thinks is much, to be regretted, as he 
had, with incredible pains and considerable ex pence, col- 
lected materials sufficient for the completion of his whole 

Between the publication of the second and third volumes 
of his " Storia Musica," Martini published a work entitled 
" Essemplare o sia Saggio di Contrappunto," Bologna, 1 774, 
in two volumes, folio. This excellent treatise, though 
written in defence of a method of composing for the church 
upon canto- fer mo, now on the decline, yet has given the 
learned author an opportunity of writing its history* ex- 
plaining its rules, defending the practice, and of inserting 
such a number of venerable compositions for the church 
by the greatest masters of choral harmony in Italy, from 
the beginning of the sixteenth century to the middle of the 
last, that we know of uo book so full of information con- 
cerning learned counterpoint, so rich in ancient and scarce 
compositions/ nor so abundant in instructive and critical 
remarks, as this. In 1769 Martini drew up and gave to 
his disciples a very short tract, entitled " Compendio della 
Theoria de numeri per uso del Musico di F. Giambatista 
Martini. Minor Conventuale." In this tract the good fa- 
ther defines the three principal calculations, ratios, and 
proportions necessary for a musician to know in the division 
of the monochord and in temperament. 1 


» Burney's Hist, of Music, Metastasio, rol. Ill, p,i02, and in Rce»'*ty« 


MARTINI (Martin), a Jesuit, born at Trent, whore- 
sided many years as a missionary in China, and th$re com- 
piled several curious works on the history and geography 
of that country, returned to Europe in 1651, and published 
a description of China, with an exact map of that empire, 
and fifteen separate maps of the fifteen provinces ; to which 
he added two others, of Corea aftd Japan. We have met 
with an account, though on no warranted authority, that he 
returned afterwards to Asia, and died at Hang-chew m 
China, at the age of seventy-four. His works consist of, 
I. "Sinicae Historian Decas prima, a gentis origine ad 
Christum natum," 4to, and 8vo. This has been translated 
by le Pelletier, 1692, in 2 vols. 12mo. 2. "China Hhis- 
trata," already mentioned, Amsterdam, 1649, in folio. This 
was the best account of China, before that of du Halde. 3. 
M De Bello inter Tartaros et Sinenses,'* which has also been 
translated. 4. "An account of the number and quality of 
the Christians in China." Like other missionaries, he is 
apt to speak in exaggerated terms of the antiquity, riches, 
policy, &c. of the Chinese. ' 

MARTIN (Raymond), a Dominican friar, and eminent 
orientalist, who flourished in the thirteenth century, was 
born at Sobiras in Catalonia; and was one of those of his 
order who were appointed, at a general chapter held at To- 
ledo in 1250, to study Hebrew and Arabic, in order to 
confute the Jews and Mahometans. The occasion of it was 
this : Raymond de Pennafort, general of the order, having 
a strong desire to extirpate Judaism and Mahometanism, 
with which Spain was infected, procured an order from this 
chapter, that the religious of his society should apply 
themselves to the study of Hebrew and Arabic. This task 
he imposed on Martin among others ; and he obtained a 
pension of the kings of Arragon and Castile, for such as 
should study those languages, on purpose that they might 
be able to exert themselves in the conversion of infidels. 
Martin accordingly applied himself to those studies with 
great success ; and, having sufficiently studied the works 
of the rabbins, they furnished him with such argu- 
ments, as enabled him to combat the Jews very skil- 
fully. This appears from his " Pugio fidei," which was 
finished, as- we learn from himself, in 1278, though the 
first publication of it at Paris was not till 1651. Bosquet, 

* Diet, Hist.— Moreri. 

375 M A 8 t I N i; 

who died bishop of M6ntpelier, met with the manuscript, 
while he was with great ardour examining the library of 
the college de Foix at Toulouse, about 162&, and, after 
copying some things out of it, he gave it to James Spieg- 
hel, a learned German, and his preceptor in the Hebrew 
tongue. Spieghel advised Maussac to publish it; who, 
though very able to do it by himself, had however for an 
assistant Mr. de Voisin, son of a counsellor in the parlia- 
ment at Bourdeaux, who took upon him the greatest part 
of the task. Thomas Turc, another general of the Domi- 
nicans, was very earnest in spurring on the promoters of 
this edition ; and, not satisfied with soliciting them by let- 
ters equally importunate and obliging, he gave orders that 
they should be provided with all the manuscripts of the "Pu- 
gio fidei" that could be recovered. In short, the Domi- 
nican order interested themselves so much in it, that they 
bore the charges of the impression. Some assert, that 
Martin wrote another book, entitled, " Capistrum Judaeo- 
runp," and also " A Confutation of the Alcoran;" and that 
a copy of the " Pugio fidei,'' written by his own hand in 
Latin and Hebrew, was preserved at Naples in the convent 
of St. Dominic. TITe great knowledge which he has dis- 
covered of the books and opinions of the Jews, has made 
some imagine that he was of that religion ; but this is 
thought to be a mistake. The time of Martin's death is 
uncertain. l 

MARTINIERE (Anthony-Augustin Bruzen de la), 
a French author of considerable celebrity about the begin- 
ning of the last century, was born in L684 at Dieppe. He 
studied at Paris, partly under the instruction of his learned 
grand-uncle Richard Simon, who then resided in the col- 
lege of Fortet. In 1709, he went to the court of Meck- 
lenburgh, and began his researches into the history and 
geography of that state; but, on the death of the duke, and 
the troubles which followed, and interrupted his labours, 
he removed elsewhere, probably to Parma, as we find him, 
in 1722, publishing, by order of the duke Philip Farnese, 
whom he calls his most serene master, an historical disser- 
tation, " Dissertation historique sur les duch£s de Panne 
et de Plaisance," 4to. It appears also that the Sicilian 
monarch appointed him his secretary, with a salary of 
twelve hundred crowns. The marquis de Beretti Landi f 

* MorerL— Geu. Diet. 


the Spanish minister at the Hague, had a high regard fo